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Test words in free profinite groups

Let $G$ be a group. An element $g \in G$ is said to be a test element if any endomorphism $\phi$ of $G$ such that $\phi(g) = g$ is an automorphism. The free group $F_2$ of rank $2$ is generated by $...
Shri's user avatar
  • 355
4 votes
1 answer
299 views

Extending primitive systems in free groups

It is a version of a question I asked on Math.StackExchange (no answers yet). Suppose $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n,b$ is a primitive system in a non-abelian free group $F$ (a part of a basis of $F$). Let $c \...
user524124's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
513 views

Shortest almost trivial element of free group [duplicate]

Let $F_n$ be the free group with $n$ generators $\gamma_1,\dots,\gamma_n$. Consider the homomorphisms $h_i\colon F_n\to F_{n-1}$ defined by adding the relation $\gamma_i=1$ in $F_n$. What is the ...
Anton Petrunin's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
549 views

Can automorphism equivalence in a free group be detected in a nilpotent quotient?

If $G$ is a group and $g_1, g_2 \in G$ let us write $g_1 \sim g_2$ if there is an automorphism $\alpha \in \operatorname{Aut}(G)$ such that $g_1^\alpha = g_2$. Let $F = F_2$ be the free group on two ...
Sean Eberhard's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
523 views

Generators for the first cohomology of free groups

Let $F = \langle x_1, \dots, x_n \rangle$ be the free group on $n$ generators and $R = \mathbb Z$. The Fox derivatives $\frac{\partial}{\partial x_i} \colon F \to R[F]$ are the unique derivations ...
Patrick Perras's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
221 views

What is known about the map $\text{Mod}_g^1 \rightarrow \text{Aut}(F_{2g})$?

Follow up question, edited in on 12/20 below: Letting $\text{Mod}_g^1$ be the mapping class group of a surface with one boundary component (and basepoint on the boundary) and identify its fundamental ...
Chase's user avatar
  • 149
2 votes
1 answer
158 views

Almost free group without the Specker group as a subgroup

An Abelian group is almost free whenever every countable subgroup is free Abelian. Famously, the Specker group $\mathbf Z^{\mathbf N}$ is almost free. What are examples of almost free groups that are ...
user754245's user avatar
15 votes
1 answer
1k views

Recognizing free groups

While I’m aware (and as it was pointed out in the comments) it is generally undecidable whether a given presentation represents a free group, I’m interested in criteria that nevertheless ensure that ...
ThorbenK's user avatar
  • 1,185
3 votes
2 answers
304 views

Units of the group algebra of a free group

Let $K$ be a field of characteristic zero and $F_n$ be a free group of rank $n$. What is known about the group of units $K[F_n]^\times$? In the case of $n=1$, there are only trivial units: $K[F_1]^\...
Qwert Otto's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
124 views

Order of elements in amalgamated free products

Reading the book "A Course in the Theory of Groups" by D. J. S. Robinson, I was looking at the proof of 6.4.3 (iii), which states (suppose we are in the case of two groups): if $G_1$ and $...
MikeTrooper's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
128 views

A generalisation of residual finiteness?

A group $\Gamma$ is Residually Finite (RF) if $\forall g \neq e \in \Gamma$ there is a homomorphism $h: \Gamma \to G$ where $G$ is a finite group such that $h(g) \neq e$. Free groups are known to be ...
mathstudent42's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
134 views

Strong converse of Kazhdan's property (T)

In his 1972 paper Sur la cohomologie des groupes topologiques II, Guichardet proved$^\ast$ that (non-abelian) free groups satisfy the following strong converse of property (T): The $1$-cohomology $H^1(...
MaoWao's user avatar
  • 1,027
5 votes
1 answer
286 views

Words which are not inverted by any endomorphism

Let $w$ be a word in a free group $F_2$ of two generators $x_1, x_2$ such that there does not exist any endomorphism of free group which takes $w$ to $w^{-1}$. Let $w_1, w_2$ be two words in the same ...
Shri's user avatar
  • 355
2 votes
0 answers
127 views

Further questions to limit groups and an article of Fujiwara and Sela

I already have asked a question to the following article: Koji Fujiwara, Zlil Sela, The rates of growth in a hyperbolic group, Invent. math. 233 (2023) pp 1427–1470, doi:10.1007/s00222-023-01200-w, ...
TheMathematician's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
371 views

Morse theory on outer space via the lengths of finitely many conjugacy classes

Let $F_n$ be the free group on letters $\{x_1,\ldots,x_n\}$ and let $X_n$ be the (reduced) outer space of rank $n$. Points of $X_n$ thus correspond to pairs $(G,\mu)$, where $G$ is a finite connected ...
Sarah's user avatar
  • 93
13 votes
0 answers
205 views

Are there free and discrete subgroups of $\mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{R}) \times \mathrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{R})$ that are not Schottky on any factor?

