# Questions tagged [abelian-groups]

For questions about groups whose elements commute.

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### Groups with prescribed Ulm invariants

In Kaplansky's book infinite abelian groups he provides (through some exercises) a complete classification of $p^{\infty}$-torsion countable abelian groups in terms of Ulm invariants. In other words ...

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### Descending chain in $\mathbb{Z}$ with certain confining property, but not strongly

Call a sequence $A_1 \supseteq A_2 \supseteq \cdots$ of subsets of $\mathbb{Z}$ confining if for all $i$ we have $A_i \supseteq A_{i+1}+A_{i+1}$. (Let us insist that the $A_i$ are symmetric and ...

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### A question about freeness of a certain class of abelian groups

Lets call an abelian group $G$, to be semi-free (or SF) if every nonzero subgroup of $G$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}\times H$ for some abelian group $H$.
Is every semi-free group, a free group? If ...

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### Can a non-free Whitehead group embed as a discrete subgroup of a normed space?

Every countable discrete subgroup of a normed space is isomorphic to the direct sum of the group of integers. I wonder whether it is possible to push this beyond such direct-sum (free abelian) groups ...

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### Almost free group without the Specker group as a subgroup

An Abelian group is almost free whenever every countable subgroup is free Abelian. Famously, the Specker group $\mathbf Z^{\mathbf N}$ is almost free. What are examples of almost free groups that are ...

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### Admissibility of Ulm's invariants

Let $G$ be a reduced abelian $p$-group. We set $G_0=G$. Let $\alpha$ be an ordinal. Inductively, if $\alpha=\beta+1$ is a successor ordinal, we define
$$G_{\alpha}=pG_{\beta}.$$
If $\alpha$ is a limit ...

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### A conceptual proof that bounded index subgroups of a bounded torsion abelian group contain bounded index complemented subgroups

Call an abelian group $G = (G,+)$ $m$-torsion for some natural number $m$ if one has $m \cdot x = 0$ for all $x \in G$. A subgroup $H$ of $G$ is said to be complemented if one can write $G = H \oplus ...

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### Dimension inequality for primary groups

Let $p$ be a prime number and $G$ an abelian group.
The group $G$ is said to be $\textbf{primary}$ if every element of $G$ has order power of $p$.
For every natural number $n$, we define
$$\ker(p^n)=\{...

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### Abelian characters and odd perfect numbers?

This question is about applications of abelian characters to odd perfect numbers:
Context and Definitions:
Let $n$ be a natural number and $D_n$ be the set of divisors.
We can make this set to a ring ...

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### Nonempty intersection of cosets of finite-index subgroups

$\DeclareMathOperator\lcm{lcm}$This question is crossposted from MSE.
Let $H_1,\dots,H_{n+2}$ be cosets of finite-index subgroups of $\mathbb{Z}^n$ and suppose for all $i=1,\dots,n+2$, $\bigcap_{j\neq ...

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### Invariants of primary groups

In Kaplansky's book "Infinite Abelian Groups", an abelian group $G$ is called primary if every element has order power of $p$ for some fixed prime number $p$. It is well-known that every ...

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### A general theory of pairings

Bilinear forms and bilinear maps for vector spaces over a field are standard material for an introductory course in linear algebra.
There are also text books for bilinear forms and related quadratic ...

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### (Non)complete abelian groups in the “transfinite p-adic topology”

For an abelian group $A,$ a prime $p$ and an ordinal $\alpha,$ we recursively define $p^\alpha A$ as a subgroup of $A$ such that $p^0A=A,$
$$p^{\alpha+1}A=p(p^\alpha A) \hspace{5mm} \text{and} \...

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### Possible questions about the Tate-Shafarevich subgroup of a Galois hypercohomology group?

$\newcommand{\wt}{\widetilde}$
Let $n=1,2$. There are infinite torsion abelian groups $H^1$, $H^2$ killed by some natural number $m$.
There are finite subgroups
$$ {\rm Sha}^1 \subset H^1,\quad ...

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### Trivial group cohomology induces trivial cohomology of subgroups

From the answer to another question I asked (Projective representations of a finite abelian group) and from the structure theorem of finite abelian groups it follows that if $A$ is a finite abelian ...

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### Projective representations of a finite abelian group

Projective representations of a group $G$ are classified by the second group cohomology $H^2(G,U(1))$. If $G$ is finite and abelian, it is isomorphic to the direct product of cyclic groups
$$
G\cong ...

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### Quadratic refinements of a bilinear form on finite abelian groups

$\DeclareMathOperator\Hom{Hom}$Let $A$ be a finite abelian group and $\text{Sym}(A)$ the (abelian) group of symmetric bilinear forms over $A$ valued in $\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$.
A quadratic function on ...

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### Is there a clear pattern for the degree $2n$ cohomology group of the $n$'th Eilenberg-MacLane space?

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group, and its higher classifying space is $B^nG=K(G,n)$. For $n=1$ it is well known that $H^2(B G, \mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}) \cong H^2(G,\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z})$ is isomorphic ...

