# Questions tagged [spherical-geometry]

The spherical-geometry tag has no usage guidance.

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### Minimizers of smooth function on over a spherical cap

Let $S_n$ be the unit sphere in $\mathbb R^{n+1}$, and for $(x,r) \in S_n \times [0,\infty)$, let $\text{Cap}_{n,\epsilon}(x) \subseteq S_n$ be the spherical cap centered at $a$ and with geodesic ...

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### Is there an upper bound on the number of critical points of a spherical harmonic on a local scale?

Take a spherical harmonic $y_d$ of degree $d$ on the sphere $\mathbb{S}^2$ and a spherical disk of radius $\frac{1}{d^2}$ centered at any point (let's say the north pole).
Is there an upper bound, ...

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### Pascal's theorem for spherical hexagon

I draw a cyclic spherical hexagon and I check by geogebra that Pascal's theorem is true in this case.
My question 1. Is there simple proof for this?
My question 2. Can we change the circle on ...

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417 views

### Partial derivatives of spherical harmonics

Is there any closed form formula (or some procedure) to find all $n$-th partial derivatives of a spherical harmonic?

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### Simplification of integral on the sphere

In the article: https://arxiv.org/abs/0906.3217 the authors prove in Lemma 1 a formula which helps compute more easily the integral of the Hessian of a function defined on $\Bbb{S}^2$. More precisely, ...

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### What is the shape of a random convex polygon on the sphere?

Say $\mathbb{R}^n$ is divided into sectors by $k>n$ random hyperplanes (each hyperplane chosen as the orthogonal complement of a vector uniform on the unit sphere in $\mathbb{R}^n$). Each sector (...

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115 views

### On the classification of spherical varieties

Let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic group, for instance take $G = SL_n$. Does there is a classification of the $\mathbb{Q}$-factorial normal projective varieties with given dimension and Picard ...

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### About a problem of fitting a cube in a subset of a sphere

I am asking this question to know more about this problem that I find very interesting.
The problem is that suppose you have the unit 2-sphere $S^2$ in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and a measurable subset $A \...

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### Odd function on the 2-sphere whose integrals over all hemispheres is zero

Let $h:\mathbb{S}^2 \to \mathbb{R} $ be a smooth function satisfying:
$h(-x)=-h(x)$
For every hemisphere $A \subseteq \mathbb{S}^2$, $\int_{A}h\text{Vol}_{\mathbb{S}^2}=0$, where $\text{Vol}_\mathbb{...

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### Spherical Harmonics

The spherical harmonics of degree $k$ in $n$ dimensions are the restriction to the sphere $\mathbb S^{n-1}$ of harmonic polynomials homogeneous of degree $k$ in $n$ variables. It is a classical fact ...

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### Linear equation for a great circle on a (multidimensional) sphere

Can we introduce independent coordinates on a sphere such that any great circle could be represented as a linear equation (like line on the plane)? If yes, what is a generalization for higher ...

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### Calderon-Zygmund theorem for the kernel of spherical harmonics

I don't want to write precisely the formulation of the Calderon-Zygmund theorem for singular integrals. The details are not so important here.
So I consider the operator $T$ given by the following ...

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### Cyclic polygons generalized to higher dimensions

Many theorems hold for cyclic polygons—convex polygons inscribed
in a circle. Perhaps the most basic is this,
from the reference cited below:
Theorem. There exists a cyclic polygon of $n \ge ...

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174 views

### How to calculate all rays inside a sphere which are all equally angled from eachother

I am creating a 3D computer simulation and I want to build a sphere from rays coming from the center of the sphere. Imagine a sphere consisting of all dots/particles at the end of the rays.
The dots ...

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275 views

### expectation of an exponential function over a unit sphere

Let $v=(v_1,\dotsc,v_n)$ be a vector with length in $\mathbb{R}^{n-1}$, uniformly distributed over a unit sphere. I want to show
$E[\exp(\alpha_n v_1)] \sim \exp (\alpha_n^2/n)$
as $n->\infty.$
If ...

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### Random spherical caps cover a spherical cap

Let $S^{n-1}$ be the unit sphere in $n$ dimensional Euclidean space. Define the spherical cap at $x \in S^{n-1}$ with angle $\theta$ to be $C(x,\theta) = \{z \in S^{n-1} \mid z^\top x \geq \cos(\theta)...

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### Union of random half spaces cover a ray

Let $x, y \in \mathbb{R}^{n}$ be two fixed unit vectors with angle $\alpha \in (\frac{\pi}{2}, \frac{3\pi}{4})$. Define the positive half space associated with a vector $z$ to be $\mathcal{H}(z) = \{h ...

