# Questions tagged [duality]

Use for questions regarding duality of mathematical object, i.e. dual spaces, objects with two possible interpretations etc.

277
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### Weak*-separability of the unit ball of $X’$ and density characters and cardinalities of $X$ and $X’$

(This question has also been asked on Math StackExchange.)
Let $X$ be a Banach space, $X’$ be its continuous dual such that its unit ball is weak*-separable. I’ve been wondering what can be said about ...

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### Complemented subspaces of a dual Banach space

Let $\kappa$ be an infinite cardinal number and by $\mathcal{B}(\kappa)$ denote the class of all Banach spaces of density $\kappa$.
My question reads as follows:
Does there exist $\kappa$ for which ...

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### Homology of complements and homotopy equivalence

Albrecht Dold gave a short proof of the Jordan-Alexander complement theorem in the following form.
Given two closed sets $A$, $B \subset {\bf R}^n$ that are homeomorphic, the singular homology groups $...

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### $BMO$ is not reflexive

It is well known that $BMO$ is the dual space of the Hardy space $H^1$, which is the dual space of $VMO$. I believe that $BMO$ is not reflexive, but I am not quite sure that the above information is ...

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### Given a compact set $K \subset \mathbb{R}^n$, is the space of distributions supported on $K$ the dual of some test function space?

I am aware that the dual of $C^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is the space of distributions (not necessarily tempered) with compact support.
However, if we fix a compact set $K \subset \mathbb{R}^n$, is the ...

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### Fixing the duality $L^\infty(X)= L^1(X)^*$ for Radon measure spaces

Consider the following fragment from Folland's book "A course in abstract harmonic analysis":
Let me denote the Borel subsets of $X$ by $\mathscr{B}(X)$. Folland claims that if $\mu$ is a ...

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### Legendre transformation of vector valued function

Good afternoon. Is there any generalisation of Legendre--Fenchel transformation to the vector-valued functions $f: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$?

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### Explicit computations of Serre duality for elliptic curves

I have an elliptic curve $E$ defined over a ring $R$, I want to compute the pairing
$$
H^1(E,\mathcal{O}_E)\times H^0(E, \Omega_E^1){\rightarrow}R.
$$
Clearly we have that $H^0(E, \Omega_E^1)=R \...

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### Duality for finite quotient groups of finitely generated free abelian groups

$\newcommand{\Z}{{\Bbb Z}}
\newcommand{\Q}{{\Bbb Q}}
\newcommand{\Hom}{{\rm Hom}}
$ The following lemma is certainly known.
Lemma (well-known).
Let $B$ be a lattice (that is, a finitely generated ...

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### Is it possible to deduce Poincaré duality from duality of polytopes?

I'm having trouble understanding Poincaré duality, as it seems unmotivated. Here for instance:
https://math.stackexchange.com/a/14469/454016
Poincaré duality is explained through a duality of ...

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### Isbell duality between algebras and sheaves

nLab says on Isbell duality, the following:
A general abstract adjunction
$(\mathcal{O} \dashv \operatorname{Spec}) : \mathrm{CoPresheaves} \leftrightarrows \mathrm{Presheaves}$
relates (higher) ...

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### Riesz representation theorem for duals of spaces of continuously differentiable functions

Let $k$ be a positive integer. I am looking for a possibly exhaustive reference discussing representation of dual spaces of $C^k_b(\mathbb{R}^d)$, $C^k_0(\mathbb{R}^d)$, or at least $C^k(K)$ for ...

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### Is the Lie bracket on $\mathfrak g^{\ast}$ induced from a cocommutator defined on $\mathfrak g\ $?

Let $G$ be a Poisson-Lie group. Let $\mathfrak g = \text {Lie} (G) = T_1 G$ be the corresponding Lie algebra. Then the Poisson structure on $G$ gives rise to a Lie bracket $[\cdot, \cdot]$ on $\...

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### Faltings' Cartier duality for A-modules in terms of Hopf algebras

$\newcommand\dual{^{\text{dual}}}\newcommand\GrpSch{\mathrm{GrpSch}}\DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom}\DeclareMathOperator\Vect{Vect}$If $G$ is a finite group scheme over a field $k$, we can define its ...

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### Finite domination and Poincaré duality spaces

Here are some definitions:
A space is homotopy finite if it is homotopy equivalent to a finite CW complex.
A space finitely dominated if it is a retract of a homotopy finite space.
A space $X$ is a ...

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### $\ast$-autonomous categories with non-invertible dualizing object?

1. Definition
Firstly, recall the following nLab-definition of a $\ast$-autonomous category:
A $\ast$-autonomous category is a symmetric closed monoidal category $(C,\otimes,I,\multimap)$ with a ...

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### Application of the $\operatorname{BMO}$, $H^1$ duality

Let $f\in \operatorname{BMO}(\partial \Delta)$, then there exists a Carleson measure $\mu$ in $\Delta$ such that
$$f(\zeta)-\int_{\Delta}P_{z}(\zeta)d\mu(z)\in L^{\infty}(\partial \Delta),\ \zeta\in\...