$\DeclareMathOperator\SL{SL}$Does there exist a free and discrete subgroup $\Gamma < \SL_2(\mathbb{R}) \times \SL_2(\mathbb{R})$ such that neither $\pi_1(\Gamma)$ nor $\pi_2(\Gamma)$ is free and ...
Ilia Smilga's user avatar
  • 1,384
8 votes
1 answer
307 views

If G is a finitely generated group with vcd(G) finite, is vcd(H) finite for H, where H is an automorphism group of G?

$\DeclareMathOperator\vcd{vcd}\DeclareMathOperator\Aut{Aut}\DeclareMathOperator\Inn{Inn}\DeclareMathOperator\Out{Out}$Here I mean $\vcd(G)$ to be the virtual cohomological dimension of $G$. Some ...
Mike's user avatar
  • 335
7 votes
2 answers
257 views

Surjections from genus $n$ surface group to free group of rank $n$

Let $\Sigma_n$ be a genus $n$ surface, let $\mathcal{H}_n$ be a genus $n$ handle body, and let $F_n$ be a free group of rank $n$. Fix an identification of $\pi_1(\mathcal{H}_n)$ with $F_n$. I know ...
Annie's user avatar
  • 73
0 votes
0 answers
118 views

Fundamental domain of Möbius transformations

In the book Indra's pearls, Möbius transformations are used to construct Kleinian fractals, which are limit sets of a free group generated by two Möbius transformations $a$ and $b$. In the process of ...
p6majo's user avatar
  • 355
5 votes
2 answers
256 views

Stable equivalence of generating sets of a finitely-generated group?

This question came about when I was naively considering to what extent generating sets for finitely-generated groups are unique. Let $G$ be a group and let $\phi_1, \phi_2 : F_k \to G$ be two ...
Sprotte's user avatar
  • 1,065
2 votes
1 answer
144 views

Nontrivial abelianization of torsion-free pro-$p$-group which contains a dense free subgroup is infinite?

Let $G$ be a topologically finitely generated pro-$p$-group. Assume that $G$ is torsion-free, it contains a dense free subgroup of infinite rank and the (topological) abelianization $G^{\text{ab}}$ of ...
stupid boy's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
543 views

Length of a product of conjugates of an element in a free group

Let $G$ be a free group generated by a set $S$. For $g\in G$, let $l(g)$ be the length of $g$ with respect to $S$. Now for $a\in G$ and $g_1,\dotsc,g_n\in G$, let $$T=g_1^{-1}ag_1g_2^{-1}ag_2\dotsm ...
user45392's user avatar
  • 125
16 votes
1 answer
645 views

Elements of a free group that can't be inverted by automorphisms

Let $F_n$ be a free group of rank $n$. Say that $w \in F_n$ is non-reversible if there does not exist any $f \in \text{Aut}(F_n)$ such that $f(w) = w^{-1}$. Original Question. Intuitively, I expect ...
Andy Putman's user avatar
  • 44.1k
17 votes
3 answers
1k views

Examples of locally hyperbolic groups

It is well-known that a subgroup of a hyperbolic group need not be hyperbolic. Let us say that a (finitely generated) group $G$ is locally hyperbolic if all its finitely generated subgroups are (...
Jean Charles's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
255 views

Primitive elements in a free group with trivial projection

For a free group $F$, an element $w$ is primitive if it is part of some free basis for $F$. Let $\pi:F[x_0,x_1,...,x_n]\rightarrow F[x_1,x_2,...,x_n]$ be defined $\pi (x_0)=1$ and $\pi (x_i)=x_i$ for $...
Andrew Clifford's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
139 views

Is is true that a proper subword cannot lie in the normal closure of a word?

