# Questions tagged [p-adic-numbers]

The p-adic number system for any prime number p extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a different way from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems

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### A confusion about power series and p-adic measures

In page 16 of these notes on $p$-adic $L$-functions, it makes the following claim:
Let $\alpha$ be a $p$-adic measure on $\mathbf{Z}_p$ which corresponds to a power series $F_{\alpha}(T) \in \mathbf{...

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### Describing the Gamma-transform explicitly in terms of power series

The Gamma transform of a measure is defined as follows. If $\alpha$ is a $\mathbf{Z}_p$-valued measure on $\mathbf{Z}_p$, then the Gamma transform of $\alpha$ is:
$$\Gamma_{\alpha}(s) = \int_{\mathbf{...

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### Some variants of Artin's primitive root conjecture

Artin's primitive root conjecture asserts that if an integer $a \ne -1$ is not a perfect square then $a$ is a primitive root mod $p$ for infinitely many primes $p$. This conjecture is still open.
An ...

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### Finding a certain value of $\Gamma_p$

Let $\Gamma_p : \mathbb{Z}_p \to \mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$ be the $p$-adic gamma function. I thought that I had successfully calculated $\Gamma_p(1 - 1/4)$, but sage is telling me I'm wrong (this is ...

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### Are the $p$-adic digits of roots of unity equidistributed?

I was looking at the $p$-adic expansions of roots of unity in $\mathbf{Z}_p$, and I noticed that the digits tended to be equidistributed among the numbers $\{0, 1, \dots, p-1 \}$. I wanted to ask if ...

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### Elementary aspects of The Fargues-Fontaine curve

To any pair $(E,F)$, where $E$ is a local field and $F$ is a perfectoid field, one can associate a curve $X^{\text{FF}}_{E,F}$, the so-called Fargues-Fontaine curve, which is unique up to Frobenius ...

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### Some good journals in $p$-adic number theory

Over the past few decades, a vast research area in number theory is surrounded by the $p$-adic number field $\mathbb{Q}_p$ and its extensions.
My question is on different perspective.
What are the ...

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### Is the absolute Galois group $\text{Gal}(\bar K/K)$ isomorphic to $\text{Gal}(K(S)/K)$?

Let $K$ be a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ with ring of integers $\mathcal{O}$, maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$ and uniformizer $\pi$. Let $\bar K$ be the algebraic closure of $K$ and $\bar{\...

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### Sign error in $\pm$-parts of modular symbols?

I am trying to connect the definition of $\pm$-modular symbols given in [Pollack, pg. 529] and [MTT,pg. 11] to those appearing in [Greenberg-Stevens, pg. 200 in #20 here], but I can't seem to ...

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### Decomposition of primes in cyclotomic extensions and their ramifications

Let $p$ be a prime. Suppose $L$ is a degree $p$ Galois extension over a number field $K$. Suppose $p$ splits both in $K$ and $L$.
So there will be $[K:\mathbb{Q}]$ primes of $K$ over $p$. Call them $...

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### p-adic analogue of octonions

There are the complex p-adic numbers.
But what is the p-adic analogue of the Cayley–Dickson construction?
Or more important: What is the p-adic analogue of the octonions?
It would be nice if the (unit)...

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### Algebraic numbers in all $\mathbb Q_p$ [duplicate]

Do there exist non-rational algebraic numbers that belong to $\mathbb Q_p$ for all prime $p$? If yes, can one characterize them?
I spent several days for the first question, and I found nothing. The ...

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### Is there a classification of the $p$-adic normed division algebras?

A normed division algebra over $\mathbb{R}$ is a pair $(A,\lVert{-}\rVert)$ with
$A$ an $\mathbb{R}$-algebra with a unit $1_A$;
$\lVert{-}\rVert\colon A\to\mathbb{R}_{\geq0}$ a norm on $A$;
such ...

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### To justify the intuition about #$E(\Bbb Q_p)$＝$∞$

Let $E$ be an elliptic curve on $\Bbb Q_p$.
$E_0(\Bbb Q_p)$ is points of $E(\Bbb Q_p)$ reduced to nonsingular points.
How to prove #$E(\Bbb Q_p)$＝$∞$ directly ?
According to Silverman's book 'the ...

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### Method to solve modular quadratic polynomial [duplicate]

If $q$ is a prime what is the best method to compute roots of a quadratic polynomial $f(x)\equiv0\bmod q^2$ which is of form $x^2+bx+c\equiv0\bmod q^2$ where $b^2-4c\equiv0\bmod q$ and $gcd(b,q)=1$ ...

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### Is the p-adic density of the image of a polynomial always rational?

This question was previously posted here on MSE.
Let $P(x)$ be a polynomial with integer coefficients, and let $p$ be a prime number. For $n\in\mathbb N$, let $I_n$ be the number of integers $i\in\{1,\...

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### Is equation $y^3+x y + x^4 + 4 = 0$ solvable locally (in ${\mathbb Q}_p$ for all $p$)?