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### Pontryagin dual of a group-cohomology class

Let $A, B, C$ be finite Abelian groups fitting in a short exact sequence
$$
1 \rightarrow A\overset{\iota}{\rightarrow} B\overset{\pi}{\rightarrow} C\rightarrow 1
$$
This determines a class $[\...

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### normalizer quotient is $\operatorname{GL}_2(p)$

Let $p$ be a prime and let $w$ be a primitive $p$-th root of unity in $\mathbb{C}$. There is an element $e$ of order $p$ in $G=\operatorname{PGL}_n(\mathbb{C})$ where $n=pk$ and
$$e=\left[\left(\begin{...

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### Retract of a product

Let $G$ be a retract of a product $\prod_I\mathbb{Z}$ of copies of $\mathbb Z$.
This means there are group homomorphisms $\pi:\prod_I\mathbb{Z}\to G$ and $\sigma:G\to\prod_I\mathbb Z$ such that $\pi\...

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### A map in group cohomology from $H^n(G,G^{\vee})$ to $H^{n+1}(G,U(1))$

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group and denote by $G^{\vee}=\mathrm{Hom}(G,U(1))$ its Pontryagin dual. For any positive integer $n$ one can define a homomorphism of abelian groups
$$
f:H^{n}(G,G^{\vee})\...

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### Decomposition of finite abelian groups of even order if there is an involution

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group and $\sigma :G\rightarrow G$ an automorphism of order two ($\sigma\circ \sigma =id_G$). Denote by $F$ and $A$ the subgroups of fixed and anti-fixed points of $\sigma$ ...

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### Linking form for homology with general coefficients

For integral homology groups there is the notion of linking form (http://www.map.mpim-bonn.mpg.de/Linking_form)
$$
Tor(H_{l}(X,\mathbb{Z}))\times Tor(H_{n-l-1}(X,\mathbb{Z}))\rightarrow \mathbb{Q}/\...

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### Finite abelian groups with fewer automorphisms than a subgroup

It is not too hard to find examples of finite groups which have fewer automorphisms than one of their subgroups. For example $\mathcal D_4 \times \mathbb Z/2\mathbb Z$ (where $\mathcal D_4$ is the ...

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### Conceptual proof of fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups

I'm looking for a conceptual proof of the following statement:
Lemma: Let $G$ be a finite abelian $p$-group. Let $a$ be an element of maximal order. Then $G=\langle a \rangle \times H$ for some ...

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### Is there a good notion of kernels of quadratic forms on abelian groups?

Let $G$ be an abelian group and let $q:G \to \mathbb{Q/Z}$ be a quadratic form, i.e. $q(a)=q(-a)$ and $b(x,y)=q(x+y)-q(x)-q(y)$ is a bihomomorphism. On vector spaces, when people speak about the ...

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### Is the commutator of the holomorph of generalized quaternion group abelian?

Let $Q_{2^{n}} = \langle x, y \mathrel\vert x^{2^{n-1}}=y^4 = 1, x^{2^{n-2}}=y^2, y^{-1}xy = x^{-1} \rangle$ be the generalized quaternion group of order $2^{n}$.
Let $\operatorname{Hol}(Q_{2^{n+1}})$ ...

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### Duality for finite quotient groups of finitely generated free abelian groups

$\newcommand{\Z}{{\Bbb Z}}
\newcommand{\Q}{{\Bbb Q}}
\newcommand{\Hom}{{\rm Hom}}
$ The following lemma is certainly known.
Lemma (well-known).
Let $B$ be a lattice (that is, a finitely generated ...

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### Commuting real elements in finite groups

Let $p$, $q$, $r$ be three distinct odd primes, and $G$ a finite group with $|G|$ divisible by $p$, $q$, $r$ to the first power only. Let $x,y,z \in G$ be of order $p,q,r$ respectively. Assume
(a.) $[...

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### A duality of finite groups coming from a surjective homomorphism with finite kernel of algebraic tori

$\newcommand{\Hom}{{\rm Hom}}
\newcommand{\Gm}{{{\mathbb G}_{m,{\Bbb C}}}}
\newcommand{\X}{{\sf X}}
$ I am looking for a reference for the following lemma (for which I know a proof):
Lemma.
Let $\...

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### Results from abstract algebra which look wrong (but are true)

There are many statements in abstract algebra, often asked by beginners, which are just too good to be true. For example, if $N$ is a normal subgroup of a group $G$, is $G/N$ isomorphic to a subgroup ...

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### Characteristic subgroups of a finite abelian $2$-group

I have recently stumbled across the problem of describing the characteristic subgroups of a finite abelian group. With some discussions with some mathematicians in my lab, I managed to obtain a "...

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### Existence of fully supported element in a finite-dimensional vector space over $\mathbb{F}_p$ (and in finite abelian groups)

Let $V$ be an $n$-dimensional vector space over $\mathbb{F} = \mathbb{Z} / (p)$, the field of $p$ elements, $p$ a prime, with $\{v_1, \dotsc, v_n \}$ a basis for $V$. An element $x \in V$ is called &...

