# Questions tagged [divisors-multiples]

For questions on divisors and multiples, mainly but not exclusively of integers, and related and derived notions such as sums of divisors, perfect numbers and so on.

234
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### Closed form expression for this zeta-like series involving GCD and LCM

I am looking for a closed form for this function $\Lambda:\mathbb{Q}^+\to\mathbb{R}^+$:
$$\Lambda(q) = \sum_{m,n\geq 1}\left(\frac{q\wedge\frac{m}{n}}{q\vee\frac{m}{n}}\right)^\alpha\left(\frac{m \...

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2
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### Square roots and prime numbers

Definitions:
Here I present a novel conjecture using basic mathematical tools like the sum of the
divisors of an integer $n$ called $\sigma(n)$, the sum of the squares of the positive divisors of n ...

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1
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### Minimum value of a function involving the divisor counting function

Fix any positive integer $n\in\mathbb{Z}^+,$ and consider the function $f_n : \mathbb{Z}^+\setminus\{n\}\to\mathbb{Z}^+$ given by $$f_n(t)=\sigma_0(n)+\sigma_0(t)-2\sigma_0(\gcd(n, t)),$$ where $\...

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### When does $2$ arise when using the Euclidean algorithm to compute greatest common divisors?

When using the standard Euclidean algorithm to compute the greatest common divisor of a pair of relatively prime positive integers, the integer $2$ sometimes arises and sometimes does not. For example,...

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### Is $N - \varphi(N)$ a square, if $N = q^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $q$?

This question was inspired by this MSE question.
In MSE, it is shown that
$$n - \varphi(n) = (2^{p-1})^2$$
if $n = {2^{p-1}}(2^p - 1)$ is an even perfect number.
Here is my question in this post:
Is $...

2
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1
answer

184
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### Exponential sums involving smooth truncated divisor functions

Let $p$ be a prime, $a \neq 0$ an integer, let $M,N \gg 1$ and let $\psi,\eta$ be some fixed Schwartz functions. Would you know of any references in the literature where upper bounds for sums such as
$...

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### If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, then $p^k < 2am$ for some positive integer $a < m$ [closed]

(Preamble: Andy Putman asserts, in the comments, that MO policy prohibits "requests to check completeness of proofs". I have therefore trimmed down my original question to the bare ...

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### If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, then must $m^2 - p^k = s^2 - t^2$ hold for some $s$ and $t$?

My present question is as is in the title:
If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, then must $m^2 - p^k = s^2 - t^2$ hold for some $s$ and $t$?
It is known that $m^2 - p^k$ is ...

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### If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, is it possible to have $p = k$?

Denote the classical sum of divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\sigma(x)=\sigma_1(x)$.
My question is as is in the title:
If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, is it ...

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### Power of primes

$n$ is a natural number $>1$, $\varphi(n)$ denotes the Euler's totient function, $P_n$ is the $n^\text{th}$ prime number and $\sigma(n)$ is the sum of the divisors of $n$. Consider the expression:
$...

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671
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### Number of divisors which are at most $n$

I’m interested in the function $\tau_n:\mathbb{N}\to\{1,2,3,\cdots, n\}$ defined by
$$\tau_n(x)=\sum_{k=1}^n \mathbf{1}_{k\mid x},$$
the number of divisors of $x$ which are at most $n$. Question 6 of ...

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409
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### On a GCD approach to odd perfect numbers

Let $N = p^k m^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $p$ satisfying $p \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(p,m)=1$. Let $\sigma(z)$ denote the classical sum of divisors of the positive ...

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1
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### What can be said about $\gcd(N/q^{\alpha},\sigma(N/q^{\alpha}))$ where $N$ is an odd perfect number and $q^{\alpha} \parallel N$?

What can be said about the quantity $$\gcd(N/q^{\alpha},\sigma(N/q^{\alpha}))$$ where $N$ is an odd perfect number and $q^{\alpha} \parallel N$? In particular, can one prove that it is always greater ...

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### Representation of a number as a product of $\sqrt{n^2 + 1} + n$

Question. Do there exist two multisets $A, B$ consisting of positive integer numbers such that $|A|$ and $|B|$ have different parity and
$$
\prod_{n\in A}(n + \sqrt{n^2 + 1}) = \prod_{m\in B}(m + \...

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0
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### Mysterious recursion for the A005225

Let $a(n)$ be A005225 i.e. number of permutations of length $n$ with equal cycles. Here
$$
a(n)=n!\sum\limits_{d|n}\frac{1}{d!(\frac{n}{d})^d}
$$
Let
$$
R(n,q,z)=(q+1)R(n-1,q+1,z)+\sum\limits_{j=0}^{q}...

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### Are there infinite numbers of the form $\sigma_1(n)=\sigma_1(m)=p$, or is there only one?

I put forward a hypothesis in number theory, it is as follows.$ \sigma_1(n)=\sigma_1(m)=p$, where $\sigma_1$ is the divisor sum function, $n,m\in \mathbb N$, and $p$ is prime. I recently noticed and ...

