Questions tagged [orthogonal-matrices]

An orthogonal matrix is an invertible real matrix whose inverse is equal to its transpose.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

Non-Fourier complete orthogonal basis?

The Fourier Transform (FT) Is orthogonal: inner product of one basis, $e^{j\omega_0}$, with any other basis, $e^{j\omega_1}$, is zero Is invertible: info-preserving, has inverse function Is energy-...
user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
313 views

$2n \times 2n$ matrices with entries in $\{1, 0, -1\}$ with exactly $n$ zeroes in each row and each column with orthogonal rows and orthogonal columns

I am interested in answering the following question: Question For a given $n$, does there exist a $2n \times 2n$ matrix with entries in $\{1, 0, -1\}$ having orthogonal rows and columns with exactly $...
user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
130 views

Reference request: maximal determinant of matrices with pairwise orthogonal rows and entries in $\{1, 0, -1\}$

We know that "Hadamard maximal determinant problem" concerns the largest determinant of a matrix of oder $n$ with entries in $\{-1,1\}$ or $\{0, 1\}$. For $n=4k$, it is the Hadamard ...
user avatar
  • 665
3 votes
0 answers
111 views

Differentiable functions on $\mathbb{R}^n$ whose derivative is everywhere a scalar multiple of a special orthogonal matrix

The Cauchy–Riemann equations say that if $u : \mathbb{C} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is holomorphic then, regarded as a linear transformation of $\mathbb{R}^2$, its derivative is either zero or, up to a ...
user avatar
  • 10.3k
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

Orthogonal invariance of (weighted) Laplacian

It is well-known that if $O$ is an orthogonal map, then $\Delta u(Ox) = \Delta u$ where $\Delta$ is the Laplacian. Now, let $A$ be a constant invertible matrix, then we define the weighted Laplacian $$...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
127 views

Minimizing quadratic objective under orthogonality constraints

The following problem is motivated from Generalized Procrustes Analysis. I am wondering if it is possible to obtain a closed form minimizer (which may involve SVD or some other decomposition of a ...
user avatar
  • 141
1 vote
0 answers
148 views

Is the group law for SO(2n, R) encoded in so(2n,R)?

Note that this is a partial duplicate of my math.stackexchange question here. In this post I am asking something slightly broader. Note that I am a mathematical physicist and not a representation ...
user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
1 answer
136 views

Subgroups of $\mathrm{SO}(A_0, \mathbb{F}_p)$

Let $n \geq 3$. Let $A_0$ denote the $n \times n$ symmetric matrix with $1$'s on the antidiagonal and $0$'s everywhere else. We can define the associated special orthogonal group $$ \mathrm{SO}(A_0, \...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
111 views

Maximize the product of Hadamard matrix and a vector

Let $X$ be an $n \times n$ Hadamard matrix (i.e. entries are in $\{-1,1\}$ and rows are orthogonal). For my application, we can assume $n=2^k$. Given a vector $\bf{w} \in R^n$, I want to find the $X^*$...
user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
198 views

Proving a lemma for a decomposition of orthogonal matrices

Setting Consider two independent orthogonal matrices, which are decomposed into 4 blocks: \begin{align} Q_{1} = \left[\begin{array}{cc} A_{1} & B_{1}\\ C_{1} & D_{1} \end{array}\right] , \,Q_{...
user avatar
  • 537
3 votes
0 answers
49 views

Matrix equation and spherical harmonics

I have a set of functions expanded in a finite number of spherical harmonics (up to degree $L$), $$ \eta_k^n(\theta,\phi) = \sum_{l=0}^L \sum_{m=-l}^l d_{kl}^{nm} Y_l^m(\theta,\phi) $$ Similar to the ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
132 views

The invertible matrices $S$ that satisfy $A=SDS^T$

Any real symmetric matrix $A$ can be written as $A=SDS^T$ for some diagonal matrix $D$ and invertible matrix $S$. Let's fix $D$ to be the (diagonal) inertia matrix of $A$, which has an entry $1, -1, 0$...
user avatar
  • 874
3 votes
1 answer
169 views

Is the Cayley distance on permutation (matrices) equivalent to the Riemannian metric on $O(n)$?

