# Questions tagged [induction]

The induction tag has no usage guidance.

42
questions

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### Generalizations of classical tiling problem

A classic problem using an inductive construction is to show that the $2^n \times 2^n$-square, with a missing corner, can be tiled with L-triominoes.
The proof goes like this:
It is true for $n=1$, ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

125 views

### Limit of alternated row and column normalizations

Let $E_0$ be a matrix with non-negative entries.
Given $E_n$, we apply the following two operations in sequence to produce $E_{n+1}$.
A. Divide every entry by the sum of all entries in its column (...

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votes

**1**answer

132 views

### Models of arithmetical theory R + induction in which successor is not injective

Consider the arithmetical theory sometimes denoted by $\mathsf{R}$. The non-logical vocabulary of $\mathsf{R}$ consists of '$0$', '$S$', '$+$' and '$\times$'. The axioms of this theory are all true ...

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**1**answer

169 views

### An iterative argument involving $f(n + 1) - f(n) $

I am working with an argument involving an inequality of the form:
$$ f(n + 1) \leq f(n) + C (f(n))^{1 - \frac{1}{\gamma}} \qquad(\ast)$$
where $f$ is a positive function, $\gamma > 0$ and $C >...

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281 views

### (Types of) induction on infinite chains

This question may be trivial, or overly optimistic. I do not know (but I guess the latter...). I am a group theorist by trade, and the set-up I describe cropped up in something I want to prove. So ...

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**1**answer

156 views

### Why restrict to $\Sigma_1^0$ formulas in $RCA_0$ induction?

I recently asked this question over on math.se, warmly welcomed by crickets. I hope it's appropriate here.
I'm reading Stillwell's Reverse Mathematics, and the induction axiom was just introduced.
...

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**1**answer

2k views

### Is There an Induction-Free Proof of the 'Be The Leader' Lemma?

This lemma is used in the context of online convex optimisation. It is sometimes called the 'Be the Leader Lemma'.
Lemma:
Suppose $f_1,f_2,\ldots,f_N$ are real valued functions with the same ...

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423 views

### Cases where multiple induction steps are provably required

I am looking for references for theorems of the form:
1) Any proof of theorem $X$ requires $n$ applications of induction axioms
and especially
2) Any proof of theorem $X$ requires $n$ nested ...

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**2**answers

153 views

### Are Regularity schema and $\in$-induction schema equivalent in intuitionistic logic?

In posting "Does Regularity schema imply $\in$-induction when added to first order Zermelo set theor?"
the answer was that they are equivalent in classical first order logic with membership "$\in$".
...

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207 views

### Does Regularity schema imply $\in$-induction when added to first order Zermelo set theory?

That $\in$-induction fails to be a theorem schema of first order Zermelo + Foundation (see here), then it appears that it is more eligible to replace axiom of Regularity (Foundation) by a Regularity ...

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**1**answer

290 views

### Is $\in$-induction provable in first order Zermelo set theory?

Are there models of first order Zermelo set theory (axiomatized by: Extensionaity, Foundation, empty set, pairing, set union, power, Separation, infinity) in which $\in$-induction fail?
I asked this ...

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**2**answers

234 views

### How to estimate a recursive inequality with an upper bound

The below is a simplification of part of a proof I'm working on, in numerical analysis. It is similar to a paper that I studied some months ago, for which I got some advice here on MathOverflow.
I ...

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**1**answer

208 views

### Independent/Easy fraction of sentences over PA

Let $S(n)$ be the set of all sentences over PA of length at most $n$ (counting the quantifier symbols, boolean connectives, arithmetic operations and constants, and counting each variable as length $1$...

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**1**answer

251 views

### Towers of induced functions

Suppose $\mathbb{X}$ and $\mathbb{Y}$ are classes, and $f:\mathbb{X}\rightarrow\mathbb{Y}$. It seems like pretty standard course to consider an 'induced function' $f:\mathcal{P}\mathbb{X}\rightarrow\...

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135 views

### Proving the existence of a sequence with recursive growth constraints

Fix $0 < c < 1/3$. Show that there exists a strictly increasing sequence $a_k > 0$, a sequence $b_k \geq 0$, and an infinite set $K \subseteq \mathbb{Z}_{>0}$ such that
\begin{align}\...

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**4**answers

511 views

### Mathematical induction vis-a-vis primes

One of the most used proof-techniques is mathematical induction, and one of the oldest subjects is the study of prime numbers. Thanks to Euclid, we can consider the primes as a infinite monotone ...

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398 views

### Inductive Definitions in Category Theory

I'm trying to pin down a notion of inductive definability in category-theoretic terms.
The sorts of inductively defined sets (and classes) I'm most interested in are those that admit of induction and ...

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**0**answers

394 views

### When must one strengthen one's induction hypothesis?

My questions are about the phenomenon that in order to prove a fact $\forall x \phi(x)$ by induction, sometimes straightforward induction "does not work" and instead one "must" use a "stronger" ...

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**5**answers

2k views

### Is Cauchy induction used for proofs other than for AM–GM?

The proof by Cauchy induction of the arithmetic/geometric-mean inequality is well known. I am looking for a further theorem whose proof is much neater by this method than otherwise.

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278 views

### Affine analog of the theory of sheets

In the study of adjoint orbits in a complex semi-simple lie algebra, there is a well known object known as a "sheet". These are the irreducible components of the union of orbits of the same dimension. ...

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116 views

### Problem with a proof in Wellfounded trees in categories

I'm reading the paper Wellfounded trees in categories by Moerdijk and Palmgren. I'm having trouble understanding the proof of Theorem 7.2 (page 216), i.e. that in $\mathbf{ML}_{< \omega} \mathbf{W}$...