Let $F$ be a free group and $w\in F$ a cyclically reduced word. Let $v$ be a non-trivial proper subword of $w$. Is it true that $v\notin \langle w^F\rangle$?
Andrei Jaikin's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
253 views

Perfect group that is split extension of a normal free subgroup of finite index

Does there exists a non-trivial free group $F$ and a finite group $L$ acting on $F$ such that the semidirect product $F\rtimes L$ is perfect? Thanks @YCor for reformulating the question.
tota's user avatar
  • 585
5 votes
2 answers
274 views

If $K\rtimes \mathbb{Z}$ is a finitely generated group but $K$ isn't, must the fixed points of $1_\mathbb{Z}$ be a finitely generated group?

I've copied over this question from what I asked on StackExchange, in the hope that an expert here can readily answer the question. Is there an example of a group $G=K\rtimes \mathbb{Z}$ satisfying ...
Chris Sanders's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
201 views

Compute reduced word for element in particular free group

Let's consider some particular free group, for instance, the example $G = \langle A, B \rangle < \text{SL}(2, \mathbb{Z})$ in Wikipedia about ping-pong lemma, and some element $g \in G$. Problem #1 ...
Dmitry Vilensky's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
224 views

Bound on the period of the identity (in a free group) for an automorphism followed by left-multiplication

Let $F$ be a finite-rank free group, $g$ an element of $F$ and $\Phi\colon F \to F$ an automorphism. Consider the dynamical system $\psi_g\colon F \to F$ defined by $x \mapsto g\Phi(x)$. Say that $g$ ...
Rylee Lyman's user avatar
  • 1,996
3 votes
1 answer
249 views

Injectivity of certain homomorphisms on free groups

Consider free groups $F(A)$ and $F(B)$ on finite generating sets $A,B$. Write $A$ and $B$ as the disjoint unions $A=A_1\sqcup A_2$ and $B=B_1\sqcup B_2$. We consider the free groups $F(A_i)$ and $F(...
J.K.T.'s user avatar
  • 497
2 votes
0 answers
123 views

Probability of a finite cylinder set in a free group

Let $\mathbb{F}_n$ be the free group (each elemen is in its reduced form) generated by the set $\Sigma_n = \{a_1, a_2, \cdots, a_n, a_1^{-1}, a_2^{-1}, \cdots, a_n^{-1}\}$ and let $e$ denote the ...
Sanae Kochiya's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
368 views

Finite presentability of semi-direct product of free group and its commutator subgroup

Let $F_n$ be a free group of rank $n \geq 2$. The group $F_n$ acts on its commutator subgroup $[F_n,\, F_n]$ by conjugation. Let $G = [F_n,\, F_n] \rtimes F_n$. It's not hard to see that $G$ is ...
Cindy's user avatar
  • 93
2 votes
0 answers
107 views

understanding the definition of subgroup of the Grothendieck-Teichmuller group

Definition. Let $\widehat{G T}^{1}$ be the set of elements $f$ in the derived subgroup $\hat{F}_{2}^{\prime}$ of $\hat{F}_{2}$ such that $x \mapsto x$ and $y \mapsto f^{-1} y f$ extends to an ...
1200785626's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
169 views

Uniform amenability at infinity

Let's recall that a group $G$ is amenable if for any finite subset $E\subset G$ and any $\epsilon>0$ there is a finite subset $F\subset G$ such that $$\max_{s\in E} |s F \mathbin{\triangle} F| \le \...
Narutaka OZAWA's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
361 views

Are all Coxeter groups virtually free or virtually surface groups?

