# Questions tagged [combinatorics-on-words]

A branch of combinatorics that focuses on the study of words and formal languages

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### $V$-like actions of $V$

This continues my question about prefix-continuous bijections (since the answer was "yes"). Notation and conventions: Let $A$ be a finite alphabet and $L \subset A^*$ a language. Let $G$ be a group. ...
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### Words and ranks

Let me state two problems that look very much alike. The first one can be solved putting together answers that different people have given to some questions I asked here a few weeks ago. The second ...
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### Subshifts with a free semigroup

Let $X$ be a subshift on a finite alphabet. I'm interested in the following property: there exist words $s,t\in\mathcal L(X)$ (the language of $X$) such that $\{s,t\}^*\subset \mathcal L(X)$. That is, ...
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### Latent Dirichlet Allocation on Contrived Data

I am doing a project that seems like it might be susceptible to Latent Dirichlet Allocation. However, my data is highly contrived (both in test cases and use cases) and my "words" don't come close to ...
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### Words with Local plus Global Constraints

While doing estimates on the complexity of an algorithm I have run into a word-combinatorial problem with both a local and a global constraint. This seems to be a rather general situation and I'm ...
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### Counting triple-free sequences

The Thue-Morse sequence is a triple-free element $(a_i)\in\{0,1\}^\mathbb{N}$ which can be constructed by iterating the transformations $0\to 01$ and $1\to 10$ starting from $0$. The beginning of the ...
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### Terminology for set of infinite strings with a certain prefix

Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a finite alphabet, and let $C$ be the Cantor space $\mathcal{A}^\omega$ under the product topology. Given a finite string $s \in \mathcal{A}^*$, let $C(s)$ be the set of all ...
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### Strings with no long runs from proper subalphabets

Let $R_{n,k,b}$ be the number of $b$-ary strings of length $n$ that contain some run of length at least $k$ from some $(b-1)$-ary subalphabet. Let $N_{n,k,b}=b^n-R_{n,k,b}$ be the size of the ...
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### Three-halves-free words (analogous to square-free)

A square-free word is a string of symbols (a "word") that avoids the pattern $XX$, where $X$ is any consecutive sequence of symbols in the string. For alphabets of two symbols, the longest square-free ...
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### Combinatorics of palindromic decompositions

This is sort of a companion to my question Number of trivializations of a trivial word in the free group (which in turn is motivated by my earlier question here). It turns out that that question may ...
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### Number of trivializations of a trivial word in the free group

Let $M$ be the free monoid on $2n$ generators $x_1,X_1,...,x_n,X_n$ and consider the set $T$ of all those elements of $M$ which map to 1 of the free group on $x_1,...,x_n$ under the homomorphism $\pi$ ...
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### Word complexity of primes mod 4

For an infinite binary word $w$, the word complexity $f_w(n)$ is defined as the number of different subwords of length $n$. The asymptotic behavior of this function is an important parameter of the ...
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### Combinatorics problem involving counting the number of certain substrings

I'm not sure if this question is suited for MO, but it does seem quite challenging to me, and is required for a research problem in chemistry I'm working on. I did try getting help from elsewhere (...
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### Is it possible to create an infinite sequence in which no subsequence is repeated 3 times in a row?

In Chess, there is the Threefold Repetition rule where if a sequence of moves is repeated 3 times in a row, either player can claim a draw. Say two players wanted to play a legal, infinite game of ...
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### “Nyldon words”: understanding a class of words factorizing the free monoid increasingly

BACKGROUND. Let me first introduce some classical definitions, which appear, e.g., in §5 of Lothaire's Combinatorics on Words, in §5.1 of Reutenauer's Free Lie algebras, and in §6.1 of Victor Reiner'...
It is a classical problem that of finding the generating function (GF) of the number of strings with length $n$ having $m$ different letters (basically, the problem reduces to that of writing the ...