Questions tagged [spherical-geometry]

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52 views

Uniqueness of function with range $\mathbb{S}^2$ up to a sign under a constraint

Assume $g,f\colon A\subset\mathbb{R}^M\rightarrow\mathbb{S}^2$ are two bijective functions defined on the set $A$. Now assume a constraint $C$: $\forall x,y\in A, \exists R\in SO(3)\colon Rf(x)=f(y)\...
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1answer
97 views

Is there a spherical analogue of polar duality for spherical complexes?

Let $P$ be a spherical complex, which essentially means a tiling of a sphere, let us say the $(d-1)$-dimensional sphere $\mathbb{S}^{d-1}$ in $\mathbb{R}^d$ to fix notation, where each cell is a ...
7
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2answers
169 views

Maximal distance of $2d+1$ points on a sphere

If one arranges $2d$ points on the sphere $\mathbf S^{d-1}\subset\Bbb R^d$ as the vertices of the regular octahedron, then one can achieve a minimal spherical distance of $\pi/2$ between any two ...
3
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0answers
59 views

Minimizing expected mutual distances in spherical regions

Suppose I take the unit sphere in $d$ dimensions, and I take some subset $A$ of the sphere of fixed relative volume $V$. Now from this set $A$ I draw two vectors, uniformly at random, and I look at ...
2
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0answers
113 views

Maximizing $\iiint|(x-z)\times(y-z)|d\mu d\mu d\mu$ over probability measures on the unit sphere

This is a follow-up question to the one asked here (the unit circle case). What probability measure(s) maximize the quantity $\iiint_{\mathbb{S}^2}|(x-z)\times(y-z)|d\mu(x)d\mu(y)d\mu(z)$? The ...
5
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1answer
302 views

Maximizing $\iiint|(x-z)\times(y-z)|d\mu d\mu d\mu$ over probability measures on the unit circle

What probability measure(s) maximize the quantity $\iiint_{\mathbb{S}^1}|(x-z)\times(y-z)|d\mu(x)d\mu(y)d\mu(z)$? The answer appears to be uniform measure, since informally it appears better to have ...
3
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1answer
125 views

Maximum number of half great circles of length $\pi$ can be drawn on a sphere without any intersection

It is well-known that any two great circles intersects on a sphere. In fact, there are infinitely many half great circles can be drawn on a sphere with a common intersection. Intuitively, it seems to ...
7
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0answers
161 views

Minimizing energy on $\mathbb{S}^2$ for absolutely monotonic type potentials

For potential functions $f:[-1,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, satisfying that $f^{(k)}(t)\geq 0$, for $t\in(-1,1)$ and all $0\leq k \leq m$, and $f^{(m+1)}(t)<0$ for $t\in(-1,1)$, is it true that a ...
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1answer
32 views

Keeping the covariant divergence intact under changes of frame

In Eulcidean 3-space with coordinates $(r, \theta, \phi)$ where $\theta$ is the polar angle and $\phi$ the azimuthal angle, we may write the covariant divergence of a vector $E = E^\mu e_\mu$ as $$E^{...
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1answer
121 views

What happens to the metric when we normalize the basis? [closed]

Here is an Example in Euclidean 3-space: When using spherical coordinates $(r, \theta, \phi)$ with $\theta$ and $\phi$ the polar and azimuthal angles, respectively: a natural basis for these ...
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90 views

|Evaluating integral on $ \mathbb S^{d-1}$

I am trying to evaluate the following integral: $$ \int_{\mathbb S^{d-1}} \exp \bigg(-\frac{(1+x\cdot y)^2}{\|x+y\|^2} \bigg) \ dx $$ for $x,y \in \mathbb R^d$. Does anyone know a solution or an ...
1
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1answer
174 views

Integration on sphere $\mathbb{S}^{d-1}$ for $d$ large — Change of variables

I'm trying to integrate a function over two vectors which lie on the surface of the unit sphere in D dimensions. The function depends only on the difference between the two vectors, and their dot ...
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0answers
76 views

Collections of points maximally spaced with respect to one another

The icosahedron and dodecahedron are well known to share symmetry groups. This partially accounts for the fact that one can form a type of compound of the two where each of the vertices in the ...
5
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0answers
124 views

Effect of the inverse exponential map on the curvature of a given curve

Suppose you have a curve $\alpha$ in a manifold $\mathcal{M}$. You are at a point $\alpha(t)$ of that curve. The curvature of $\alpha(t)$ is the same as the curvature of the curve $exp^{-1}_{\alpha(t)}...
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0answers
53 views

Are spherical maps with low distortion locally expanding?