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### Basis on the sphere in multidimensions

I'm interested if there is the explicit forms of basis functions in $L^2(S^n), n\geq 3$.
For $n=1, n=2$ basis functions are well known: $\{e^{ik\phi}\}_{k\in\mathbb{Z}}$, $\{p^{|m|}_n(\cos \gamma) e^...

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### Clairaut's relation and the equation of great circle in spherical coordinates

Clairaut's relation for a great circle parametrized by $t$ is $r(t)\cos\gamma(t)=\text{Const}$ where $r$ is the distance to the $z$-axis and $\gamma$ is the angle with the latitude. The implicit ...

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### Getting random die face, using angles, without pole bias

In the game Tabletop Simulator, I have created something which, rather than rolling a die, is design to just pick a random angle and place it down on the surface using Lua. My method for this is to ...

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62 views

### On Hurwitz Square (r, s, t)-Identities examples

By (r, s, t)-identity I mean any sort of such identity:
$$
(x_1^2+\ldots + x_r^2)(y_1^2+\ldots +y_s^2)=(z_1(x,y)^2+\ldots + z_t(x,y)^2),
$$
where $z_i(x,y)$ is a polynomial for every $i$.
See this ...

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### GKZ decomposition for spherical varieties

If $X$ is a complete toric variety the GKZ decomposition of the effective cone $Eff(X)$ of $X$ corresponds to its Mori Chamber Decomposition, and therefore it encodes the birational geometry of $X$.
...

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### The reproducing kernel for harmonics on compact manifolds

Page 39, proposition 1.1.3 here, http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~cis610/sharmonics.pdf clearly explains how for every ``level" (the parameter $k$ in the proposition) one can construct a function ("kernel") ...

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### Compressing a hypersurface on the sphere

Let $M^n$ be a compact, connected, orientable hypersurface of the unit sphere $S^{n+1} \subset \mathbb{R}^{n+2}$. Suppose $M$ is contained in the northern hemisphere $S_+^{n+1}$ and has nonzero ...

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### Largest disk inside a spherical domain

It is known (Pestov-Ionin theorem) that if $k_{max}$ is the maximum curvature of a smooth planar loop $\gamma$, then there is a disk of radius $1/k_{max}$ inside $\gamma$. I wonder is there any ...

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### Distinguishing (possibly lower dimensional) $1$-skeleton of a regular graph inscribed in a sphere

Consider you have two (possibly same) convex $1$-skeleton of a regular graph $A$ and $B$ in $m$-dimensions inscribed in a sphere with possibly exponential number of vertices in $n$-dimension with ...

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### An inequality with spherical triangles

Let ABC be a spherical triangle, where the spherical distance (or angle) AB is $\pi/2$ and $C\neq -A$. For $t\in[0,1]$, let $B(t)$ (resp. $C(t)$) be the only point on the segment $[AB]$ (resp. $[AC]$) ...

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### Covering the sphere with sectors

Let $S^{d-1} \subseteq \mathbb{R}^d$ denote the $d$-dimensional sphere. For a point $x \in S^{d-1}$, let $A_x = \{y \in S^{d-1}: (x,y) \geq p \}$, where $(x,y)$ is the euclidean inner product. For my ...

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### The mean of points on a unit n-sphere $S^n$

A unit n-sphere is defined as $$\mathcal{S}^n = \{\mathbf{p} \in \mathbb{R}^{n+1}: \|\mathbf{p}\| = 1\}$$
The distance between two points $\mathbf{p}$, $\mathbf{q}$ on $\mathcal{S}^n$ is the great-...

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### Regions on a sphere that avoid a fixed point set

Let $P$ be a finite set of points on a unit-radius sphere $S$
in $\mathbb{R}^3$.
Treat $P$ as a fixed pattern that can be rigidly slid
around $S$ as a unit (no reflection).
Let $R$ be a subset of $S$....

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### Is there any counterpart to Thales' semicircle theorem in higher dimensions?

It was established by TMA, @WillSawin, and @DouglasZare, in their responses to
the MO question,
"Thales' semicircle theorem in higher dimensions,"
that the natural generalization of Thales' semicircle ...

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### Analytical value for the first eigenvalue of a certain spherical triangle

I am testing some numerical algorithms for computing the Laplace-Beltrami eigenvalues on the sphere. One thing that came up was computing the first eigenvalue of the "equilateral" spherical triangle ...