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### When Alexander dual of a simplicial complex is a matroid?

Let $C$ be a simplicial complex on a finite set $V$: that means $C$ is a collection of subsets of $V$ such that if $\sigma\in C$ and $\tau\subseteq \sigma$, then $\tau\in C$.
The Alexander dual $D(C)$ ...

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### Spanier-Whitehead dual of space of natural transformations

Let $F, G: \mathcal{J} \to \mathsf{Sp}$ be continuous functors between $\sf{Sp}$-enriched categories, where $\sf{Sp}$ denotes any of the point-set models for spectra (i.e., orthogonal spectra).
...

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### solution of equivalent problem Kantorovich for case squared distance function

We know that the Kantorovich duality when the cost function is the square Euclidean distance is equivalent to
$$
\inf_{(\tilde\varphi,\tilde\psi)\in \tilde\Phi_c} J(\tilde\varphi,\tilde\psi) = \sup_{\...

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### Is the polar dual of a semi-algebraic convex body also semi-algebraic?

Call a convex body $C\subset\Bbb R^n$ semi-algebraic if it can be written as
$$(*)\quad C=\bigcap_{i\in I}\, \{x\in \Bbb R^n\mid p_i(x)\le 0\}$$
with polynomials $p_i\in\Bbb R[X_1,...,X_n]$ and a ...

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### Compactness of the unit ball of a Banach space for topologies finer than the weak* topology

Let $(\mathcal{X} , \|\cdot \|_\mathcal{X})$ be a Banach space and $\mathcal{X}'$ its topological dual. We denote by $\| \cdot \|_{\mathcal{X}'}$ the dual norm and define also the topological dual $\...

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### On the Euler characteristic of a Poincaré duality space

Background. Suppose that $M$ is an oriented, connected, closed manifold of dimension $d$ with fundamental class $\mu \in H_d(M;\Bbb Z)$. Let $\Delta : M \to M \times M$ be the diagonal map. Then the ...

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### Interpreting mincost flow dual variables

Consider the task of finding flow of size $b$ with minimum possible cost.
It may be formulated as linear programming in a following way:
$$\boxed{\begin{gather}
\min\limits_{f_{ij} \in \mathbb R} &...

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### $f=0$ in $H^{-1}(\Omega)$ implies $f=0$ almost everywhere

Does $f=0$ in $H^{-1}(\Omega)=(H^1_0(\Omega))^*$ implies $f=0$ almost everywhere in $\Omega$?

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### Product-coproduct duality

Let $T$ be a set, $R$ be a ring with $1$ and $B, S_t$ be $R$-modules $\forall t \in T$
My task is to state and prove the dual to the following statement:
Given momomorphisms $j_t: S_t \rightarrow B$. ...

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### References on duality of fractional order Sobolev spaces

I would like to ask you for any good references regarding fractional order Sobolev spaces. I know Hitchhiker's guide to the fractional Sobolev spaces is a very popular one, and I found it to be quite ...

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### Transport-type duality for preduals of $C^{k,1}$-functions

Let $\Omega$ be a non-empty, simply connected, and open subset of $\mathbb{R}^d$ for some positive integer $d$. Let $k$ be a non-negative integer. Consider the Banach space $C^{k,1}_0(\Omega)$ ...

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### References: properties of $L_p$ spaces involving time and probability space

Questions are from the theory of PDEs\SPDEs
Question 1. Suppose $(V, H, V^\star)$ is a Gelfand triple (embeddings are continuous and dense, so $\|\|_H \le C \|\|_V$ for some $C>0$ etc) of ...

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### Gross-Hopkins duality

$\DeclareMathOperator\Spf{Spf}\DeclareMathOperator\Pic{Pic}\DeclareMathOperator\Mod{Mod}$One can deduce the invertibility of the Gross-Hopkins dualizing spectrum from purely algebro-geometric ...

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### Is there Sperner-type lemma where the colors are on the edges?

I am looking for Sperner-type lemmas where:
The colors are on the edges (1-dimensional simplices) - rather than on the vertices;
The target is a fully-colored vertex (a vertex adjacent to n edges of ...

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### How does Gabriel–Ulmer duality extend to (limit, colimit) sketches?

$\newcommand\Sketch{\mathit{Sketch}}\newcommand\Set{\mathit{Set}}
\DeclareMathOperator\Lim{Lim}\DeclareMathOperator\Colim{Colim}\DeclareMathOperator\Mod{Mod}\newcommand\mod{\operatorname{mod}}\...

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### Heap torsors and dual objects

Suppose that $G$ is a group and $P:G\rightarrow G$ is a permutation of $G$. We would now like to apply a forgetful functor to the algebra $(G,\cdot,P,^{-1},e)$. Whenever $g\in G$, let $gP$ be the ...

