# Questions tagged [formal-languages]

The study of formal languages (sets of strings or trees over an alphabet), rewriting systems and algorithms, recognition automata/algorithms, and related questions.

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### Are 100% of statements undecidable, in Gödel's numbering? [duplicate]

Gödel's incompleteness theorem shows that there are undecidable statements, i.e., formal logical claims which neither have proofs nor disproofs. In doing so, Gödel famously enumerated all well-formed ...
93 views

### Are semilinear sets piecewise periodic?

I wanted to check my understanding of semilinear sets before I give a talk on them, and I haven't been able to find this exact perspective in any of the sources I've read through. Is it correct, and ...
1 vote
31 views

### The set of closed untyped $\lambda$-terms is not context-free?

The set of untyped $\lambda$-terms is obviously context-free. But, according to Barendregt's paper Discriminating coded lambda terms (six lines before Theorem 1.5), the set of closed untyped $\lambda$...
44 views

### A particular generalization of free partially commutative monoids

A trace monoid, or free partially commutative monoid, is one with the presentation $\langle \Sigma \mid a_1b_1 = b_1a_1, \dots, a_nb_n = b_na_n\rangle$. The theory of trace monoids has been well ...
146 views

### Corollaries of Kleene's Theorem (Regular Languages)

Kleene's theorem that finite automata (specifically, nondeterministic) are expressively equivalent to regular expressions seems to be a powerful and not immediately obvious tool for untangling the ...
91 views

### String rewrite system for algebraic knots/links?

$\newcommand\over{\vert}\newcommand\rot{\mathopen<#1\mathclose>}$By its definition, an algebraic tangle, and by extension, its closure (knot or link) can be written as a string (of ...
284 views

### Conversion of proofs between HoTT and ZFC

HoTT provides a foundation of math that remains mysterious for many mathematicians including me. Hence this question. There are several implementations of math based on ZFC, an example being MetaMath. ...
53 views

### Polynomial-time algorithm for uniformly sampling the $n$-slice of a context-free language

Let $L\subset \Sigma^*$ be a context-free language. The $n$-slice is the intersection $L\cap \Sigma^n$ for a non-negative integer $n$. Is there a polynomial-time algorithm for uniformly sampling from ...
91 views

### Name for the theory of words with equal length, prefix, successors

I've worked with this theory for a while, but I've never been quite sure what to call it: $$(\Sigma^*, =_{el}, \preceq, (S_a)_{a \in \Sigma})$$ Where $\Sigma^*$ is the set of finite words on finite ...
94 views

### Empty context-sensitive language independent of ZFC?

Is there a simple context-sensitive grammar $G$ such that $L(G)=\emptyset$ is independent of ZFC? $L(G)$ is the formal language generated by $G$.
109 views

### Algorithms to factorize words into product of powers

I came across this problem, which I guess is well known to combinatorialists of words, so I write here to see if someone can help me with some references. Let $A$ be a finite set of symbols, are there ...
125 views

320 views

### Is equality of formulas with floor rounding or integer division decidable?

As far as I know, formulae involving rationals and basic arithmetic ($+$, $-$, $\cdot$ and $/$) have decidable equality. Is this still the case if we add floor rounding (or integer division)? Define ...
183 views

### Does the fixed point lemma / diagonalization require capturing or not?

Peter Smith's formulation of the diagonalization lemma is essentially as follows, from Theorem 47 of his (fantastic) online book: If theory T extends Robinson Arithmetic, and P is an one-place open ...
1 vote
198 views

### Is it possible to construct a formal language that allows to refer to specific real numbers that encode ordinals accidentally writable by an ITTM?

Let $A$ denote a particular (fixed) algorithm to encode ordinals as real numbers. The exact technical description of $A$ is irrelevant for this question: it can be any algorithm that is mathematically ...
2k views

### Formalizations of the idea that something is a function of something else?

I'll state my questions upfront and attempt to motivate/explain them afterwards. Q1: Is there a direct way of expressing the relation "$y$ is a function of $x$" inside set theory? More ...
1 vote
148 views

### Errors in Waksman's Solution to Cellular Automaton Firing Squad Problem?

Recently, a student and I have been working through Waksman's paper An Optimum Solution to the Firing Squad Synchronization Problem.'' The paper claims that for any value of $n$, the proposed ...
65 views

### For synchronizing eulerian finite state machines every proper subset of states has some larger state set leads to this subset

Suppose we have a deterministic complete finite automaton which is synchronized, meaning we have a reset word, i.e. a word which resets the automaton to a definite state, regardless from which state ...
832 views