Denote by $d_C(\sigma,\mu)$ the minimal number of transpositions needed to go from a permutation $\sigma$ to a permutation $\mu$. E.g. if $d_C(\sigma,\mu)=0$, then $\sigma=\mu$, if $d_C(\sigma,\mu)=1$,...
user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
1 answer
201 views

Matrix derivative w.r.t. a general inverse form: $(A^TA)^{-1/2}D(A^TA)^{-1/2}$

I want to find derivative of matrix $(A^TA)^{-1/2}D(A^TA)^{-1/2}$ w.r.t. $A_{ij}$ where D is a diagonal matrix. Alternatively, it is okay too to have $$\frac{\partial}{\partial A_{ij}} a^T(A^TA)^{-1/2}...
user avatar
  • 519
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Minimize smooth function $(x,y) \to f(x,y)$ subject to $x \perp y$

Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional real vector space (e.g space of $m \times n$ real matrices equiped with Hilbert-Schmidt inner product $(A,B) \to \mathrm{tr}(AB^\top)$, and let $f:V^2 \to \mathbb R$, $(...
user avatar
  • 5,556
12 votes
3 answers
302 views

Probability of $\ell_1$-norms of vertices of the rotated Hamming cube

Let $O$ be a $d$-dimensional rotation matrix (i.e., it has real entries and $OO^T = O^TO = I$). Let $\mathbf{x}$ be a uniformly random bitstring of length $d$, i.e., $\mathbf{x} \sim U(\{0,1\}^d)$. In ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
155 views

The only rotation fields satisfying this PDE are constant

$\newcommand{\div}{\operatorname{div}}$$\newcommand{\SO}{\operatorname{SO(2)}}$$\newcommand{\R}{\operatorname{\mathbb{R}}}$$\newcommand{\bdx}{\partial_x}$$\newcommand{\bdy}{\partial_y}$$\newcommand{\...
user avatar
  • 6,286
1 vote
0 answers
110 views

Principal orbit and the generic stabilizer of SO(2n)xSO(2n)

Let $SO(2n)$ denote the special orthogonal group of $2n\times 2n$ matrices over the complex numbers. Consider the action of $SO(2n)\times SO(2n)$ on the set of $2n\times 2n$ matrices : $ADB^{T}$, ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
621 views

Number of 5x5 matrix permutations without repetitions in rows or columns

Context In the boardgame Azul, your goal is to complete as much as possible of a $5\times5$ board by placing 25 tiles of 5 different colours (5 tiles of each colour) so that no colour appears twice in ...
user avatar
  • 23
4 votes
0 answers
1k views

Can an orthogonal matrix move monotonically toward a signed permutation matrix?

The question is motivated by this question on Mathematics SE. Let $A \in O(n)$ be an orthogonal matrix that is not a signed permutation matrix, and let $P$ be the nearest signed permutation matrix to $...
user avatar
  • 209
1 vote
5 answers
547 views

Solution for $Xa + X^Tb = c$ where $X^TX = I$? [closed]

There are three known $n\times1$ vectors: $a, b, c$, along with one unknown $n\times n$ matrix: $X$. I am only interested in the $n={2,3}$ cases. $X$ is $2\times 2$ or $3\times 3$ rotation matrix ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
88 views

Maximize function on rotation matrices [closed]

Let $A$ be a fixed 3-by-3 matrix and $Q$ be a rotation matrix whose yaw, pitch, and roll angles are $\phi\in[0,\pi]$, $\theta\in[0,\pi]$, and $\psi\in[0,\pi/2]$, respectively: \begin{equation} Q= \...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
84 views

Characterization of extrinsic distance prevserving embedding (see the definition given!) from low dimensional Euclidean spaces to high dimensions

P.S. I asked the question on MSE more than a week ago, but didn't get any desired answer, so asking here. Let $m < n \in \mathbb{N}$. Let us equip $\mathbb{R}^m, \mathbb{R}^n $ with their ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
470 views

LU decomposition for orthogonal or unitary matrices?

Is there any references on LU decomposition for orthogonal or unitary matrices? It seems to me that the diagonal entries of $U$ has some nice structure regarding to the Euler angles of the original ...
user avatar
24 votes
2 answers
781 views

Simple conjecture about rational orthogonal matrices and lattices

The following conjecture grew out of thinking about topological phases of matter. Despite being very elementary to state, it has evaded proof both by me and by everyone I've asked so far. The ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
511 views

How to project a matrix to a unitary matrix?

