A semigroup is a set $S$ together with a binary operation that is associative. Examples of semigroups are the set of finite strings over a fixed alphabet (under concatenation) and the positive integers (under addition, maximum, or minimum). Of course, any monoid or group is also a semigroup.

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### I don't understand the Markov process convergence theorem in Ethier and Kurtz

I've got some problems to understand Theorem 8.2 of Chapter 4 in Markov Processes: Characterization and Convergence by Ethier and Kurtz:
Okay, they consider $A$ as a multivalued operator (which is ...

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318 views

### Given any finite relation $R$ what is the cardinality of $\langle R\rangle=\{\underbrace{R\circ R\cdots \circ R}_{n\text{ times}}:n\in\mathbb{N}\}$?

Given any finite relation $R$ if we let $\circ$ denote relation composition and define $R^n=\underbrace{R\circ R\cdots \circ R}_{n\text{ times}}$ then does there exist an explicit formula for the ...

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291 views

### Can a Shelah semigroup be commutative?

A semigroup $S$ is called
$\bullet$ $n$-Shelah for a positive integer $n$ if $S=A^n$ for any subset $A\subset S$ of cardinality $|A|=|S|$;
$\bullet$ Shelah if $S$ is $n$-Shelah for some $n\in\...

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### Bounded and sectorial operators

Is there any assumption for a bounded operator to be sectorial ? Is there any characterization of such operators ?
Here, the definition of sectorial operators follows the book of Markus Haase:
...

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423 views

### Turning a category into a semigroup

Consider a small (that is objects and morphisms belonging to a Grothendieck universe) category $\mathcal{C}$, whose objects are all small sets, and an identity-on-objects functor ${\uparrow}: \mathbf{...

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### Size of a minimum generating set for full transformation monoids

Given any finite set $X$ the set $\mathcal{T}(X)=X^X$ of all functions from $X$ to $X$ clearly forms a monoid under composition. Now if we call any family of functions $\mathcal{F}\subseteq \mathcal{T}...

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### Generation of strictly contraction Semigroups

Let $T(t)$ be a $C_0$-semigroup on Banach space $X$, and $A$ its generator. By Lumer-Philipps theorem we know that if $A$ is densely defined and m-dessipative operator then it generates a $C_0$-...

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56 views

### Using semigroup theory for nonautonomous semilinear equations

We have the abstract evolution equation $$U^{\prime}=A(t)U+F(U), \quad U(0) = U_0.$$ If the operator $A$ is independent of time, we can get local existence of solutions by proving that $A$ is the ...

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221 views

### Convolution with semigroup: does this belong to the Sobolev space $W^{1,1}$?

Let $X$ be a Banach space, $T(t)$ be a strongly continuous semigroup on $X$, and $f\in L^1(0,\tau;X)$. It has been implied that the integral $$v(t)=\int_0^t T(t-s)f(s)ds,\quad t\in [0,\tau]$$
is not ...

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### Reference for Kakutani result on power sum bases of symmetric functions

Numerical semigroups are additive submonoids $A$ of the natural numbers such that the greatest common divisor of all elements of $A$ is 1. The complement of a numerical semigroup in $\mathbb{N}$ is ...

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46 views

### A question about a theorem in 'Quantum dynamical semigroups generated by noncommutative unbounded elliptic operators'

I have asked this question on stack and someone advised me to ask it here. The link is https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/2900658/a-question-about-a-theorem-in-quantum-dynamical-semigroups-...

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88 views

### Partition theorems for located words

In this paper Bergelson, Blass, and Hindman prove the following
Theorem 1.2 Let $W(\Sigma; v)$ be colored with finitely may colors and let $\bar s$ be an infinite sequence from $W(\Sigma; v)$. ...

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163 views

### How to show two semigroups are isomorphic?

I have two finite semigroups namely $$S_1=\langle a,b: R\rangle,~~~S_2=\langle a,b: T\rangle$$ How can one show they are the same isomorphically? Should I show that the relations in one, implies the ...

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### Semigroup of differentiable functions on real line

Let $D(\mathbb R) $ be the set of all differentiable functions $f: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$. Then obviously $D(\mathbb R)$ forms a semigroup under usual function composition. Can we characterize (up ...

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67 views

### What is the unitary $1$-parameter group generated by a vector field on a manifold?

If $M$ is a (compact, Riemannian) manifold, and one complexifies its tangent bundle, is it possible to give a meaning to the "unitary group"-like expression $t \mapsto \exp (\mathrm i t X)$ when $X$ ...

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### A generalized Cauchy type functional equation

Let $(S,+)$ be an abelian semigroup . Let $f:S \to \mathbb C$ be a function such that for some positive integer $n>1$, $f(x+y)^n=(f(x)+f(y))^n,\forall x,y \in S$.
Then is it true that $f(x+y)=f(x)...

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### make me idempotent

$T_n$ be the full transformation semigroup on $X_n= \{1, 2, \cdots , n\}$.
$D_r =\{\alpha \in T_n: |im(\alpha)|=r\}$.
$E(D_r)$ is the set of all idempotents of semigroup $T_n$.
$support(\alpha)=\{...

