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Questions tagged [free-groups]

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9
votes
2answers
446 views

A question on the fundamental group of a compact orientable surface of genus >1

Let $G=\pi(X,x)$ be the fundamental group of a compact orientable surface of genus $g\ge 2$. It is well known that a presentation of $G$ is $$G=\langle x_1,y_1,\dots,x_g,y_g \ | \ [x_1,y_1]\cdots [x_g,...
11
votes
1answer
386 views

Is there a name of semidirect product of a group with its automorphism group?

Consider the construction $G \rtimes \text{Aut}(G)$. Here $ G$ is a group, $\text{Aut}(G)$ is the automorphism group and the semidirect product is over the most obvious action. 1) Is there any name ...
2
votes
0answers
95 views

Projective G-group

Let $G$ be a fixed group. Can there be projective $G$-groups which are not free $G$-groups? If yes, for which groups $G$ it happens? By a "projective $G$-group", I mean a projective object in the ...
5
votes
1answer
176 views

Nielsen-Schreier with operations

The Nielsen-Schreier theorem states that subgroups of a free subgroup are free. Is this hold also for groups with operations? Explicitly, let $G$ be a fixed group. Let $F$ be a group with $G$-action ...
12
votes
1answer
225 views

Equivalence of surjections from a surface group to a free group

Let $g \geq 2$. Let $S = \langle a_1,b_2,...,a_g,b_g | [a_1,b_1] \cdots [a_g,b_g] \rangle$ be the fundamental group of a genus $g$ surface and let $F_g$ be a free group with $g$ generators. Given ...
6
votes
4answers
525 views

What is a geodesic in Outer space?

The Culler-Vogtmann Outer space $\text{CV}_n$ is an analogue of Teichmuller space for the group $\text{Out}(F_n)$. Is there any notion of a geodesic path in $\text{CV}_n$? Are there different ...
4
votes
1answer
174 views

Database subgroups of free group

Is there some database that contains "all" low-index normal subgroups of the free group on two generators? Extension: does there exist such a GAP-database? Thank you!
6
votes
0answers
97 views

Localizations of group algebras of free groups

$\newcommand{\QQ}{\Bbb Q}$ Let $G$ be a free group on the symbols $x_1, \dots, x_n$, with $\QQ[G]$ its rational group algebra. Write $\varepsilon: \QQ[G] \to \QQ$ for the augmentation, and for $\...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

Dense abstract free subgroups in a free profinite group

Let $\langle a, b \rangle = F_2$ be a two-generator free group and $\hat{F_2}$ be its profinite completion. Is there an element $c\in \hat{F_2}$ such that $\langle a, b, c\rangle \le \hat{F_2}$ is ...
5
votes
1answer
235 views

$\operatorname{Out}(F_n)$ is not linear for $n > 3$

The paper The Tits alternative for $\operatorname{Out}(F_n)$ I by Bestvina, Feighn and Handel and the paper Automorphisms of free groups and Outer space by Vogtmann both state that $\operatorname{Aut}(...
9
votes
1answer
366 views

The Tits alternative for $\operatorname{Out}(F_n)$

Not sure if this is the right place to ask this, but the paper I am reading seems to be too specialised for mathstack (if you do not agree, pleas let me know and I will take down this question) I am ...
8
votes
2answers
236 views

Equations in free groups satisfying all elements

please help me to solve the following problem. Let $F$ be a non-abelian free group and $w(x)=1$ be an equation in one variable $x$ ($w(x)$ may contain elements of $F$ as constants). Clearly, one can ...
6
votes
1answer
314 views

An algorithm determining whether two subgroups of a finitely generated free group are automorphic

In the book Lyndon, Schupp, Combinatorial Group Theory, P.30 in the edition from 2000 They mention an unpublished work by Waldhausen that is said to give an algorithm to determine whether two ...
5
votes
1answer
183 views

Relation between commutator length and stable commutator length in free groups

In Bardakov, Algebra and Logic, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2000 I have found the following (page 225, see https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02681648) We pronounce tile validity of the following: ...
8
votes
2answers
334 views

An endomorphism of free groups

So you have a free group $F_n$, freely generated by $\alpha_1 \cdots \alpha_n$. Pick any $n$ elements $g_1 \cdots g_n$ and define an endomorphism $\psi$ of $F_n$ by $\psi(\alpha_i) = g_i^{-1}\...
2
votes
0answers
176 views

Is a matrix group free?

Let two matrices $P = \begin{pmatrix} 0 & 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \end{pmatrix}$ and $S = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ -1 & 1 & 1 \...
11
votes
1answer
250 views

“Bisecting” a free subgroup with respect to word length

My broad question is regarding the lengths of (reduced) words in a subgroup of a free group. As motivation, consider the free group $Gp(S)$ where $|S|=n$, that is, a free group of rank $n$. Let $S=\{...
7
votes
3answers
301 views

growth of a free group automorphism is same for finite index subgroups?