From Surface subgroups of Coxeter and Artin groups (Gordon, Long and Reid, 2003) DOI link, we can read that (Theorem 1.1) a Coxeter group is either virtually free or contains a surface group ($\pi_1$ ...
Jacques's user avatar
  • 563
1 vote
1 answer
127 views

Free partners in semi-direct products

Let $G = N \rtimes K$ be a semi-direct product of groups and suppose that $K$ is a finite group. Call the set $\mathcal{F} = \{ \alpha \in G \mid \langle \alpha, K \rangle = \langle \alpha \rangle \...
Doryan Temmerman's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
551 views

Length of commutators in the free group

Let $G=F_2$ be the free group of rank $2$. Is there a constant $c>0$ such that the word length $|[u,v]|$ of every commutator $[u,v]=uvu^{-1}v^{-1}$ where $u,v\in G$, $|u|,|v|>0$ is at least $c(|...
markvs's user avatar
  • 1,802
2 votes
2 answers
382 views

Some questions on a paper of Baumslag and Solitar

I was recently trying taking a look at the paper "Some two-generator one-relator non-hopfian groups" by Baumslag and Solitar where they introduce the groups now known as the Baumslag-Solitar ...
user101010's user avatar
  • 5,329
5 votes
0 answers
112 views

Computability of the "free envelope rank" of an endomorphism of a free group

Let $F$ be a free group freely generated by the finite set $S$ and $\sigma\colon F\to F$ be a group morphism. We define the free envelope rank of $\sigma$, written $r(\sigma)$, as the smallest $k$ for ...
user158448's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
494 views

Membership to double cosets in free groups

Is there an elementary and efficient algorithm for testing the membership to a double coset of f.g. subgroups in a free group? Has this membership problem been implemented in GAP/Magma? More ...
Ashot Minasyan's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
217 views

Dirichlet region of a free group

Let $G$ be a non-uniform lattice Fuchsian group and let $P$ be a Dirichlet region for $G$. In particular $G$ has parabolic elements, $P$ is not compact and has finite area. We are in the unit disc. Is ...
user178149's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
207 views

Howson property of automorphism group of $F_2$ and of $F_3$

Is the intersection of any two finitely generated subgroups of $\operatorname{Aut}(F_2)$ (resp. $\operatorname{Aut}(F_3)$) again finitely generated? That is, does $\operatorname{Aut}(F_2)$ (resp. $\...
Carl-Fredrik Nyberg Brodda's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

When does bottom stratum of relative train track map give rise to irreducible outer automorphism of free groups

Let $F_n$ be the free group of finite rank $n$ and let $\mathcal{O} \in \text{Out}(F_n)$. Let $\Gamma$ be a finite graph and $f : \Gamma \to \Gamma$ a relative train track representative of $\mathcal{...
24601's user avatar
  • 302
1 vote
0 answers
135 views

How can I build free unital magmas?

N. Bourbaki formally defines the free magma $M(X)$ over a set $X$. However, it does not define the free unital magma over $X$, which I am denoting by $M^{\ast}(X)$ (maybe you know some more common ...
cl4y70n____'s user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
312 views

Is there a non-free group $G$ whose subgroups are all freely decomposable?

Suppose that $G$ is a group such that every subgroup $H \subseteq G$ (including $G$ itself) is either free or a non-trivial free product, i.e. $H = H_1 * H_2$ with $H_1, H_2$ both non-trivial. Is ...
user32157's user avatar
  • 337
4 votes
2 answers
250 views

Why is every nilpotent-by-finite finitely generated pro-p-group always $p$-adic analytic

I'm studying the paper "On the verbal width of finitely generated pro-p groups" by Andrei Jaikin-Zapirain (link at ProjectEuclid) and I cannot see a claim made in a proof. I don't know if ...
Lucas's user avatar
  • 299
5 votes
1 answer
220 views

Converse of Schreier theorem

I know that every subgroup of a free group is free (Schreier theorem). I'm wondering that a (non-trivial) converse is true, that is, if every proper subgroup of an infinite group $G$ is free, then $G$ ...
Wonyong Jang's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
77 views

Extending a representation of a free group to an extension of a mapping torus

Given a free group on $n$ generators, $F_n$, $\phi$ an automorphism of $F_n$, and a non-trivial representation $\rho: F_n \rightarrow \operatorname{Homeo}_+(\mathbb{R})$, are necessary and sufficient ...
guest's user avatar
  • 364
3 votes
0 answers
89 views

Symmetric group in terms of block permutations

For $i+j+k=N$, consider the permutation $\Pi_{i,j,k}\in S_N$, which keeps the numbers $0,\ldots,i-1$ fixed, and exchanges the numbers $i,\ldots,i+j-1$ with the numbers $i+j,\ldots,i+j+k-1$. $$\Pi_{i,j,...
Andi Bauer's user avatar
  • 2,911

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