Given a nonzero vector $v \in \mathbb{R}^n$, we all know that it's projection onto the unit $\ell_2$ ball is just $\frac{v}{\|v\|}$. Let $X$ be some nonzero $n \times n$ matrix. What is the projection ...
user avatar
  • 1,643
2 votes
1 answer
322 views

Minimize matrix norm over the unitary matrices

Suppose $C_1$ and $C_2$ are some fixed $n \times n$ matrices. Define the norm $\| M \| = \sum_{i = 1}^n \max_j |M_{ij}|$. What is $\min_U \|C_1 U C_2 \|$? Here $U$ ranges over the $n \times n$ unitary ...
user avatar
  • 1,643
0 votes
0 answers
31 views

Condition on the point cloud matrix making the points "generic" in the uniform sense

For a matrix $X\in\mathbb{R}^{d\times n}$, what condition can I impose on $X$ to make the collection of its columns generic in the sense that they look like the result of uniformly sampling a convex ...
user avatar
  • 423
5 votes
1 answer
176 views

How can I solve an orthogonal-constrained Sylvester equation?

I am currently facing a Sylvester equation $AX+XB = C$ where $A$, $B$, $C$ are all symmetric and a special constraint here is that $X$ should be orthogonal. The Sylvester equation itself may not ...
user avatar
  • 91
4 votes
1 answer
182 views

Parametrizing quotient of matrices by the orthogonal group

I am trying to parametrize the collection of $d\times m$ real matrices quotient $d\times d$ orthogonal matrices. Formally, define $\sim$ on $\mathbb{R}^{d\times m}$ by $X\sim Y$ if there exists an ...
user avatar
  • 423
6 votes
1 answer
308 views

Can we choose smoothly the singular vectors of a matrix?

$\newcommand{\GLm}{\text{GL}_n^-}$Let $A$ be a real $n \times n$ matrix with non-positive determinant. Suppose that the smallest singular value of $A$ is strictly smaller than all the others (it has ...
user avatar
  • 6,286
3 votes
1 answer
306 views

Upper bound on the sectional curvature of the orthogonal group

Consider the orthogonal group $O(n)$ as a Riemannian manifold endowed with the usual (bi-invariant) metric $\langle P, Q \rangle_A = \textrm{Tr}\ P^\top Q$ for tangent vectors $P, Q$, with $$T_A O(n) =...
user avatar
  • 251
4 votes
1 answer
193 views

Distribution of Submatrix of Orthogonal Matrix

Let $O$ be a matrix sampled from the Haar measure on $O(n)$. Let $X$ be the upperleft $k\times k$ submatrix of $O$. In a physics research project I am interested in the distribution of $X$, say $\rho(...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
383 views

Bounding the Frobenius norm of orthogonalised matrices

Context: I am trying to show the convergence of an optimization method which includes orthogonalization in the update step. Problem: Let's say I have real matrices $A, B \in \mathcal{R}^{n xm}$. If ...
user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
615 views

Real orthogonal and sign [closed]

I came across the following conjecture, reading a recent paper in the Monthly, an orthogonal matrix of order $n\neq 0 \pmod 4$ has a nonnegative (up to a scalar) row vector. It should be straight in ...
user avatar
  • 418
2 votes
2 answers
367 views

Parametrising a sparse orthogonal matrix

I need to find a way to parametrise a matrix that is both sparse (to some degree) and orthogonal, i.e., I am looking for a parametrisation that describes $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n\times m}$ such that $AA^𝑇...
user avatar
  • 113
4 votes
0 answers
459 views

Orthogonal similarity of adjacency matrices of graphs which are cospectral and have a common equitable partition

Let $G$ and $H$ be two undirected graphs of the same order (i.e., they have the same number of vertices). Denote by $A_G$ and $A_H$ the corresponding adjacency matrices. Furthermore, denote by $\bar G$...
user avatar
  • 443
4 votes
1 answer
341 views

Generalization of Jordan's Lemma $A^2=B^2=I$ can be 2-block diagonalized

One of Jordan's lemma states that if two orthogonal matrices $A,B$ are such that $A^2=B^2=I$, then they can be co-diagonalized by block of size 2. (the proof is easy, consider $x$ an eigenvector of $A+...
user avatar
  • 543
11 votes
1 answer
506 views

Is there a "formula" for the point in $\text{SO}(n)$ which is closest to a given matrix?