Let $X=\{x_1,\dots,x_N\}$ and $F=F(X)$ be a free group generated by $X$. Let $\phi\colon F\to F$ be an automorphism of $F$. Define a growth function of $\phi$ as: $$ \operatorname{gr}_{\phi,X}(n)=\...
3
votes
1answer
101 views

Maximal power in a sequence of iterated commutators in the rank two free group

I have the following problem: in the free group $F_2=\langle a,b\rangle$, we define the sequence $\begin{cases} w_0=a, \\ w_1=b, \\ w_{n+2}=[w_{n+1},w_{n}] & \text{for }n\ge 0. \end{cases}$ So $...
9
votes
1answer
140 views

Detecting/Characterising positive elements in free groups

Let $X$ be a set, and let $F(X)$ be the free group generated by $X$. I will say that an element of $F(X)$ is positive if it is in the monoid generated by all the conjugates in $F(X)$ of every member ...
2
votes
0answers
118 views

Concentration of Reduced words

This might be a rather broad question, and I'll be satisfied with some intuition and pointers to relevant literature. However, I'll certainly fill in more context and details based on any feedback. ...
4
votes
1answer
226 views

Finite index subgroups of a RAAG

Let $G$ be the group given by the presentation $$\langle x,y,z,w \ | \ xy = yx, yz = zy, zw = wz\rangle.$$ This is a right-angled Artin group (RAAG) whose graph is a path on $4$ vertices. We can ...
2
votes
2answers
263 views

Subgroup of a free group that is characteristic but not totally characteristic

Looking for a counter example (if it exists) and a reference for further reading. Can there be a subgroup of finite index in a finitely generated free group that is characteristic but not totally ...
7
votes
0answers
140 views

Structure constants of Lyndon-Shirshov basis of the free Lie ring

Let $X$ be an alphabet, ${\sf Lyn}$ be the set of Lyndon words on $X$ and $L$ be the free Lie ring on $X.$ For $w\in {\sf Lyn}$ we denote by $[w]$ the corresponding element of the Lyndon-Shirshov ...
2
votes
0answers
78 views

Automorphisms of a free topological product

Let $G$, $G_1$, $G_2$ be Hausdorff topological groups. I am mainly interested in the case when those groups are profinite. Let $G$ act continuously on $G_1$ and $G_2$ via continuous automorphisms, i.e....
4
votes
0answers
91 views

Do the “Nielsen” IA-automorphisms of a profinite free group $\widehat{F}$ of rank 2 form a normal subgroup of $\mathrm{Aut}(\widehat{F})$?

Let $F$ be the discrete free group of rank 2, and let $\widehat{F}$ be its profinite completion, equipped with an embedding $$i : F\hookrightarrow\widehat{F}$$ By a result of Asada, this embedding ...
9
votes
1answer
436 views

Normal closures of finitely generated subgroups of a free group

Is it true that for every finitelty generated subgroup $H$ of infinite index in a free group $F$ on the two letters $\{x,y\}$, there exists a finite index subgroup $K$ of $H$, such that the normal ...
13
votes
2answers
299 views

Free groups and free restricted Lie algebras

If $G$ is any group and $\gamma_k(G)$ denotes the $k$th term in the lower central series of $G$, then the commutator bracket on $G$ endows $$\mathcal{L}(G) = \bigoplus_{k=1}^{\infty} \gamma_k(G) / \...
7
votes
2answers
612 views

Is there a useful limit or co-limit of a diagram that has only a single object?

I'm starting to study category theory kind of informally and everytime I read about the definitions of limits and co-limits, the first three examples are always the same: terminal/initial objects, ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Under what condition can any $X\in GL_2(R)$ be reduced to a triangular matrix?

Suppose $R$ is a (possibly noncommutative) ring. I was thinking of $R=S[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ or $R=S[x_1,x_1^{-1},\ldots,x_n,x_n^{-1}]$ for $S$ some (possibly noncommutative) ring. Now, let $GL_2(R)$ be ...
3
votes
2answers
203 views

Free subgroup of a quotient

Let $F$ be a free group on $x,y,z$. Fix $n>1$ (I am ready to assume that $n$ is large enough). Let $\mathcal{W}$ be the set of cyclically reduced words $w$ in $F$ where the letter $z$ appears at ...
14
votes
2answers
719 views

A result of Schützenberger on commutators and powers in free groups

It is an old result of Schützenberger that in a free group, a basic commutator cannot be a proper power. A look at the original reference M.-P. Schützenberger, Sur l'équation $a^{2+n} = b^{2+m}c^{2+p}...
1
vote
2answers
164 views

Examples of IF-groups

I have seen that several authors say that an infinite group $G$ is an IF-group (or has the IF-property) if every subgroup of infinite index in $G$ is free (for instance, see https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607....
0
votes
0answers
100 views

specific qi on free groups

Let $F_n$ be the free group on $n$ generators, $n>1$. If $\phi$ is a quasi-isometry (or a bijective bilipschitz equivalence) on $F_n$, then what can we say about the explicit form of $\phi$? In ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Free algebras on sets of different cardinality - for what theories are they non-isomorphic?