### Representing mathematical statements as SAT instances

The following problem (call it THEOREMS) belongs to class NP. Input: Mathematical statement $S$ (written in some formal system such as ZFC) and positive integer $n$ written in unary. Output: "Yes" if ...
259 views

### How can I catalog these generalized Collatz problems?

The Collatz conjecture can be expressed in terms of a ruleset in the language $\{x,+,1,\rightarrow,;\}$: $x + x + 1 \rightarrow x+x+x+1+1;$ $x + x \rightarrow x;$ Whenever a number matches the LHS ...
73 views

### Transformation or correspondence between language and real number

As we know, formal language can be regarded as a set of strings of alphabet, and real number can be regarded as sequence generated by set of integers, for example, denominators of the simple continued ...
1 vote
228 views

### What does homomorphism between languages mean to the correspoding Turing Machines?

According to the article: every c.e.language over $\Sigma^*$can be formed by homomorphism from a Dyck language over $\Sigma^{'}$ intersection with a minimal linear language over $\Sigma^{'}$ to the ...
184 views

### Alternative notation for Kleene star

I am writing a paper which use two different operations on sets of works $X$, both of which I want to denote by a star, $X^{\ast}$. One of these operations is the Kleene star, and for whatever reason ...
382 views

### Can ETCC/ETCS talk about 'size issues'?

In material set theories (like ZFC), one can prove that there is no set of all sets. Can one prove a similar statement in ETCS? This exact statement "there is no set x such that y in x for every set y"...
435 views

### Topology induced by context-free language

Is there any way to reasonably define a topology on a context-free-language language? In other words, given a context-free grammar (or perhaps a grammar from an interesting subclass of context-free ...
2k views

### What exactly is a judgement?

Before formulating my question, let me briefly sum up what I know about the topic (feel free to correct me if something I claimed is false!). This is for you good to see what my state of knowledge is, ... 386 views

### What do we call this quantifier ("binder")?

There's a quantifier ("binder", whatever), call it $\alpha$, defined as follows: $\alpha x.\tau$ is the (usually infinite) expression obtained by applying the substitution $\{x \mapsto \tau\}$ to the ...
479 views

### Neighbourhood of a word and Levenshtein distance

The Levenshtein distance or Edit distance $$lev(U,V)$$ between two strings $U$ and $V$ over a finite alphabet $\Sigma$ of size $\left| \Sigma \right| = \sigma ,$ is the minimal number of insertions,...
387 views

### Computing the ordinal of a rational language well-partially-ordered by the subword relation

Let $\Sigma$ be a finite set or "alphabet", $\Sigma^*$ the free monoid on $\Sigma$ or set of "words". If $w,w'\in \Sigma^*$, write $w\leq w'$ when $w$ is a "subword" of $w'$, i.e., can be obtained by ...
299 views

### Reference request: exponential growth rates of subword-closed languages are integers

For a language $L$ over the finite alphabet $\Sigma$, let $L_n$ denote the set of words in $L$ of length $n$. The word $u$ is a subword of $w$ if $u$ can be obtained from $w$ by deleting letters (...
599 views

### Coherence and rewriting

In category theory there are numerous coherence theorems (https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/coherence+theorem). One example is the Mac Lane's coherence theorem for monoidal categories. This and probably ...
844 views

### How to get $\omega$-regular expression from buchi automaton

Is there an algorithm or a trick on how to get $\omega$-regular expressions from Buchi automatons? If yes, is there also some way to do create minimal such regular expressions? It is extremely ...
268 views

### Deterministic Finite Automata question [closed]

I am very new to finite automata, and I came across an issue in my professors lecture slides which I think is wrong, and I'd wonder if any of you could confirm: Alphabet: {1} Automata Surely the ...
192 views

### Is the positive existential theory undecidable?

Could you tell if the positive existential theory of $\mathbb{C}[e^{\mu x} \mid \mu \in \mathbb{C}]$ is undecidable in the language $\{+, \cdot , \frac{d}{dx} , 0, 1, e^x\}$ ? How can we prove the (...
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### Is there a Ladner's Theorem" for the PH-vs-PSPACE scenario?

Like a statement of the kind, If the Polynomial Hierarchy (PH) $\neq$ PSPACE then there exists $L \in PSPACE \backslash PH$ which is not PSPACE-complete"? Or is there something else that states ...
204 views

### Is this variant of the balanced bracket language context free?

Consider the language generated by the following context free grammar: $$S \to SS \quad S \to () \quad S \to (S) \quad S \to [] \quad S \to [S]$$ There is a one-to-one correspondence between this ...
101 views

### Counting path generating sentences in a specific formal language

Given a formal grammar of a language or an Turing machine of the language, can we count the path that generating sentences of the language? For example, we know that if the grammar is context-free ...