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### Volterra equation of the first kind with an exponential kernel

I am interested in an approximation $\hat{f}$ as well as the error estimate $\|\hat{f} - f\|_{L^2}$ for $f\in L^2([0,T];\mathbb{R})$ in the following Volterra equation
$$Af(t) = \int_0^t e^{-\lambda (...

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276 views

### Would you like a subject class for semigroup theory on the arXiv?

After contacting the arxiv recently about possibly adding semigroup theory as a subject class, they suggested I canvas the research community to establish whether such a subject class would be used ...

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### Closedness of the partial order in complete Hausdorff semitopological semilattices

First some definitions.
A semilattice is a commutative semigroup consisting of idempotents (i.e., elements such that $xx=x$). A typical example of a semilattice is the unit interval endowed with the ...

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36 views

### On the relation of ideals and $\mathcal J$-classes in semigroups

Given a semigroup $S$, a subset $I$ is called an ideal iff for every $s \in S$ we have $sI, Is \subseteq I$. Further we set
$$
s \le_{\mathcal J} t :\Leftrightarrow SsS \cup \{s\} \subseteq StS \cup \...

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67 views

### On a generating set of Numerical semigroups of multiplicity three

Let $S$ be a numerical semigroup. Let $\mathbb N$ denote the monoid of non-negative integers under addition. Let $F(S)=\max (\mathbb N \setminus S)$ be the Froebenius number of $S$, $g(S)=|\mathbb N \...

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### Which positive integers can occur as the genus of a numerical semigroup minimally generated by 3 (or 2) elements?

Let $S$ be a numerical semigroup. Let $g(S)=|\mathbb N \setminus S |$, where $\mathbb N$ here denotes the set of non-negative integers. Let $e(S)$ be the embedding dimension of $S$, i.e. the ...

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### Indecomposable monoids

Let $M$ be a commutative reduced and cancellative monoid and $K(M)$ its group of quotients.
We say that $M$ is indecomposable if for every divisor-closed submonoids $M_1$ and $M_2$, $M=M_1\oplus M_2$...

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57 views

### On the compactification of partial semigroups

We begin by introducing some relevant definitions.
Definition: A $\textit{partial semigroup}$ is a pair $(S,.)$ where $.$ maps a subset of $S \times S$ to $S$ and for all $a,b,c \in S, (a.b).c=a.(b.c)...

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247 views

### Compactness of semigroups of one-dimensional diffusions

I have a question about semigroups of one-dimensional diffusions.
Let $X$ be the Ornstein Uhlenbeck process on $\mathbb{R}$. The generator is expresses as
$$\frac{d^2}{dx^2}-x\frac{d}{dx}.$$
It is ...

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### Amalgamated free-product of semigroups (definition)

I am self-studying some concepts including the title one. I reached the definition of an amalgamated free-product ${S_1}{*_U}S_2$ where $[S_1, S_2; U, w_1,w_2]$ is an amalgam of semigroups. Let $S_1=\...

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92 views

### Separation property for non-injective flows

Let us consider a non-injective flow $X$ on $\mathbb{R}^d$, i.e. a continuous map $X:\mathbb{R}_+\times \mathbb{R}^d \to \mathbb{R}^d$ with $X(0,\cdot)=id$ and satisfying the semigroup property $X(t,X(...

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86 views

### an inverse semigroup (and perhaps a $C^*\!$-algebra) associated with a directed graph

The following inverse semigroup associated to a directed graph came up in my research. I've read that from an inverse semigroup one may derive a $C^*\!$-algebra whose generators are partial isometries ...

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### a category associated with an inverse semigroup

Let $S$ be an inverse semigroup. Define a category $C(S)$ as follows:
the objects of $C(S)$ are the elements of $S$
for any $a,b,e\in S$ let $e\colon a\to b$ be a morphism of $C(S)$ iff $aa^{-1}eb^{-...

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110 views

### Semigroups admitting Commutative Group actions

Let $(S,*)$ be a semigroup admitting a distinguished element $0$ such that $z*s = s*z = z$, for all $s \in S$. Moreover, let $(\mathbb{G},\cdot)$ be a commutative group. Consider an action
$$
\mathbb{...

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**1**answer

93 views

### When are all the convolution roots of an infinitely divisible probability measure infinitely divisible?

Let $G$ be a topological group.
Let us say that a probability measure $\mu$ on $G$ is strongly infinitely divisible (SID) if $\mu$ is infinitely divisible and any probability measure $\nu$ on $G$ ...

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### Are the roots of an infinitely divisible probability infinitely divisible themselves?

Let $\mu$ be an infinitely divisible probability on a topological group $G$. If $\nu ^{* n} = \mu$ for some $n$, is $\nu$ an infinitely divisible probability too?
A sufficient criterion would be to ...