When finding out whether an equation in 2 variables has rational solutions (or, equivalently, whether an algebraic curve has any rational points), many authors recommend checking the local solubility ...

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### Reconstructing elements of $\mathbb Q$ in $\mathbb Z_p$

Can a rational number $a/b$ (with $b$ coprime to a prime number $p$) be recovered efficiently from a $p$-adic expansion of the form
$$\frac{a}{b}=\sum_{j=0}^\infty x_jp^j,\ x_j\in\{0,\ldots,p-1\}\ ?$$
...

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### Extension of morphism in local fields of positive characterisic

Consider $\theta:\mathbb F_q(T)\mapsto\mathbb F_q(T)$ defined by $\theta(Q)=Q(T^q)$. It is a morphism of fields. Let $P$ be an irreducible polynomial of $\mathbb F_q[T]$. Then, $\theta$ can be ...

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### Scholze and Weinstein's $\operatorname{Spa}\mathbf{Z}_p\times \operatorname{Spa}\mathbf{Z}_p$

In their Berkeley Lectures, to motivate the introduction of Diamonds, Scholze and Weinstein discuss what should be the definition of $\operatorname{Spa}\mathbf{Z}_p\times \operatorname{Spa}\mathbf{Z}...

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### Why does the field norm on the field extension $ \mathbb C/\mathbb R $ induce a vector space norm?

There is a general result which holds for the rational numbers $ \mathbb Q $ (as well as number fields in general):
For any completion $ K $ of $ \mathbb Q $ and any finite extension $ L/K $ of ...

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### Why are the $p$-adic $L$-functions for a modular form with $a_p=0$ conjugates?

I have a question about the proof of Theorem 3.5 in Pollack's 2003 paper On the $p$-adic L-function of a Modular Form at a Supersingular Prime.
The setup is as follows. Fix an eigenform $f\in S_k(N,\...

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### Characters of p-adic units

Let $p$ be a prime and denote by $\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$ the group of $p$-adic units. Suppose that $\chi$ is a character $\chi: \mathbb{Z}_p^{\times} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}^{\times}$. Then it is well ...

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### A family of Diophantine equations with no integer solutions but solutions modulo every integer

Selmer's curve is the equation $3x^3 +4y^3 +5z^3=0$. This equation is famous for having non-trivial solutions in every completion of $\mathbb{Q}$ but only having the trivial solution in the rationals. ...

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### When is $u \circ v=v \circ u$ for $p$-adic power series $u$ and $v$ in two power series rings $A$ and $B$ respectively?

Let $K \supset \mathbb{Q}_p$ be the $p$-adic field with ring of integers $O_K$ and maximal ideal $m_K$. Let $\bar K$ be the algebraic closure and $\bar{m}_K$ be the integral closure of $m_K$ with ...

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### What's the number of solutions of the quadratic equation $x_1^2+\dots+x_m^2=0$ over finite ring $\mathbb{Z}/p^n$?

I want to calculate the number of solutions to the quadratic equation $$x_1^2+\dots+x_m^2=0$$ where $m$ is odd (a given number) and $x_i\in\mathbb{Z}/p^n$ for a given prime number $p$ and a given ...

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### Automorphisms of the topological field $\mathbb{C}_p$ of $p$-adic complex numbers?

I am interested to see what is currently known about the automorphisms of the topological field $\mathbb{C}_p$ of $p$-adic complex numbers (with respect to the $p$-adic topology induced by the $p$-...

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### A "multi-adic" absolute value / topology?

Let $S$ be a set of finitely many prime numbers. Then, define $\left|\cdot\right|_{S}:\mathbb{Q}\rightarrow\left[0,\infty\right)$ by: $$\left|x\right|_{S}\overset{\textrm{def}}{=}\prod_{p\in S}\left|x\...

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### Projective limit of copies of same group w.r.t. some fixed endomorphism

In our study of automorphism groups of transcendental field extensions, we have encountered the situation where we have a group $F$ together with an endomorphism $\alpha \colon F \to F$, resulting in ...

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### How to estimate the highest power of 2 in the partial sum of 2-adic $\log(-1)$ (i.e. $\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{2^i}{i}$)?

The estimate I wanna get is $$v_2(\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{2^i}{i})\geq\min_{t\geq n+1}\{t-v_2(t)\}\tag{*}$$
where $v_2$ is the 2-adic valuation, that is the highest power of 2 defined on $\mathbb{Q}$.
Set $$...

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### A list of proofs of the Hasse–Minkowski theorem

I am currently doing a project in which I intend to include the most insightful possible proof of the Hasse–Minkowski theorem (also known as the Hasse principle for quadratic forms, among other names) ...

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### Do algebraic completion/topological completion of fields always terminate? If so, are they unique?

Take the field $\mathbb{Q}$, If we complete it topologically with respect to the Euclidean norm, we get $\mathbb{R}$, then if we complete it algebraically, we get $\mathbb{C}$.
On the other hand, the ...