$\newcommand{\Sig}{\Sigma}$ $\newcommand{\dist}{\operatorname{dist}}$ $\newcommand{\distSO}[1]{\dist(#1,\SO)}$ $\newcommand{\distO}[1]{\text{dist}(#1,\On)}$ $\newcommand{\tildistSO}[1]{\operatorname{...
user avatar
  • 6,286
2 votes
0 answers
128 views

Infinitesimal matrix rotation towards orthogonality

TLDR; I am trying to prove the existence of an infinitesimal rotation which always moves a matrix "closer" to being orthogonal. Setting In this setting, we have a matrix $W \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times ...
user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
414 views

A question about special linear group

Is there any way to find all matrices $G \in SL(n,\mathbb Z)$ such that there exists a matrix $A \in GL(n,\mathbb R)$ satisfying $$ AGA^{-1} \in SO(n,\mathbb R)? $$
user avatar
  • 2,465
2 votes
0 answers
83 views

Orthogonal Matrices and Cosets (translates) of Linear Subspaces

Let $M_n(F_2)$ be the vector space of all $n\times n$ matrices over the finite field $F_2$. Let $O(n)\subset M_n(F_2)$ be the set of all orthogonal matrices and $W\subseteq O(n)$ be an affine subspace ...
user avatar
  • 205
58 votes
4 answers
4k views

When can one continuously prescribe a unit vector orthogonal to a given orthonormal system?

Let $1 \leq k < n$ be natural numbers. Given orthonormal vectors $u_1,\dots,u_k$ in ${\bf R}^n$, one can always find an additional unit vector $v \in {\bf R}^n$ that is orthogonal to the preceding ...
user avatar
  • 90.8k
5 votes
1 answer
433 views

Principal curvatures of $\mathbb{R}^{n^2}$-embedded SO(n)

It's well known that the sectional curvatures of a Lie group, endowed with a left-invariant metric have a nice closed-form formula $k(X,Y) = \frac{1}{4} \|[X Y]\|^2$. I'm wondering if the following (...
user avatar
  • 225
15 votes
7 answers
1k views

Is the linear span of special orthogonal matrices equal to the whole space of $N\times N$ matrices?

(Disclaimer : I know very well that $SO(N)$ has a Lie algebra of dimension $N(N-1)/2$ etc. This absolutely not the point of my question.) To make my problem more understandable, I start with the ...
user avatar
  • 345
2 votes
3 answers
427 views

Inverse of matrix $D + ADA^T$

Let $D$ be an arbitrary diagonal matrix and let $A$ be an orthogonal matrix ($A'A = AA' = I$). How to compute the following matrix inverse efficiently? $$(D + ADA^T)^{-1}$$ Hints or references are ...
user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
434 views

Optimization problem on trace with both the positive semi definite and non positive semidefinite matrix

Given two $N \times N$ symmetric matrices $A, B$, where $A$ is positive semidefinite while $B$ is not positive semidefinite. I am interested in solving unitary constrained trace maximization problem: ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
77 views

Characterizing a subclass of row-orthogonal matrices

Let $O\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times m}$, $m>n$, be such that $O O^\top =I_n$. (Here $\bullet^\top$ denotes transposition and $I_n$ the $n\times n$ identity matrix.) Consider the following partition of $O$,...
user avatar
  • 2,610
5 votes
1 answer
1k views

Positive definite matrices diagonalised by orthogonal matrices that are also involutions

Let $A$ be a positive definite matrix. Then, $A$ is diagonalized by an orthogonal matrix $P$. I want to know when this matrix is also an involution, i.e., $P^2 = I$. If there is any ...
user avatar
  • 1,119
2 votes
1 answer
148 views

Finding a similarities and differences of sent of matrices

Suppose we have a set of rank deficient covariance matrices. How can I know the similarities and differences between those set of matrices? Regards,
user avatar