# Questions tagged [haar-measure]

Everything the deals with properties and definitions of Haar measure, as well as related fields when the question relies heavily on the notion of haar measure - group harmonic analysis, group ergodic theory etc.

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### Asymptotics of Haar moments on general Lie groups

I am trying to understand the asymptotics of Haar Moments on general compact Lie groups (in particular, subgroups of $\mathrm{SU}(n)$). I have learned that closed form formulae for these moments are ...

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### Problem concerning Haar measures on locally compact Hausdorff groups [migrated]

Before I state what my problem is I first want to give some context.
A Haar measure is a measure on the Borel subsets of a locally compact Hausdorff group $X$. The Haar measure is inner regular on ...

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### Haar measures of compact subgroups

Let $G$ be a locally compact group, $K$ a compact subgroup in $G$, and $\mu_K$ the normalized Haar measure on $K$:
$$
\mu_K(K)=1.
$$
Let us denote by $\widetilde{\mu_K}$ the measure on $G$ defined as ...

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### Maximum norm within a random subspace intersected with an ellipsoid

Let $d < n$, and let $G_n(d)$ denote the space of all $d$-dimensional subspaces of $\mathbb{R}^n$.
Let $a = (a_1,\dots, a_n)$ denote a positive sequence, and define
$U(a) = \{u \in \mathbb{R}^n: \...

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### Determinant of SU(N) elements, and radius of associated manifold

I'm wondering if the fact $SU(2)$ group elements have $det = 1$ is connected with the radius of the unitary $S^{3}$ manifold associated.
The context is demonstration of dU being an Haar invariant ...

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### Double quotient integral formula on $\Gamma \backslash G /K$

Let $G=\text{SL}(n,\mathbb R)$, $\Gamma=\text{SL}(n,\mathbb Z)$ and $K=\text{SO}(n,\mathbb R)$. Consider the double coset space $X= \Gamma \backslash G /K$ and its fundamental domain $\mathcal F\...

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### Divergence of integrals in the trace formula

I am trying to understand the following situation for $G=GL(2)$, when going from the compact trace formula to the non-compact case.
The integral over $G(\mathbb{A})^1_\gamma \backslash G(\mathbb{A})^1$...

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### Calculation of first correction to Selberg type integral

$\DeclareMathOperator\U{U}\DeclareMathOperator\SU{SU}\DeclareMathOperator\Tr{Tr}\DeclareMathOperator\arcsinh{arcsinh}$Let $U \in G$, where $G$ is $\SU(N)$ matrix.
$\Tr U$ will denote the character ...

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### Is svd of a Gaussian iid matrix corresponds to Haar measure on the Stiefel manifold?

I want to draw a matrix $A\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times k}$ uniformally at random from the Stiefel manifold $\mathbb{V}_k(\mathbb{R}^n)$, that is from the collection of all $n\times k$ matrices $A$ such ...

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### Formulation of $p$-adic Haar measure decomposition

$\DeclareMathOperator\GL{GL}\DeclareMathOperator\vol{vol}\DeclareMathOperator\diag{diag}$Suppose:
$F$ is a non-archimedean local field,
$\mathcal{O} \subset F$ its ring of integers,
$\pi \in \mathcal{...

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### Integration with respect to Haar measures normalised over a subspace

Coming from physics I have come across the following integral over a haar measure (for $U$ unitary as an example) for something I am trying to determine for my work
$\int_{\mathcal{U}(d)} \frac{\...

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### Direct proof that $g_t=\text{diag}(e^{t/m}I_m,e^{-t/n}I_n)$'s action on $\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbb R)/{\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbb Z)}$ is ergodic

I wonder if there are any direct proof that $g_t=\operatorname{diag}(e^{t/m}I_m,e^{-t/n}I_n)$'s action on $\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbb R)/{\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbb Z)}$ is ergodic (or even stronger,...

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### Question about squaring a Haar random unitary

Consider an $n \times n$ unitary $U$, drawn from the Haar measure. I'm trying to find the distribution for $U^{2}$. Is it true that $U^{2}$ is also Haar random?
Note that for any fixed unitary $V$, $...

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### Question about the inverse operator on PSL(2,R) with respect to Liouville measure

In GTM 259 chapter 9 and Katok Hasselbaltt Introduction to Modern Theory of Dynamical System chapter 5 (using the Iwasawa KAN decomposition)
we see the Unit Tangent bundle of Hyperbolic half plane is ...

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### Biased ensemble in the unitary group

I am interested in studying the ensemble of unitary random matrices in $U(L)$ made as follows
$$
\mu(U)=\frac{1}{\mathcal{Z}[\omega]}\mu_{\rm Haar}(U) e^{-\sum_{k=1}^L \sum_{l=1}^N \omega_k |U_{kl}|^2}...

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### Distribution of top left block from unitary symmetric matrices

If $U$ is a $N\times N$ random unitary matrix uniformly distributed with respect to Haar measure, a $M\times M$ block $A$ from it has distribution given by
$$ \det(1-AA^\dagger)^{N-2M}.$$
If $O$ is a $...