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### Finding a particular kind of basis of subgroup of a lattice generated by non-negative part

For $\mathbf v=(v_1,\ldots,v_n)\in \mathbb Z^n$, let $\operatorname{supp}(\mathbf v):=\{j: v_j \ne 0\}$. For a subset $X$ of $\mathbb Z^n$, define $\operatorname{supp}(X):=\bigcup_{\mathbf v \in X} \...

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### elementary abelian subgroups with centralizers not connected

Let $G =$ PGL$_{8}(\textbf{C})$. Let $a, b, c, d$ be four representatives of conjugacy classes of involutions in $G$ where $$a = \begin{pmatrix}
-1 & 0\\
0 & I_{7}
\end{pmatrix}, b = \begin{...

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### Complemented subalgebra in a free Lie ring

A Lie ring is a triple $(G,+, [\ ,\ ]),$ where $(G,+)$ is an abelian group and $ [\ ,\ ]$ is a bilinear map satisfying
$[x,x]=0$
$[\ ,\ ]$ is bilinear
$[[x,y],z]+[[y,z],x]+[[z.x],y]=0,\ \forall\ x,...

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### Compute 01-vectors in the orbit of a given vector wrt a finitely-generated abelian subgroup of SL(n,ℤ)

Given a vector $v\in\mathbb Z^n$ and pairwise commutative matrices $M_1,\dotsc,M_k\in \operatorname{SL}(n,\mathbb Z)$, how to compute all 01-vectors in the orbit of $v$ with respect to multiplication ...

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### $A^2$ is isomorphic to $A^{(\omega)}$, but not $A$

Is there an abelian group $A$ with $A\not\cong A\oplus A\cong A\oplus A\oplus A\oplus\cdots$ (a direct sum of countably many copies of $A$)?
Edited to add: As no answers are forthcoming, does anyone ...

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### Closed form roots for polynomial $x^9 + ax^6 + bx^5 + cx^3 + d = 0$

I know about Abel–Ruffini theorem, but I have a polynomial of special form. From "Beyond the Quartic Equation" by R.B. King (a very interesting book, btw) I've learned about Tschirnhaus ...

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### $N_{G}(E)/C_{G}(E)$ is the Weyl group of $G$?

In the algebraic group $G = \operatorname{PGL}_4(\mathbb{C})$, let $E$ denote the subgroup of elements of order dividing 2 in the diagonal maximal torus; it is generated by the images of the three ...

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### Finite-exponent abelian groups

Let $G$ be an abelian group and $G=\bigoplus_{i=1}^t{{\Bbb{Z}}_{p_i}^{n_i}}^{(\Lambda_i)}$ where each $\Lambda_i$ is a set (at least one of $\Lambda_i$ is infinite). Since $G_{\Bbb{Z}}$ is a finite-...

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### Eigenvalue function of the representation variety of free abelian group

$\DeclareMathOperator\SL{SL}$Let $\rho:\mathbb Z^n\rightarrow \SL(n,\mathbb C)$ be a representation of a finitely generated free abelian group, by simultaneously triangularization, we can assume that $...

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### countable direct sum of cyclic abelian $p^{2}$ groups

Let $G={{\Bbb{Z}}_{p^{2}}}^{(\aleph)}$ (countable direct sum of copies of ${\Bbb{Z}}_{p^2}$). It is clear that every subgroup of $G$ is a homomorphic image of $G$. Now this is my question:
Is it true ...

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### Why does the category of abelian groups satisfy the axiom AB6?

In his Tohoku article, Grothendieck says that the category $\mathbf{Ab}$ of abelian groups satisfies the axiom AB6, namely
"All small colimits exist in $\mathbf{Ab}$. Moreover for any index ...

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### How far is a countably infinite reduced abelian $p$-group from being an infinite direct sum?

Question Let $G$ be a countably infinite reduced abelian $p$-group. Is it always possible to write it has an infinite direct sums of non-trivial groups? If it is not true, how far is $G$ from being an ...

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### Element of order $p$ and finite height $\geq1$ in a reduced abelian group $p$-group with an element of order $p^2$

This is a reference request for the following statement:
Fact:
Let $G$ be a reduced abelian $p$-group with an element of order $p^2$. Then $G$ contains an element of order $p$ and of finite height at ...

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### Groupoid cardinality of the class of abelian p-groups

$\DeclareMathOperator\Aut{Aut}\newcommand\card[1]{\lvert#1\rvert}$So, after going over the classification of finite abelian groups in a class I was teaching this winter, I got curious about whether it ...

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### Number of orbits for abelian group actions

Suppose $G$ is an abelian group acting faithfully on two sets, $X$ and $Y$, of the same size. None of $G$, $X$ and $Y$ is finite.
Now suppose $G$ is the union of abelian groups $G_i$, where $i$ varies ...

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### Any abelian Lie subgroup containes a connected Lie subgroup of codimension 1 [closed]

I am trying to understand the proof of the following claim (see A.L. Onishchik, E.B. Vinberg (Eds.) Lie Groups and Lie Algebras III, p.50, Theorem 3.1).
Theorem 3.1 (ii) If the Lie group $G$ is ...