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### Determining orientation of spherical polygons

Does anyone have a general algorithm for determining the orientation (CW/CCW) of a spherical polygon? Polygon orientation is an easy problem in cartesian space, but much tricker on the sphere. I'm ...

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### Regular paths along surface of sphere

I'm trying to create a program where a small ball is supposed to move along the surface of a sphere, which is given by its radius $r$ and the center $c$.
The movement should be repetitive, so that ...

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### Formula for the Perimeter of a spherical triangle?

Consider the ordinary sphere $\mathbb{S}^2\subset \mathbb{R}^3$ and a spherical triangle $T\subset \mathbb{S}^2.$ I'm looking for a formula from which the perimeter $P$ of $T$ is "computable" given ...

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### Randall Munroe's Lost Immortals

In Randall Munroe's book What If?, the "Lost Immortals" question asks:
If two immortal people were placed on opposite sides of an uninhabited Earthlike planet, how long would it take them to find ...

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### what-if.xkcd.com: stabbing (simply connected) regions on the 2-sphere with few geodesics

In the latest what-if Randall Munroe ask for the smallest number of geodesics that intersect all regions of a map. The following shows that five paths of satellites suffice to cover the 50 states of ...

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### Calculate GPS coordinates at x meters [closed]

I want to calculate a pair of GPS coordinates(lat,long) that is at x meters N/S/E/W from a known point (lat_old,long_old).
I have found the Haversine formula
http://upload.wikimedia.org/math/0/5/5/...

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### why most of the angles are right

The Coxeter–Dynkin diagrams tell us that in a spherical Coxeter simplex most of the dihedral angles are right. Say among $\tfrac{n{\cdot}(n+1)}2$ dihedral angles we can have at most $n$ angles which ...

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### Is SL_n/S(GL_k x GL_n-k) symmetric?

Background: a symmetric variety is a homogeneous space $G/H$ associated to an involution $\theta$ of a semisimple algebraic group $G$ and $\{g | \theta(g) = g\} = G^\theta \subset H \subset N_G(G^\...

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### Any reference to an algorithm for finding the largest empty circle on a sphere (with great-circle distance)?

Given a set $S$ of 2D points in the plane, there are known algorithms for finding the largest empty circle ($LEC$) of the set of points.
The $LEC$ problem is stated in this way: find a $LEC$ whose ...

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### Triangle area on surfaces of constant curvature

I am looking for an elementary derivation of the formula for the area of a geodesic triangle lying in a surface of constant curvature $\kappa$, depending on the angles and side length.
Of course, the ...

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### Deriving the Mercator projection algorithm

The standard model of Mercator projection shows a cylinder wrapped around a spherical earth eg Wiki.
Many sites describe the resulting square map like this:
"...spherical Mercator maps use an extent ...

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### A conjecture on Moebius transformation

Conjecture. If $n>1$ and $f$ is a mapping from $S^n$ to $S^n$ which maps circles into (instead of onto) circles, and whose range has n+3 distinct points any n+2 of which are in general position (in ...

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### A Problem about spherical transformation (circle mapping)

Problem: Suppose that $f:S^n\to S^n$ is a mapping from the n-dimensional sphere ($n\geq 3$) into itself which maps circles into (instead of onto) circles. Can we say that f maps (n-1)-dimensional ...

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### Convex cones and self-duality

Consider the Euclidian space $E_n={\mathbb R}^n$, with standard scalar product
$$x\cdot y=x_1y_1+\cdots+x_ny_n.$$
A closed convex cone $\Gamma\subset E_n$ defines an order by $y\ge x$ iff $y-x\in\...

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### spherical orthoscheme content above 4 dimensions

I know how to compute the content of orthoschemes in 3- and 4-dimensional spherical space from dihedral angles using Schlafli series computations. Can anyone direct me to a textbook description of the ...

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### Actions on Sⁿ with quotient Sⁿ

What is known about isometric actions on $\mathbb S^n$ such that the quotient space is homeomorphic to $\mathbb S^n$?
Comments.
I am mostly interested in (maybe trivial) properties of such actions ...

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### The Area of Spherical Polygons

I am interested in finding a canonical general expression for the area of a spherical polygon in $\mathbb{S}^2$ knowing the side lengths of the polygon and a bound on the internal angles (we can ...

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### Place n telescopes on a sphere in R^d to see the whole sky

Where would one put $n$ telescopes on the surface of the earth
to see the whole sky as well as possible ?
Use the cosine metric to define how well we can see in direction $x$:
$ \qquad \text{cansee}( ...