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### The (last step of the) proof that the set of badly approximable matrices has measure zero

An $m \times n$ matrix $A$ is called badly approximable if there exists $c > 0$ such that for all integer vectors $p \in \mathbb Z^m$ and $q \in \mathbb Z^n-\{0\}$ we have
$$ \|A q + p \| \ge c \| ...

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### Convergence of measure of products of random unitaries

I'm trying to read Convergence conditions for random quantum circuits by Emerson, Livine, Llyod (https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.72.060302), arXiv version: (https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0503210) ...

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### Integrals of the type $\delta(g^{n})$ on $\mathrm{SU}(2)$

I posted this question previously to MathSE. However, I have still not solved it, so lets try to ask it here. When doing some calculations with spin-foam models for 3d quantum gravity for some ...

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### Do compact inverse-property loops (or just compact Moufang loops) have bi-invariant Haar measure?

So, the overall question is in the title: Does a compact topological loop with the inverse property have a Haar measure that is simultaneously left invariant? (And we can restrict to Moufang loops if ...

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### Existence of orthonormal basis for $L^2(G)$ in $C_c(G)$

Remark: I cross-posted this question on MSE and added a bounty to it.
Suppose that $G$ is a locally compact (Hausdorff) group endowed with the Haar measure. It is well-known that the compactly ...

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### A 'projective' property of the Haar U(n) measure

Let $U(n)$ be the compact manifold of unitary $(n \times n)$-matrices and let $\mu_n$ denote the Haar-probability measure on $U(n)$. For $m < n$ does there exists a measurable (maybe even ...

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### Only Zariski-closed subsets of compact Lie groups with nonempty interior have nonzero measure

In this question, the following fact was used by the respondent
A Zariski-closed subset of a compact Lie group $G$ with nonzero Haar
measure contains a coset of $G^0$, the connected component of
$G$ ...

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### Can the degree of $k$-nilpotence of a simple simply connected compact Lie group be in $(0,1)$?

Let $G$ be a simple (i.e. every proper normal subgroup is discrete) simply connected compact Lie group. Define the degree of $k$-nilpotence of $G$ to be the Haar measure of the set
$$\{(x_1,\dotsc,x_{...

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### When does the measure integral of the form $\int_{\log(S)} f d \mu$ exist?

When does the measure integral of the form $\int_{\log(S)} f d \mu$ exist ?
Here $\mu$ can be any measure (Lebesgue, Borel, Haar etc), $f$ is a measurable function, $S$ is any measurable set with ...

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### Haar integral of rational function of unitaries

I'm trying to compute the following Haar integral over the unitary group:
$$
\int\limits_{\mathbb{U}(d)}\dfrac{1}{\sum_{k,l=1}^d u_{ik}\overline{u_{il}}c_{kl}}dU.
$$ Is there anything known about the ...

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### Invariant measure on affine charts of complex Grassmannian

Consider the complex Grassmannian $U(n)/U(k)\times U(n-k)$ with it's $U(n)$-invariant measure. The affine chart corresponding to $i_1, \ldots, i_k$ is given by $n\times k$ matrices for which the ...

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### For what LCH groups is the Haar measure $\mu(U x U)$ bounded?

Let $G$ be a locally compact Hausdorff (LCH) topological group with left Haar measure $\mu$. Given a compact unit neighborhood $U$, consider the function
$$
\Phi: \quad G \to (0,\infty), \quad x \...

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### Hopf algebra that is unimodular and counimodular but not involutory

I'm looking for a finite-dimensional Hopf algebra (over any field) that is unimodular, has unimodular dual, but is not involutory. Is there such a thing?
Here's what I know:
By Radford's formula, the ...

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### About the probability of satisfying in a commutator type equation

Let $N$ be a closed normal subgroup of a compact group $G$. We denote the unique Haar measure of a compact group $A$ by $\mathbf m_A$, and drop $A$ if there exists no ambiguity. Fix $y\in G$. For $g\...

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### Formula involving Wigner's 3j symbols and integration over irreducible representations of SU(2)

In some calculations, I saw the following formula
$$\int_{\mathrm{SU}(2)}\,\mathrm{d}g\,D^{j_{1}}_{m_{1}n_{1}}(g)D^{j_{2}}_{m_{2}n_{2}}(g)D^{j_{3}}_{m_{3}n_{3}}(g)=(-1)^{j_{1}+j_{2}+j_{3}}\begin{...

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### When does Haar measure decompose into products of such?

We get a "nice" Haar measure on $G=SL(2,R)$ in Iwasawa coordinates $G=NAK$ as follows: $dg=dx {dy\over y^2} dk$. Here $N=\{ n_x\}$, $A=\{a_y\}$ and $K=SO(2)$. Note that $dg=dn\, da\, dk$ is ...

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### Haar measure coming from Pontryagin duality v/s Fourier inversion

Not research but advertising this question from mse in case someone wants to answer.
I'm struggling with some bookkeeping associated with the Pontryagin duality theorem. I'm thinking about the first ...

