# Questions tagged [divisors-multiples]

For questions on divisors and multiples, mainly but not exclusively of integers, and related and derived notions such as sums of divisors, perfect numbers and so on.

220
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167
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### Representation of a number as a product of $\sqrt{n^2 + 1} + n$

Question. Do there exist two multisets $A, B$ consisting of positive integer numbers such that $|A|$ and $|B|$ have different parity and
$$
\prod_{n\in A}(n + \sqrt{n^2 + 1}) = \prod_{m\in B}(m + \...

1
vote

0
answers

98
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### Mysterious recursion for the A005225

Let $a(n)$ be A005225 i.e. number of permutations of length $n$ with equal cycles. Here
$$
a(n)=n!\sum\limits_{d|n}\frac{1}{d!(\frac{n}{d})^d}
$$
Let
$$
R(n,q,z)=(q+1)R(n-1,q+1,z)+\sum\limits_{j=0}^{q}...

2
votes

0
answers

107
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### Exponential sum of $k$-fold divisor function

Can anyone point me to a reference for the main term when approximating the exponential sum of the 3-fold divisor function? Specifically I want the main term in $$\sum _{n\leq x}d_3(n)e\left (an/q\...

2
votes

2
answers

207
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### Bounds of heights of coefficients of rational polynomials

For a non zero rational $r=p/q$ ($p,q\in\mathbb Z$ coprimes), define the height of $r$ by $\mathrm{ht}(r)=\max(|p|,|q|)$ (by convention $\mathrm{ht}(0)=0$). For a polynomial $P\in\mathbb Q[X]$, define ...

6
votes

1
answer

472
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### Convolution sum of divisor functions

Let $\sigma_0(n)$ be the divisor counting function
$$\sigma_0(n) = \sum_{d \vert n} 1.$$
I'm interested in the convolution sum
$$ S(n) := \sum_{k=1}^{n-1} \sigma_0(k) \sigma_0(n-k)$$
I ran some quick ...

9
votes

1
answer

450
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### Is the divisor counting function equidistributed mod $p$?

Let $\sigma_0(n)$ be the divisor counting function:
$$\sigma_0(n) = \sum_{d \vert n} 1.$$
I ran some numerical experiments that showed when $p$ is prime, the function $\sigma_0(n)$ is equidistributed ...

0
votes

0
answers

148
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### On "Euclidean" odd perfect numbers

In what follows, we let $N = r^s u^2$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, i.e. $r$ is the special prime satisfying $r \equiv s \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(r,u)=1$. In this preprint, ...

3
votes

0
answers

66
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### On Carmichael function and aliquot parts of odd perfect numbers

I've asked nine months ago this question on Mathematics Stack Exchange with identifier 4430381 and same title. There is not answer for this question on Mathematics Stack Exchange, I wondered if this ...

2
votes

1
answer

917
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### On the OEIS sequence A327265

The OEIS sequence https://oeis.org/A327265 starts:
$$1, 2, 5, 11, 19, 31, 51, 89, 123, 151, 179, 181, 180, 365, 634, 657, 656, 655.$$
$\mathrm{A327265}(n)$ is the smallest $k$ such that $\mathrm{...

-1
votes

1
answer

99
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### Given that $H = \frac{n^2}{\sigma(q^k)/2} = G \times J^2$, where $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number, then what is the value of $\gcd(G, J)$?

Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$ satisfying $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,n)=1$. Denote the classical sum of divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\...

0
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0
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31
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### '$r$-prime factor number' distribution centering an '$l$-prime factor number'

Let '$k$-prime factor integer' $n$ be an integer of form
$$2^t\prod_{i=1}^{k'} p_i^{e_i}$$
where $1\leq k'\leq k$ and at every $i\in\{1,\dots,k\}$ $p_i$ is a distinct odd prime and $e_i\in\mathbb Z_{&...

3
votes

0
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58
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### Divisor of given order in short intervals

Is the following Open question or Conjecture already known, or eventually settled ?
Open question : For sufficiently large $x$ there is at least a positive integer in the interval $[x,x+\log^2(x)]$ ...