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### Exponential sum of $k$-fold divisor function

Can anyone point me to a reference for the main term when approximating the exponential sum of the 3-fold divisor function? Specifically I want the main term in $$\sum _{n\leq x}d_3(n)e\left (an/q\...

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2
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### Bounds of heights of coefficients of rational polynomials

For a non zero rational $r=p/q$ ($p,q\in\mathbb Z$ coprimes), define the height of $r$ by $\mathrm{ht}(r)=\max(|p|,|q|)$ (by convention $\mathrm{ht}(0)=0$). For a polynomial $P\in\mathbb Q[X]$, define ...

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### Convolution sum of divisor functions

Let $\sigma_0(n)$ be the divisor counting function
$$\sigma_0(n) = \sum_{d \vert n} 1.$$
I'm interested in the convolution sum
$$ S(n) := \sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \sigma_0(k) \sigma_0(n-k)$$
I ran some quick ...

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### Is the divisor counting function equidistributed mod $p$?

Let $\sigma_0(n)$ be the divisor counting function:
$$\sigma_0(n) = \sum_{d \vert n} 1.$$
I ran some numerical experiments that showed when $p$ is prime, the function $\sigma_0(n)$ is equidistributed ...

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0
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### On "Euclidean" odd perfect numbers

In what follows, we let $N = r^s u^2$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, i.e. $r$ is the special prime satisfying $r \equiv s \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(r,u)=1$. In this preprint, ...

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### On Carmichael function and aliquot parts of odd perfect numbers

I've asked nine months ago this question on Mathematics Stack Exchange with identifier 4430381 and same title. There is not answer for this question on Mathematics Stack Exchange, I wondered if this ...

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### On the OEIS sequence A327265

The OEIS sequence https://oeis.org/A327265 starts:
$$1, 2, 5, 11, 19, 31, 51, 89, 123, 151, 179, 181, 180, 365, 634, 657, 656, 655.$$
$\mathrm{A327265}(n)$ is the smallest $k$ such that $\mathrm{...

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### Given that $H = \frac{n^2}{\sigma(q^k)/2} = G \times J^2$, where $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number, then what is the value of $\gcd(G, J)$?

Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$ satisfying $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,n)=1$. Denote the classical sum of divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\...

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### Divisor of given order in short intervals

Is the following Open question or Conjecture already known, or eventually settled ?
Open question : For sufficiently large $x$ there is at least a positive integer in the interval $[x,x+\log^2(x)]$ ...

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### Divisibility of Stirling numbers

It is well known that if $p$ is prime, Stirling numbers of the first and second kind, $s_1(p,k)$ and $s_2(p,k)$, are divisible by $p$ if $1<k\le p-1$ (Lagrange ; easiest is working in $\mathbb F_p$ ...

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### Greatest common divisors of some binomial coefficients

This is cross-posted from math.stackexchange.
While making some computation, I stumbled upon a curious relation among some binomial coefficients.
Consider the sequence of binomial coefficients $a(k,n)$...

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194
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### When an element of a ring that is divisible by a finite set of elements is necessarily divisible by their product?

In a commutative ring $R$, when does the assumption $r_i\mid r$ for $1\le i\le n$ imply $\prod_{1\le i\le n} r_i\mid r$ (when $r_i$ are fixed)?
Does there exist any criterion for this implication that ...

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### Divisibility relation with a specific sum of divisors

Let $\sigma(n)$ be the sum of the divisors of $n$. Is it always true that if $n$ is odd, that $$n\mid\sum_{k=1}^{\frac{n-1}{2}}k^2\sigma(k)\sigma(n-k)?$$
I have checked this up to $n=100$, and I ...

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### Shapiro inequality for divisor sets

The Shapiro inequality is the statement that if $x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n$ are positive, with $x_{n+1}=x_1, x_{n+2}=x_2$, then $$\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{x_i}{x_{i+1}+x_{i+2}} \geq \frac{n}{2}.$$ This can be ...

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### Divisibility chains and polynomials

Let $P\in \Bbb{Z}[X]$ be a polynomial with degree $d>1$.
It is conjectured that for all such $P$, their range for integer inputs $R_P:=P(\Bbb{Z})$ has finite intersection with the set of factorials ...

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449
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### On the diophantine equation $x^{m-1}(x+1)=y^{n-1}(y+1)$ with $x>y$, over integers greater or equal than two

I've asked two years ago a post on Mathematics Stack Exchange, were provided two excellent answers. I'm asking on MathOverflow in the hope that some professor can to expand/improve (if it is possible) ...

4
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1
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### Maximal number of divisors of numbers whose sum does not exceed $n$

Denote by $f(n)$ the maximal number of distinct divisors of $k$ integer numbers $1\leq a_1<a_2<\ldots<a_k\leq n$, where $k$ is not fixed and $a_1+\ldots+a_k\leq n$. I'm interested in the ...

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### Arithmetic billiards, prime numbers and the Goldbach conjecture

I've edited the following post on Mathematics Stack Exchange, (now closed, at that date I'm suspended) with identifier 4510963, please let me to know if you've some doubt or I can improve the post.
On ...