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62 views

### A curious example envolving moment's convergence

Let $\{X_n\}$ be a random variable sequence and $X\sim N(0,\sigma)$. In general, the convergence $E(X_n^k) \stackrel{n}{\longrightarrow}E(X^k)$ doesn't implie that $E(X_n^{k+1}) \stackrel{n}{\...

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505 views

### Two (strictly related) proofs by induction of inequalities

This is a question I originally asked on MSE, receiving no answer, even with a bounty (which expired) on it. Therefore I am crosslinking in order to prevent duplication of effort: see here for the ...

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### Unconventional types of induction

Induction is one of the most common tools is mathematics, and everybody knows the ordinary induction and the strong induction. However, in some proofs induction is applied in an unexpected and elegant ...

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529 views

### notable inductive proofs relating to fractals

what are notable/ prominent inductive proofs relating to fractals?
the motivation for this question is:
fractals are very difficult mathematical objects to work with, and many problems/questions ...

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votes

**2**answers

836 views

### Neither Even Nor Odd Natural Numbers

Modular arithmetic (MA) has the same axioms as first order Peano arithmetic (PA) except $\forall x(Sx \neq 0)$ is replaced with $\exists x(Sx=0)$. In Even XOR Odd Infinities? I asked if this statement ...

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**3**answers

4k views

### the following inequality is true，but I can't prove it

The inequality is
\begin{equation*}
\sum_{k=1}^{2d}\left(1-\frac{1}{2d+2-k}\right)\frac{d^k}{k!}>e^d\left(1-\frac{1}{d}\right)
\end{equation*}
for all integer $d\geq 1$. I use computer to verify ...

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votes

**1**answer

654 views

### ERA, PRA, PA, transfinite induction and equivalences

I'm quite sure I don't understand very well the links between proof theoretical ordinals of theories, the axioms of transfinite induction and the objects a theory can prove to exist.
For instance I'm ...

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3k views

### Why Does Induction Prove Multiplication is Commutative?

Andrew Boucher's General Arithmetic (GA2) is a weak sub-theory of second order Peano Axioms (PA2). GA has second order induction and a single successor axiom:
$$\forall x \forall y \forall z\bigr((Sx=...

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**4**answers

1k views

### Examples of “exotic” induction

Next week I am going to teach two lessons on induction to very motivated students from high schools. At some point I would like to talk about ordered sets, well-ordered sets, and mention the fact that ...

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2k views

### Homotopy Transfer Theorem for Differential Graded Associative Algebras

As in Algebra+Homotopy=Operad by Bruno Vallette, let $A$ with multiplication $\nu$ be a differential graded associative algebra equipped with degree +1 map $h$ and let $H$ be a chain complex such that ...

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**0**answers

135 views

### Coinduction and corestriction are quasi-inverse equivalences for comodules?

I'm reading http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0310337.
There the following statement is given without proof:
Let $k$ be a field. Let $C$ be a counitary coaugmented coalgebra, i.e. there is $\eta: C\to k$ ...

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**1**answer

776 views

### Maximum sum of 3 consecutive numbers in a permutation [closed]

Given that $X = \{0, 1, 2, ..., 7, 8, 9\}$, and $P$ is a permutation on $X$. Let $M(P)$ be the maximum sum of 3 consecutive elements. For example, if $P = (0, 2, 4, 1, 5, 7, 9, 3, 8, 6)$, then $M(P)$ ...

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896 views

### Order statistics (e.g., minimum) of infinite collection of chi-square variates?

Hi everyone,
This is my first time here, so please let me know if I can clarify my question in any way (incl. formatting, tags, etc.). (And hopefully I can edit later!) I tried to find references, ...

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8k views

### Is PA consistent? do we know it?

1) (By Goedel's) One can not prove, in PA, a formula that can be interpreted to express the consistency of PA. (Hopefully I said it right. Specialists correct me, please).
2) There are proofs (...

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**3**answers

2k views

### Easier induction proofs by changing the parameter

When performing induction on say a graph $G=(V,E)$, one has many choices for the induction parameter (e.g. $|V|, |E|$, or $|V|+|E|$). Often, it does not matter what choice one makes because the proof ...

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**1**answer

414 views

### For which classes of functions this inverse function formula gives a closed form expression?

Lets consider this method of finding inverse function:
$$f^{-1}(x) = \sum_{k=0}^\infty A_k(x) \frac{(x-f(x))^k}{k!}$$
where coefficients $A_k(x)$ recursively defined as
$$\begin{cases} A_0(x)=x \\ ...

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**2**answers

2k views

### How to restore the original formula from a binomial-like expansion?

I encountered with a recursive formula of the following kind:
$$A(0,x)=1$$
$$A(n,x)= \sum _{j=0}^{n-1} \binom{n-1}{j} A(n-j-1,x) \sum _{k=0}^{x-1} A(j,k)$$
The sum terms can be re-arranged so to ...

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**1**answer

797 views

### Symmetric Proof that Product is Well-Founded

This is a fairly minor, technical question, but I'll toss it out in case someone has a good idea on it.
Suppose $(X,<_X)$ and $(Y,<_Y)$ are well-founded orderings (not necessarily linearly ...

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**4**answers

3k views

### A principle of mathematical induction for partially ordered sets with infima?

Recently I learned that there is a useful analogue of mathematical induction over $\mathbb{R}$ (more precisely, over intervals of the form $[a,\infty)$ or $[a,b]$). It turns out that this is an old ...

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24k views

### Induction vs. Strong Induction

Is there ever a practical difference between the notions induction and strong induction?
Edit: More to the point, does anything change if we take strong induction rather than induction in the Peano ...

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**6**answers

4k views

### Proofs by induction [closed]

Background
I'm interested in the issue of "explanatory" mathematical proofs and would like to try to find out what intuitions mathematicians have about induction, because there seems to be some ...