$\newcommand{\SO}[1]{\text{SO}(#1)}$ $\newcommand{\Hom}[1]{\text{Hom}(#1)}$ $\newcommand{\R}{\mathbb{R}}$ $\newcommand{\S}{\mathbb{S}}$ The question in a nutshell: Are the "best" spherical maps ...
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0answers
34 views

Simplicial density function simultaneously defined for hyperbolic and spherical space (Kellerhals, 1998)

I am confused about the proof of Corollary 4.2 in "Ball Packings in Spaces of Constant Curvature and the Simplicial Density Function". The point of confusion is equation 4.3, where Kellerhals states ...
4
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1answer
82 views

Tiling the surface of a hypersphere with regular simplices

Let $S^{n-1} = \{x \in \mathbb{R}^n : x_1^2 + \cdots + x_n^2 = 1\}$. Consider a regular spherical simplex, obtained e.g. by taking a hyperspherical cap, picking $n$ equally-spaced points $P = \{p_1, \...
4
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0answers
182 views

Can this integral be made nonpositive?

Let $M^2 \subset \mathbb{S}^3$ be a closed and orientable embedded (and minimal, if important) surface. Choose a unit normal vector field $\eta: M \to \mathbb{S}^3$ along $M$ and a point $p_0 \in \...
5
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0answers
68 views

Is there an upper bound on the number of critical points of a spherical harmonic on a local scale?

Take a spherical harmonic $y_d$ of degree $d$ on the sphere $\mathbb{S}^2$ and a spherical disk of radius $\frac{1}{d^2}$ centered at any point (let's say the north pole). Is there an upper bound, ...
4
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1answer
139 views

Pascal's theorem for spherical hexagon

I draw a cyclic spherical hexagon and I check by geogebra that Pascal's theorem is true in this case. My question 1. Is there simple proof for this? My question 2. Can we change the circle on ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Partial derivatives of spherical harmonics

Is there any closed form formula (or some procedure) to find all $n$-th partial derivatives of a spherical harmonic?
5
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2answers
226 views

Simplification of integral on the sphere

In the article: https://arxiv.org/abs/0906.3217 the authors prove in Lemma 1 a formula which helps compute more easily the integral of the Hessian of a function defined on $\Bbb{S}^2$. More precisely, ...
3
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0answers
176 views

Are random convex polygons on a sphere themselves sphere-like?

Say $\mathbb{R}^n$ is divided by $k>n$ randomly chosen hyperplanes. Each connected region away from the hyperplanes is the intersection of $k$ half-spaces, so it is a convex cone. It is known that ...
2
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0answers
128 views

On the classification of spherical varieties

Let $G$ be a connected reductive algebraic group, for instance take $G = SL_n$. Does there is a classification of the $\mathbb{Q}$-factorial normal projective varieties with given dimension and Picard ...
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1answer
149 views

About a problem of fitting a cube in a subset of a sphere

I am asking this question to know more about this problem that I find very interesting. The problem is that suppose you have the unit 2-sphere $S^2$ in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and a measurable subset $A \...
5
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1answer
249 views

Odd function on the 2-sphere whose integrals over all hemispheres is zero

Let $h:\mathbb{S}^2 \to \mathbb{R} $ be a smooth function satisfying: $h(-x)=-h(x)$ For every hemisphere $A \subseteq \mathbb{S}^2$, $\int_{A}h\text{Vol}_{\mathbb{S}^2}=0$, where $\text{Vol}_\mathbb{...
4
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1answer
235 views

Spherical Harmonics

The spherical harmonics of degree $k$ in $n$ dimensions are the restriction to the sphere $\mathbb S^{n-1}$ of harmonic polynomials homogeneous of degree $k$ in $n$ variables. It is a classical fact ...
1
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1answer
74 views

Linear equation for a great circle on a (multidimensional) sphere

Can we introduce independent coordinates on a sphere such that any great circle could be represented as a linear equation (like line on the plane)? If yes, what is a generalization for higher ...
4
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1answer
273 views

Calderon-Zygmund theorem for the kernel of spherical harmonics

I don't want to write precisely the formulation of the Calderon-Zygmund theorem for singular integrals. The details are not so important here. So I consider the operator $T$ given by the following ...
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1answer
126 views

Cyclic polygons generalized to higher dimensions

Many theorems hold for cyclic polygons—convex polygons inscribed in a circle. Perhaps the most basic is this, from the reference cited below: Theorem. There exists a cyclic polygon of $n \ge ...
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2answers
202 views

How to calculate all rays inside a sphere which are all equally angled from eachother

I am creating a 3D computer simulation and I want to build a sphere from rays coming from the center of the sphere. Imagine a sphere consisting of all dots/particles at the end of the rays. The dots ...
5
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1answer
418 views

expectation of an exponential function over a unit sphere

Let $v=(v_1,\dotsc,v_n)$ be a vector with length in $\mathbb{R}^{n-1}$, uniformly distributed over a unit sphere. I want to show $E[\exp(\alpha_n v_1)] \sim \exp (\alpha_n^2/n)$ as $n->\infty.$ If ...
4
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1answer
212 views

Random spherical caps cover a spherical cap

Let $S^{n-1}$ be the unit sphere in $n$ dimensional Euclidean space. Define the spherical cap at $x \in S^{n-1}$ with angle $\theta$ to be $C(x,\theta) = \{z \in S^{n-1} \mid z^\top x \geq \cos(\theta)...
4
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1answer
92 views