Following the case of groups, I asked in this MSE question for a quick proof that given a free-forgetful adjunction $F\dashv U$ for some algebraic theory, we have $X\not\cong Y\implies FX\not\cong FY$....
5
votes
0answers
138 views

free subgroups of $SL_2(\mathbb{Z[i]})$

The group $SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ contains many free subgroups, for example all of the principal congruence subgroups for $n\geq 3$ and the subgroup $\left\langle \left(\begin{array}{cc} 1 & 2\\ 0 &...
4
votes
2answers
255 views

Is the mapping torus of an automorphism of a free group virtually an amalgamated product?

Let $F$ be a nonabelian finitely generated free group, let $\tau \in \mathrm{Aut}(F)$ be an element of infinite order, and set $G = F \rtimes \mathbb{Z}$, where the action of $\mathbb{Z}$ on $F$ is ...
10
votes
1answer
341 views

The set of subgroups of $F_2$

This question came up in our algebraic topology class and our Professor didn't know the answer. I also couldn't find an answer so far. What is the cardinality of the set of subgroups of $F_2$? ...
6
votes
2answers
210 views

Finding an “optimal” quotient in a free group

Consider the abelian free group $G = \mathbf{Z}^n$ of rank $n$ and a finite subset $A \subset G \setminus \{0\}$. Since $G$ is residually finite, there is a subgroup $H \subset G$ such that $A \cap H =...
4
votes
1answer
252 views

finitely presented subgroup and free solvable group of class 3

Let $F(n)$ be free group of rank $n\geq 2$. Denote by $F_d(n)$ the d-th derived subgroup, that is $F_d(n)=[F_{d-1}(n),F_{d-1}(n)]$ where $F_0(n)=F(n)$. The free solvable group of rank $n$ and ...
4
votes
1answer
118 views

Genericity of irreducible automorphisms of free groups

I have seen in the literature that Irreducible outer automorphisms of a free group $F_n$ are "generic". I would like to ask that if for example : it is true that for any generating set $X$ of $Out(...
3
votes
1answer
170 views

Wild automorphisms of profinite groups

Is there a profinite group $G$, a continuous automorphism $\alpha$ of $G$ and a topologically finitely generated closed subgroup $H \leq G$ such that $\alpha(H) \lneq H$ ? Note that if an example ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

Fully residually free groups and completion

Let $G$ be a fully residually free group with a finitely generated profinite completion. Is $G$ necessarily finitely generated?
6
votes
0answers
218 views

Wild automorphisms of a free group

Let $F_X$ be a free group on a countably infinite set $X$. Let $\alpha$ be an automorphism of $F_X$ and $H$ a closed subgroup of $F_X$ in the profinite topology. Is it possible that $\alpha(H) \...
2
votes
0answers
120 views

Rank gradient in free products amalgamating a finite subgroup

Let $A,B$ be finitely generated groups with a common finite subgroup $C$. Suppose that $[A : C] > 2, [B : C] > 1$. Must $A *_C B$ have positive rank gradient? See Which 3-manifolds have ...
2
votes
0answers
104 views

Salvaging Howson's theorem for free profinite groups

This is an attempt to find a correct version of Do free profinite groups satisfy Howson's theorem? Let $F$ be a free profinite group, and let $A,B \leq F$ be closed finitely generated subgroups ...
9
votes
3answers
356 views

Integer matrix that does not belong to a free group of rank 2

I'm given two matrices in $SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ $$ A = \left(\begin{array}{cc} 2 & 3\\ 3 & 5 \end{array}\right), \ \ B = \left(\begin{array}{cc} 5 & 3\\ 3 &...
4
votes
0answers
129 views

Example of “exotic” verbal subgroups of free groups

This will be an ambiguous question. I am interested in various examples that appear in the literature of verbal subgroups of free groups, but which are not part of the "classical examples" like ...
4
votes
2answers
223 views

On the Magnus Representation of Free Metabelian Group

Let $F=\langle x_1,x_2\rangle$ be a free group of rank $2$ and $\Phi=F/F''=\langle \overline{x}_1, \overline{x}_2\rangle$ where $F''$ is second derived subgroup of $F$ (i.e. $F'=[F,F]$ and $F''=[F',F']...
9
votes
1answer
270 views

Automorphism groups for free groups with action

Let $A$ be a (finitely generated) free group and $G$ be a (finitely generated) free $A$-group - that is, a group with an action of $A$, which is free in the category of groups with an $A$-action. ...