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### a generalization of group (monoid with order-by-order invertible elements)

Fix a filtered monoid, $H=H_0\supsetneq H_1\supsetneq H_2\supsetneq\cdots$. Suppose for any $h\in H$ and any $n\in \Bbb{N}$ exists $h_n\in H$ such that $h\cdot h_n\in H_n$ and $h_n\cdot h\in H_n$. If ...

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**1**answer

105 views

### Generator of Wiener process and its running maximum

This was originally posted on Math StackExchange a long time ago, but got no answer (even after a bounty).
See https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1274775/generator-of-wiener-process-and-its-...

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173 views

### A formula for Frobenius number of certain numerical semigroups

The old formula for the Frobenius number of a numerical semigroup generated by two elements can be stated as follows: assume $\gcd\{a+1,b+1\}=1$, then the Frobenius number of $S= \left<a+1,b+1\...

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### How can I have a copy of seminary note of Prof. Barbu

I would like to refer this luminous seminary note by Prof Viorel Barbu:
``Seminar on nonlinear semigroups and evolution equations''
published in 1970, iasi.
There seems to be no libraries holding ...

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**1**answer

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### Is there any characterization and/or classification of subsemigroups of finite monogenic semigroups?

A semigroup $S$ is called monogenic if $S$ is generated by some element $a$ (which is unique if $S$ is not a group) in the sense that $S=\{a^n:n\in\mathbb N\}$.
Observe that each mongenic group is ...

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**1**answer

140 views

### Some questions about homogroups

Every semigroup containing an ideal subgroup is called a homogroup. Let $(S,\cdot)$ be homomgroup, hence it contains an ideal $I$ that is also a subgroup. It is easy to see that $I$ is the least ideal,...

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### A exemple of a strongly-continuous contraction semigroup : how to prove the contraction?

I am trying to prove that $P_t := e^{\lambda t (P-I)}$ (where $Pf:= \int f(y) P(\cdot , dy)\in \mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R}^d)$, for $f\in \mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R}^d)$, $P$ being a probability kernel), is ...

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210 views

### Question about actions of full transformation monoids

[Reposted from math.stackexchange]
Consider a monoid $M$ acting on a set $X$, where $M$ is the full transformation monoid on some set $A$ (i.e., the set of all functions from $A$ to itself, with ...

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**1**answer

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### Do we have that $\| \Delta u \|_{L^p(\Bbb R^d)} + \| u \|_{L^p(\Bbb R^d)}$ and $\| u \|_{W^{2,p}(\Bbb R^d)}$ are equivalent norms?

Is it possible that $$\| \Delta u \|_{L^p(\Bbb R^d)} + \| u \|_{L^p(\Bbb R^d)}~~~~and~~\| u \|_{W^{2,p}(\Bbb R^d)}$$ are equivalent norms?
This results is pretty easy and straightforward for $p=2$ ...

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345 views

### Nielsen-Schreier theorem for monoids

Let $S$ be a finitely generated free abelian semigroup (or monoid), and let $T \subset S$ be a sub-semigroup (sub-monoid). Does the Nielsen-Schreier theorem hold in this case, that is, will $S$ still ...

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### A semigroup property related to von Neumann regularity

A very common and useful notion in rings is that of von Neumann regular elements: those elements $a\in R$ such that there exists $b\in R$ satisfying $aba=a$. As this is a property defined solely ...

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**1**answer

101 views

### Does uniform boundedness carry over from the non-negative real axis to closed sectors of $\mathbb{C}$ for analytic semigroups?

I'm trying to understand the proof of Theorem 2.5.6 (chapter 2.5) in Amnon Pazy, Semigroups of Linear Operators and Applications to Partial Differential Equations, Springer 1983.
For the direction (a)...

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622 views

### Semi group of polynomials which all roots lie on the unit circle

Let $X=\{f\in \mathbb{C}[z]\mid |z| \neq 1 \implies f(z) \neq 0\} $.
The motivation for consideration of such an $X$ is the the concept of Lee-Yang polynomials.
With the standard multiplication, $X$...

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### Is it decidable if a tree-presented semigroup contains an idempotent?

A semigroup presentation $\langle A | R\rangle$ is called tree-like if every relation has the form $ab=c$, $a,b,c$ are in $A$ and if two relations $ab=c, a'b'=c'$ belong to $R$, then $c=c'$ if and ...

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45 views

### rank and large rank of a rectangular group

It is a known fact that every rectangular group is isomorphic to the direct product of a group and a rectangular band. If $S=L\times R\times G$, where $L$ is a left zero semigroup, $R$ is a right zero ...

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731 views

### Is the Golomb countable connected space topologically rigid?

The Golomb space $\mathbb G$ is the set of positive integers endowed with the topology generated by the base consisting of the arithmetic progressions $a+b\mathbb N_0$ with relatively prime $a,b$ and $...

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### Nonautonomous wave equation of memory type

I want to apply the semigroup approach of nonautonomous evolution equation for the following wave equation
$$u'' - \Delta u + \int\limits_0^t {g(s)} \Delta u(s)ds = 0$$
This problem can be written ...