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### Haar mesure on $\mathrm{GL}_{d}(F)$

$\DeclareMathOperator\GL{GL}$Let $F$ be a $\mathfrak{p}$-adic field and $\mathscr{O}_{F}$ its valuation ring. For any measurable subset of $M_{d}(F)$ such as
$$
A=
\left( \begin{array}{ccc}
a_{11}+t^{\...

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### Haar measure on ${\cal P}(\omega)$

First, we note that there is a natural bijection ${\cal P}(\omega) \to \{0,1\}^\omega$ and endow the latter with the product topology (where $\{0,1\}$ carries the discrete topology). So we get a ...

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### "Haar-like" measure on $S_\omega$

Let $S_\omega$ be the collection of bijections $f:\omega\to \omega$. Endow $\omega$ with the discrete topology and let $S_\omega$ be endowed with the subspace topology of $\omega^\omega$, where $\...

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### Dot product of functions on cosets

Some time ago I asked this same question at Math Stackexchange, because I thought that the question is nearly elementary.
To my surprise, it was never answered. So I am elevating it to MathOverflow.
I ...

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### Haar measure decomposition using orbital integrals

Let $G$ be a unimodular locally compact group, $N,A \le G$ be unimodular closed subgroups. Suppose that $A$ normalizes $N$. Let $N_0 \le N$ be a compact open subgroup. Suppose that a function $f : N \...

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### Haar measure and Integral

I am wondering whether the following integral over Haar measure has explicit form（edit: say $U$ is $d\times d$ unitary, orthogonal or symplectic matrix)
$$
\int dU [(U\otimes U^*)X(U^{+}\otimes U^T)]^{...

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### A group where the Weil topology induced by the Haar measure does not coincide with the original topology

Let $(G,\tau)$ be a locally compact Hausdorff topological group that is $\sigma$-finite with respect to the Haar measure $\mu:\mathcal{B}(G)\to[0,\infty]$ ($\mathcal{B}(G)$ is the Borel $\sigma$-...

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### Pushforward of measure under surjective map

Let $X, Y, Z$ be measurable spaces with measures $\mu_X, \mu_Y, \mu_Z$ respectively. Let $\pi_Y : Y \times Z \rightarrow Y$ be the projection on $Y$ and $\pi_Z : Y \times Z \rightarrow Z$ the ...

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### Is this a lattice?

Let $R$ be a locally compact ring (commutative with unit) and let $D\subset R$ be a discrete cocompact subring (cocompact means the additive group $R/D$ is compact). Let $G$ be a semisimple linear ...

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### How to prove invariance implies quadrature about Haar measure?

I'm reading paper, which contains a lemma named as 'Invariance Implies Quadrature'. The lemma is stated as follows.
Lemma Let $f$ be a function from $O(d)$ to $\mathbb{R}$ and let $H$ be a finite ...

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### Comparing $X+Y$ and $X-Y$ for independent random variables with values in an abelian locally compact group

Let $G$ be an abelian locally (separable?) compact group with Haar measure $\mu$. Inspired by the interesting proof of A sum of two binomial random variables :
Let $X$ and $Y$ be $G$-valued ...

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### L2 norm of the diagonal entries of a random rotation of a fixed matrix?

Let $X\in\mathbb{R}^{d\times d}$ be the diagonal matrix with $d/2$ entries equal to $1$ and $d/2$ entries equal to $-1$. Let $F_U \triangleq \frac{1}{d}\|\operatorname{diag}(U^{\dagger}XU)\|^2_F$ ...

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### Asymptotic analysis using the p-adic Mellin Transform?

In ordinary analysis, given a sufficiently nice $f:\left[0,\infty\right)\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$, if we can compute the Mellin transform: $$\mathscr{M}\left\{ f\right\} \left(s\right)=\int_{0}^{\infty}x^...

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### How large this subset is to say that it should equal the group?

Let $\alpha$ be a continuous automorphism on a compact group $G$ with normalized Haar measure $m$. We may say $\alpha$ is $n$-splitting, if the set
$$\text{Spl}_n(\alpha):=\left\{g\in G: \prod_{k=1}^...

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### Measure of subsets of profinite groups

Let $G$ be an infinite profinite group, so $$G=\lim_{\longleftarrow}G/N$$ where $N$ runs through the open normal subgroups. I have two questions:
Is $G$ of Haar measure zero in the compact group $\...

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### Average of the maximum matrix element over the Haar measure

Let $U$ be a $d\times d$ unitary matrix, and $U_{i,j}$ be its matrix elements. I am interested in the following quantity
$$\int dU \max_j |U_{1,j}|^2 \ , $$
where $dU$ is the uniform Haar measure over ...

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### Approximating a volume along a submersion

Here is the setup. I have a submersion $f:X \to T$, where $X$ is manifold and $T$ is a torus (you can chose a circle for the beginning if it is simpler). The manifold $X$ has a volume form $\alpha$ ...