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1
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### Number of distinct near-squares primes dividing an odd perfect number

I'm curious about if the following question is in the literature or what work can be done about it.
Denote the number of distinct primes dividing an odd perfect number $N$ with the arithmetic function ...

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1
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### If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, then under what other conditions on $\sigma(p^k)/2$ does $k=1$ follow?

Let $N = p^k m^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $p$ satisfying $p \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(p,m)=1$.
Descartes (1638), Frenicle (1657), and subsequently [Sorli (2003) - ...

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### A diophantine equation inspired in a conjecture due to Gica and Luca, example of a large Mersenne exponent

In this post I consider the equation $$k\cdot x=y^2+z^2(x^2-2)-2\tag{1}$$
over odd integers $y\geq 1$ and $z\geq 1$, and over integers $k\geq 1$ and very large Mersenne exponents $x$ such that $x^2-2$ ...

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### Small covering of divisors

Let $D_n$ be the set of divisors of $n$.
Does there always exists a $B\subseteq D_n$ such that $D_n = \{\gcd(ab,n) \mid a\leq \sqrt{n}, b\in B\}$ and $\sum_{b\in B} \frac{n}{b}=O(n)$?

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### A conjecture concerning the equation $\sigma\left(\square\right)=\text{prime}$

I can deduce the following simple proposition, the definitions for $\sigma(x)$ the sum of divisors functions and $\varphi(x)$ the Euler totient function are assumed. After I present a conjecture that ...

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0
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### A definition related to pseudoprimes and the Dedekind psi function

In this post we consider that $\psi(k)$ denotes the Dedekind psi function. Wikipedia has an artcle dedicated to this arithmetic function Dedekind psi function defined for a positive integers $m>1$ ...

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### Around the equation $\sigma\left(\square\right)=\text{prime}$: counterexamples or a proof for some of these conjectures

For integers $A,B\geq 1$ we define the difference $\sigma(A)\sigma(B)-\sigma(AB)$, denoting it as $[A,B]$, where $\sigma(n)=\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d$ denotes the sum of divisors function. It is possible ...

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### Analogue of Fermat's little theorem for Bernoulli numbers

Is the following analogue of Fermat's Little Theorem for Bernoulli numbers true?
Let $D_{2n}$ be the denominator of $\frac{B_{2n}}{4n}$ where $B_n$ is
the $n$-th Bernoulli number. If $\gcd(a, D_{2n}) ...

2
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0
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### How to compute/estimate the least $k$ such that there exist $n$ consecutive integers each having a prime factor $\le k$?

Let $a_n$ be the least integer $k$ such that there exist $n$ consecutive integers each with a prime factor $\le k$. For example, $a_{13} \le 11$ because the 13 consecutive integers $114,115,\ldots,126$...

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### Does this Theorem 2 from Dandapat et al. imply that $\gcd(\sigma(p^k),\sigma(a^2)) > 1$?

Write the odd perfect number $m=p^k a^2$ as a product of primes
$$m = p^k {p_1}^{2a_1} \cdots {p_v}^{2a_v}.$$
(Note that it is known that $v \geq 9$ by work of Nielsen.) Let $N(m)$ be the number of ...

3
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2
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### Help with R. Ryan's "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy Index."

I'm reading Richard Ryan's article "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy index" and got stuck in his proof for Theorem 2. The Theorem is stated as follows:
Suppose we have a ...

2
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1
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164
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### Estermann's argument for the binary additive divisor problem

In the paper https://eudml.org/doc/149759 an estimate for the binary additive divisor problem is given with a power saving. I don't get the main bit of the argument - I'm obviously missing something.
...

3
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0
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### The binary additive divisor problem in arithmetic progressions

I find quite a few results about the binary additive divisor problem, that is evaluating
\[ \sum _{n\leq x}d(n)d(n+h)\]
for certain ranges of $h$.
Are there any known results about the same count ...

3
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0
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### Estimating from below positive moments of "clipped" divisor function on subsets of $\{1,2,\ldots,x\}$ with positive density

The question here about estimating positive moments of the divisor function on sets of nonzero density $A\subset \{1,2,\ldots,x\}$ was answered giving
$$
S_a(x):=\sum_{n \in A} d(n)^a \geq |A|(\ln x)^{...

5
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### Analogue of the second Hardy-Littlewood conjecture for numbers of divisors?

Let $f(n)$ denote the proposition "There exists some $k>1$ such that
$$
\sum_{m=k}^{k+n-1}\tau(m) < \sum_{m=1}^n\tau(m)
$$
where $\tau(m)$ is the number of the divisors of $m$." (This ...

1
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0
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299
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### About inequalities that involve the sum of divisors, the Euler's totient and the aliquot part $\sigma(n)-n$

In this post, for integers $n\geq 1$, I denote the sum of divisors $\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d$ as $\sigma(n)$ and the Euler's totient function as $\varphi(n)$. It's easy to check* that if we assume that $...