Union of random half spaces cover a ray

Let $x, y \in \mathbb{R}^{n}$ be two fixed unit vectors with angle $\alpha \in (\frac{\pi}{2}, \frac{3\pi}{4})$. Define the positive half space associated with a vector $z$ to be $\mathcal{H}(z) = \{h ...
0
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1answer
214 views

Basis on the sphere in multidimensions

I'm interested if there is the explicit forms of basis functions in $L^2(S^n), n\geq 3$. For $n=1, n=2$ basis functions are well known: $\{e^{ik\phi}\}_{k\in\mathbb{Z}}$, $\{p^{|m|}_n(\cos \gamma) e^...
3
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1answer
3k views

Clairaut's relation and the equation of great circle in spherical coordinates

Clairaut's relation for a great circle parametrized by $t$ is $r(t)\cos\gamma(t)=\text{Const}$ where $r$ is the distance to the $z$-axis and $\gamma$ is the angle with the latitude. The implicit ...
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1answer
79 views

Getting random die face, using angles, without pole bias

In the game Tabletop Simulator, I have created something which, rather than rolling a die, is design to just pick a random angle and place it down on the surface using Lua. My method for this is to ...
3
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1answer
65 views

On Hurwitz Square (r, s, t)-Identities examples

By (r, s, t)-identity I mean any sort of such identity: $$ (x_1^2+\ldots + x_r^2)(y_1^2+\ldots +y_s^2)=(z_1(x,y)^2+\ldots + z_t(x,y)^2), $$ where $z_i(x,y)$ is a polynomial for every $i$. See this ...
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0answers
203 views

GKZ decomposition for spherical varieties

If $X$ is a complete toric variety the GKZ decomposition of the effective cone $Eff(X)$ of $X$ corresponds to its Mori Chamber Decomposition, and therefore it encodes the birational geometry of $X$. ...
1
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1answer
228 views

The reproducing kernel for harmonics on compact manifolds

Page 39, proposition 1.1.3 here, http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~cis610/sharmonics.pdf clearly explains how for every ``level" (the parameter $k$ in the proposition) one can construct a function ("kernel") ...
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116 views

Compressing a hypersurface on the sphere

Let $M^n$ be a compact, connected, orientable hypersurface of the unit sphere $S^{n+1} \subset \mathbb{R}^{n+2}$. Suppose $M$ is contained in the northern hemisphere $S_+^{n+1}$ and has nonzero ...
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0answers
60 views

Largest disk inside a spherical domain

It is known (Pestov-Ionin theorem) that if $k_{max}$ is the maximum curvature of a smooth planar loop $\gamma$, then there is a disk of radius $1/k_{max}$ inside $\gamma$. I wonder is there any ...
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60 views

Distinguishing (possibly lower dimensional) $1$-skeleton of a regular graph inscribed in a sphere

Consider you have two (possibly same) convex $1$-skeleton of a regular graph $A$ and $B$ in $m$-dimensions inscribed in a sphere with possibly exponential number of vertices in $n$-dimension with ...
3
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1answer
186 views

An inequality with spherical triangles

Let ABC be a spherical triangle, where the spherical distance (or angle) AB is $\pi/2$ and $C\neq -A$. For $t\in[0,1]$, let $B(t)$ (resp. $C(t)$) be the only point on the segment $[AB]$ (resp. $[AC]$) ...
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0answers
51 views

Covering the sphere with sectors

Let $S^{d-1} \subseteq \mathbb{R}^d$ denote the $d$-dimensional sphere. For a point $x \in S^{d-1}$, let $A_x = \{y \in S^{d-1}: (x,y) \geq p \}$, where $(x,y)$ is the euclidean inner product. For my ...
6
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3answers
1k views

The mean of points on a unit n-sphere $S^n$

A unit n-sphere is defined as $$\mathcal{S}^n = \{\mathbf{p} \in \mathbb{R}^{n+1}: \|\mathbf{p}\| = 1\}$$ The distance between two points $\mathbf{p}$, $\mathbf{q}$ on $\mathcal{S}^n$ is the great-...
7
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1answer
183 views

Regions on a sphere that avoid a fixed point set

Let $P$ be a finite set of points on a unit-radius sphere $S$ in $\mathbb{R}^3$. Treat $P$ as a fixed pattern that can be rigidly slid around $S$ as a unit (no reflection). Let $R$ be a subset of $S$....
2
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0answers
113 views

Is there any counterpart to Thales' semicircle theorem in higher dimensions?

It was established by TMA, @WillSawin, and @DouglasZare, in their responses to the MO question, "Thales' semicircle theorem in higher dimensions," that the natural generalization of Thales' semicircle ...
3
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1answer
96 views

Analytical value for the first eigenvalue of a certain spherical triangle

I am testing some numerical algorithms for computing the Laplace-Beltrami eigenvalues on the sphere. One thing that came up was computing the first eigenvalue of the "equilateral" spherical triangle ...
0
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1answer
391 views

Determining orientation of spherical polygons

Does anyone have a general algorithm for determining the orientation (CW/CCW) of a spherical polygon? Polygon orientation is an easy problem in cartesian space, but much tricker on the sphere. I'm ...