4
votes

2
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346
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### Divisibility of Stirling numbers

It is well known that if $p$ is prime, Stirling numbers of the first and second kind, $s_1(p,k)$ and $s_2(p,k)$, are divisible by $p$ if $1<k\le p-1$ (Lagrange ; easiest is working in $\mathbb F_p$ ...

4
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0
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### Greatest common divisors of some binomial coefficients

This is cross-posted from math.stackexchange.
While making some computation, I stumbled upon a curious relation among some binomial coefficients.
Consider the sequence of binomial coefficients $a(k,n)$...

1
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2
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190
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### When an element of a ring that is divisible by a finite set of elements is necessarily divisible by their product?

In a commutative ring $R$, when does the assumption $r_i\mid r$ for $1\le i\le n$ imply $\prod_{1\le i\le n} r_i\mid r$ (when $r_i$ are fixed)?
Does there exist any criterion for this implication that ...

3
votes

1
answer

182
views

### Divisibility relation with a specific sum of divisors

Let $\sigma(n)$ be the sum of the divisors of $n$. Is it always true that if $n$ is odd, that $$n\mid\sum_{k=1}^{\frac{n-1}{2}}k^2\sigma(k)\sigma(n-k)?$$
I have checked this up to $n=100$, and I ...

1
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0
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### Shapiro inequality for divisor sets

The Shapiro inequality is the statement that if $x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n$ are positive, with $x_{n+1}=x_1, x_{n+2}=x_2$, then $$\sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{x_i}{x_{i+1}+x_{i+2}} \geq \frac{n}{2}.$$ This can be ...

8
votes

1
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253
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### Divisibility chains and polynomials

Let $P\in \Bbb{Z}[X]$ be a polynomial with degree $d>1$.
It is conjectured that for all such $P$, their range for integer inputs $R_P:=P(\Bbb{Z})$ has finite intersection with the set of factorials ...

4
votes

4
answers

406
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### On the diophantine equation $x^{m-1}(x+1)=y^{n-1}(y+1)$ with $x>y$, over integers greater or equal than two

I've asked two years ago a post on Mathematics Stack Exchange, were provided two excellent answers. I'm asking on MathOverflow in the hope that some professor can to expand/improve (if it is possible) ...

3
votes

1
answer

114
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### Maximal number of divisors of numbers whose sum does not exceed $n$

Denote by $f(n)$ the maximal number of distinct divisors of $k$ integer numbers $1\leq a_1<a_2<\ldots<a_k\leq n$, where $k$ is not fixed and $a_1+\ldots+a_k\leq n$. I'm interested in the ...

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votes

1
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449
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### Arithmetic billiards, prime numbers and the Goldbach conjecture

I've edited the following post on Mathematics Stack Exchange, (now closed, at that date I'm suspended) with identifier 4510963, please let me to know if you've some doubt or I can improve the post.
On ...

1
vote

1
answer

122
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### Number of distinct near-squares primes dividing an odd perfect number

I'm curious about if the following question is in the literature or what work can be done about it.
Denote the number of distinct primes dividing an odd perfect number $N$ with the arithmetic function ...

0
votes

1
answer

182
views

### If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, then under what other conditions on $\sigma(p^k)/2$ does $k=1$ follow?

Let $N = p^k m^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $p$ satisfying $p \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(p,m)=1$.
Descartes (1638), Frenicle (1657), and subsequently [Sorli (2003) - ...

3
votes

1
answer

190
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### A diophantine equation inspired in a conjecture due to Gica and Luca, example of a large Mersenne exponent

In this post I consider the equation $$k\cdot x=y^2+z^2(x^2-2)-2\tag{1}$$
over odd integers $y\geq 1$ and $z\geq 1$, and over integers $k\geq 1$ and very large Mersenne exponents $x$ such that $x^2-2$ ...

5
votes

1
answer

180
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### Small covering of divisors

Let $D_n$ be the set of divisors of $n$.
Does there always exists a $B\subseteq D_n$ such that $D_n = \{\gcd(ab,n) \mid a\leq \sqrt{n}, b\in B\}$ and $\sum_{b\in B} \frac{n}{b}=O(n)$?