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### Dual space of Carleman functions

Let $X$ be the space of all weakly measurable functions $\gamma:\mathbb{R}^n \to L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ (modulo functions that are 0 almost everywhere) for which
$$\|\gamma\|_X^2 := \sup_{\|g\|_{L^2}=1} \...

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### Is $(K^*)^{**}=(K^{**})^*$ for any cone $K$?

I'm considering the dual cone $K^*$ of a non-convex cone $K$. I came up with a theory that $K^{**}$ is the closure of convex hull of $K$. Then I wonder whether $(K^*)^{**}=(K^{**})^*$ holds for any ...

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### Does Grothendieck duality hold without taking RHom?

I asked this very basic question about Grothendieck Duality on the Stack--exchange some time ago, without any replies.
I'm therefore asking the question here to test my luck.
Let $f:X\to Y$ be a ...

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### Confusion about the (Grothendieck–Poincaré) double dual of reflexive differentials vs usual differentials on a normal Cohen–Macaulay scheme

$\DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom}$Let $\mathcal{A}$ be an abelian category, my question is about the case when $\mathcal{A}$ is the category of quasi-coherent sheaves on a scheme $X$. There is a fully ...

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### Unifying two definitions of $L^\infty$

Let $X$ be a locally compact Hausdorff space and $\mu$ a Radon measure on $X$.
Definitions:
A subset $E\subseteq X$ is called locally Borel if $F \cap E$ is Borel for every Borel set $F\subseteq X$ ...

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### Is the Serre dualizing complex local in the analytic topology?

There is a Serre dualizing complex $S_X\in D^b Coh(X)$ for any scheme $X$ of finite type. For proper schemes, it is characterized as the sheaf defining the right adjoint to derived global sections, ...

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### Why aren‘t op and co switched?

When reading through Loregian and Riehl - Categorical notions of fibration, on p. 3 there is a remark that confuses me about notation. Given a $2$-category $\mathcal C$ one usually defines $\mathcal C^...

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### Exactness of a term after taking Pontryagin dual: a step in the proof of Poitou-Tate duality

I'm reading the proof of Poitou-Tate duality in the book Galois Cohomology and Class Field Theory by David Harari.
After some arguments, we get a exact sequence
$$
\mathbf{P}^1_S(k,M^{'})^* \...

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### Reference for free symmetric monoidal categories with duals on symmetric monoidal categories

The inclusion $U$ of the (2,1)-category of symmetric monoidal categories with duals into the (2,1)-category of symmetric monoidal categories admits a left 2-adjoint functor $L$ for formal reasons.
In ...

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### Does weak-* convergence in $W^{1,\infty}$ imply weak-* convergence in $L^\infty$?

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be open and bounded.
What does weak-* convergence for a sequence of functions $\{f_k\}_{k \in \mathbb{N}}$ in $W^{1,\infty}(\Omega)$ mean? It seems to me that there ...

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### Order of factors for unit/counit of duals

While working through Categorical quantum mechanics by Abramsky and Coecke, I noticed that their definition of the order of factors for the unit and counit of a dualizable object disagree with the one ...

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### $L_p$ estimate in mixed boundary problem for elliptic equation

Let $Q$ be convex polygon, $\Gamma$ be a portion of boundary
$\partial Q$ and $H^1_\Gamma(Q)=\lbrace u\in H^1(Q):
u|_\Gamma=0\rbrace$. For $f\in (L_2(Q))^2$ consider the problem
$$
\int_Q A(x)\nabla u ...

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### Does coercivity/supercoercivity conjugates?

According to Wikipedia, a function $f: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R} \cup \{-\infty, +\infty\}$ is called coercive if,
$$f(x) \to +\infty \text{ as } \|x\| \to +\infty$$
and it is super-coercive if
$$\...

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### Self-dual hypergraph on $\omega$

Let $H=(V,E)$ be a hypergraph. For $v\in V$ we let $v^* = \{e\in E:v\in e\}$. We define the dual of $H$ by $H^*= (E, V^*)$ where $V^* = \{v^*: v\in V\}$. We say that a $H$ is self-dual if $H \cong H^*$...

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### Reference request for a complete and formal Duality Principle in category theory

Most textbooks on category theory only sketch the meaning of the Duality Principle. But even when they do it more formally, I have only seen a version so far which concerns the language of a (single) ...

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### Does rigidity imply a unique dualizing functor?

Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a rigid, monoidal category. Can I talk about $\mathcal{C}$ as having a unique, well-defined, dualizing functor (i.e. one that maps objects and morphisms onto their respective ...

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### What are all the natural maps between iterated duals of vector spaces, and equations between these?

Fix a field. Given a vector space $V$ it has a dual $V^\ast$, which has its own dual $V^{\ast \ast}$, which has its own dual $V^{\ast \ast \ast}$, and so on ad infinitum.
There are lots of natural ...