2
votes

1
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303
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### A conjecture concerning the equation $\sigma\left(\square\right)=\text{prime}$

I can deduce the following simple proposition, the definitions for $\sigma(x)$ the sum of divisors functions and $\varphi(x)$ the Euler totient function are assumed. After I present a conjecture that ...

1
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0
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128
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### A definition related to pseudoprimes and the Dedekind psi function

In this post we consider that $\psi(k)$ denotes the Dedekind psi function. Wikipedia has an artcle dedicated to this arithmetic function Dedekind psi function defined for a positive integers $m>1$ ...

4
votes

1
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237
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### Around the equation $\sigma\left(\square\right)=\text{prime}$: counterexamples or a proof for some of these conjectures

For integers $A,B\geq 1$ we define the difference $\sigma(A)\sigma(B)-\sigma(AB)$, denoting it as $[A,B]$, where $\sigma(n)=\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d$ denotes the sum of divisors function. It is possible ...

2
votes

1
answer

289
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### Analogue of Fermat's little theorem for Bernoulli numbers

Is the following analogue of Fermat's Little Theorem for Bernoulli numbers true?
Let $D_{2n}$ be the denominator of $\frac{B_{2n}}{4n}$ where $B_n$ is
the $n$-th Bernoulli number. If $\gcd(a, D_{2n}) ...

2
votes

0
answers

104
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### How to compute/estimate the least $k$ such that there exist $n$ consecutive integers each having a prime factor $\le k$?

Let $a_n$ be the least integer $k$ such that there exist $n$ consecutive integers each with a prime factor $\le k$. For example, $a_{13} \le 11$ because the 13 consecutive integers $114,115,\ldots,126$...

3
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0
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### Does this Theorem 2 from Dandapat et al. imply that $\gcd(\sigma(p^k),\sigma(a^2)) > 1$?

Write the odd perfect number $m=p^k a^2$ as a product of primes
$$m = p^k {p_1}^{2a_1} \cdots {p_v}^{2a_v}.$$
(Note that it is known that $v \geq 9$ by work of Nielsen.) Let $N(m)$ be the number of ...

3
votes

2
answers

220
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### Help with R. Ryan's "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy Index."

I'm reading Richard Ryan's article "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy index" and got stuck in his proof for Theorem 2. The Theorem is stated as follows:
Suppose we have a ...

2
votes

0
answers

78
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### Estermann's argument for the binary additive divisor problem

In the paper https://eudml.org/doc/149759 an estimate for the binary additive divisor problem is given with a power saving. I don't get the main bit of the argument - I'm obviously missing something.
...

3
votes

0
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166
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### The binary additive divisor problem in arithmetic progressions

I find quite a few results about the binary additive divisor problem, that is evaluating
\[ \sum _{n\leq x}d(n)d(n+h)\]
for certain ranges of $h$.
Are there any known results about the same count ...

3
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0
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### Estimating from below positive moments of "clipped" divisor function on subsets of $\{1,2,\ldots,x\}$ with positive density

The question here about estimating positive moments of the divisor function on sets of nonzero density $A\subset \{1,2,\ldots,x\}$ was answered giving
$$
S_a(x):=\sum_{n \in A} d(n)^a \geq |A|(\ln x)^{...

5
votes

1
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253
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### Analogue of the second Hardy-Littlewood conjecture for numbers of divisors?

Let $f(n)$ denote the proposition "There exists some $k>1$ such that
$$
\sum_{m=k}^{k+n-1}\tau(m) < \sum_{m=1}^n\tau(m)
$$
where $\tau(m)$ is the number of the divisors of $m$." (This ...

1
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0
answers

272
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### About inequalities that involve the sum of divisors, the Euler's totient and the aliquot part $\sigma(n)-n$

In this post, for integers $n\geq 1$, I denote the sum of divisors $\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d$ as $\sigma(n)$ and the Euler's totient function as $\varphi(n)$. It's easy to check* that if we assume that $...

2
votes

2
answers

467
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### On odd perfect numbers $p^k m^2$ with special prime $p$ satisfying $m^2 - p^k = 2^r t$ - Part II

(Preamble: We have asked this same question in MSE two weeks ago, without getting any answers. We have therefore cross-posted it to MO, hoping that it gets answered here.)
The topic of odd perfect ...

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0
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104
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### On improving the upper bound $I(m^2) \leq \frac{2p}{p+1}$, if $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$

(Preamble: This question is an offshoot of this answer to an MSE question with the same title.)
Denote the classical sum of the divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\sigma(x)=\sigma_1(x)$ and the ...

2
votes

1
answer

709
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### Does $n \mid \sigma(n^2)$, if $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number?

Let $\sigma(x)=\sigma_1(x)$ be the classical sum of divisors of the positive integer $x$.
It is known that
$$\gcd(\sigma(q^k),\sigma(n^2))=\frac{\bigg(\gcd(n,\sigma(n^2))\bigg)^2}{\gcd(n^2,\sigma(n^2))...

1
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1
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309
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### On odd perfect numbers and a GCD - Part III

Let $m = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$ satisfying $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,n)=1$.
It is known that
$$\gcd(\sigma(q^k),\sigma(n^2)) = \frac{(\gcd(n,\sigma(n^...

0
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0
answers

137
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### A diophantine equation involving partial sums of exponentials similar than the equation in Fermat's Last Theorem

I'm curious about the following diophantine equation from my invention: I don't know if this is in the literature, I wrote it using creativity in an attempt to write a variant of the equation in ...

3
votes

1
answer

261
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### Behavior of biggest prime divisor of $n$ as $n$ grows large

Let $P\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ be the set of primes, and for any integer $n>1$ let $L(n) = \max\{p \in P: p \mid n\}$ be the largest prime divisor of $n$. Moreover, for $n \in \mathbb{N}$ with $n>1$...

14
votes

2
answers

792
views

### How many divisors of $n$ are below $n^{1/3}$?

I am trying to bound a function that includes $\sum\limits_{\substack{d < n^{1/3} \\ d \mid n}} 1$.
Is there an upper bound known for this sum, either in general or in terms of $\sum\limits_{\...

0
votes

1
answer

164
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### Proportionality constant in Montgomery-Vaughan Theorem 7.20

In Multiplicative Number Theory - Vol. I by Montgomery and Vaughan the following result is proved.
Theorem 7.20 Let $A(x,r)$ denote the number of $n\leq x$ such that $\Omega(n)\leq r \log \log x,$ and ...

5
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0
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131
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### A modern reference for the Piltz divisor problem

apparently, the Dirichlet hyperbola method is no longer up-to-date, and instead Voronoi's identity is used in order to establish good bounds on the Dirichlet divisor problem.
The same applies to the ...

1
vote

0
answers

90
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### Lower bound on a Truncated Divisor Sum

Let $d(n)$ be the number of divisors function, i.e., $d(n)=\sum_{k\mid n} 1$ of the positive integer $n$.
I am interested in estimating, the following sum
$$
A(a,x)=\sum_{n\leq x} \min[ d(n), M]^a
$$
...

6
votes

1
answer

296
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### Factors of polynomials of bounded height

Let $f(x)=a_nx^n+\cdots+a_0 \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be an integer polynomial in one variable. Recall that the height $H(f):=\textrm{max}\,|a_n|$ is the largest coefficient. Consider the set of polynomials ...

2
votes

1
answer

335
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### On odd perfect numbers $q^k n^2$ satisfying $n^2 - q^k = 2^r t$

Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$, satisfying
$$n^2 - q^k = 2^r t$$
where $r \geq 2$ and $\gcd(2,t)=1$.
We could prove that:
(1) $2^r t > 2n$. (We can modestly ...

1
vote

2
answers

365
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### Finding all proper divisors of $a_3z^3 +a_2z^2 +a_1z+1$ of the form $xz+1$

Let $n=a_3z^3+a_2z^2+a_1z+1$ where $a_1<z, \ a_2<z, \ 1 \le a_3<z, z>1$ are non negative integers. To obtain proper divisors of $n$ of the form $xz+1$, one may perform trial divisions $xz+...