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### Computing the $p$-adic gamma function $\Gamma_p$

Let $p>2$ be a prime. For $n \in \mathbb{Z}^+$ we can define
\begin{equation}
F(n) = (-1)^n \prod_{1<i<n, p\nmid i} i.
\end{equation}
Since $\mathbb{Z}$ is dense in $\mathbb{Z}_p$, we can ...

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### p-adic versions of log concavity for graphs (or matroids)

It was recently shown using techniques inspired by algebraic geometry (by Huh and Adiprasito-Huh-Katz) that the chromatic polynomial of a graph (or matroid) has coefficients that satisfy log-concavity....

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### Is $K^\times/ F^\times$ compact for local fields?

Let $K/F$ be a finite extension of local fields (of characteristic 0). Is it true that the quotient group $K^\times/ F^\times$ is always compact?
I understand that if the extension is cyclic, it is ...

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### A p-adic logarithm as a limit of discrete logs

I've been searching for something similar to the argument below for about a week now and I just must be missing out on the right key words. Can someone point me in the right direction and/or let me ...

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### Continous morphisms of a local field with conditions in positive characteristic

Let $P$ be a an irreducible polynomial of $k:=\mathbb F_q(T)$, $\Omega_P$ be the completion of an algebraic closure $\overline{k_P}$ of $k_P$, the completion of $k$ for the topology induced by the $P$-...

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### Hasse invariant and the Clifford algbera

Let
$$q = a_1 x_1^2 + \cdots + a_n x_n^2$$
be a quadratic form over some $p$-adic field $\mathbb{Q}_p$. We thus have its Hasse invariant
$$\mathcal{h}(q) = \prod_{1 \leq i < j \leq n} (a_i,a_j)_p \...

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### How to prove the map of rings $\mathcal{R} \to \mathcal{R'}$ is flat?

We fix a finite extension $K$ of $p$-adic field $\mathbb{Q}_p$ with ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$ and residue field $\kappa$. Consider the ring of witt vectors $W(\kappa)$ over the residue field $\...

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### Is there bijective correspondence between $P_n$ and $A_n$?

Let $K \supset \mathbb{Q}_p$ be the $p$-adic field and let $O_K$ be its ring of integers and $M_K$ be the maximal ideal with integral closure $\bar{M}_K$. A power series is invertible if its lowest ...

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### Numbers $k$ with $\{\binom nk:\ n\in\mathbb N\}$ dense in $\mathbb Z_p$ for any prime $p\le k$

Let $k$ be a positive integer and let $p$ be a prime. In my 2011 PAMS paper joint with my former student W. Zhang [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 139(2011), 1569-1577], we studied when $$S(k)=\left\{\binom nk:...

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### An averaging procedure on finite multisets of $2$-adic integers

Recently there was this question talking about an averaging procedure on finite multisets of integers.
After seeing that question, I thought about the same procedure but with integers replaced by $2$-...

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### Is this topology on $\mathbb{Q}$ well studied?

Let $\|\cdot\|_p$ denote the $p$-adic norm on $\mathbb{Q}$. For the whole set of primes $P$ consider the topology which is generated with prebase of open sets $V_{p,\varepsilon}(x) = \{y\in\mathbb{Q} :...

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### What would be the quotient groups $U_{\mathrm{gen}}/U_{\mathrm{gen}}^{(n)}$ and $U_{\mathrm{gen}}^{(n)}/U_{\mathrm{gen}}^{(n+1)}$?

Let $K \supseteq \mathbb{Q}_p$ be a $p$-adic field with ring of integer $O$ and maximal ideal $m$. Let $O^*$ be the group of units in $O$.
Consider the group of units $U^{(0)}=U=O^*$ and $U^{(n)}=1+m^...

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### The stabiliser group of an isotropic quadratic form over $\mathbb{Q}_p$ is non-compact?

Let $\mathbb{Q}_p$ denote the $p$-adic integers. Let $V$ be a $\mathbb{Q}_p$-vector space and $Q : V \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}_p$ be a non-degenerate integral quadratic form. We say that the pair $(Q,V)$ ...

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### Analytic p-adic functions that take an algebraic value

Suppose it exists $r\in\mathbb R$ such that the non constant p-adic function $f(z)=\sum_{n\ge0}a_nz^n$ ($a_n\in\mathbb C_p$) is defined on $\mathcal D=\{z\in\mathbb C_p\mid v_p(z)>r\}$. Does it ...

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### Zeroes of the Euler series

Consider a prime $p$. Let $f$ be the Euler series defined by $f(z)=\sum_{n\ge0}n!z^n\}$. It is defined and analytic over $\mathcal D=\{z\in\mathbb C_p\mid v_p(z)>-\frac1{p-1}\}$. I try to check if ...

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### Zero of the exponential p-adic

Consider the $p$-adic exponential defined over $\mathbb C_p$. One knows $\exp$ is analytic in the domain $\mathcal D=\{z\in\mathbb C_P\mid v_p(z)>\frac1{p-1}\}$. Does it exist an element $z_0\in\...

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### Composition in function fields

Let $k=\mathbb F_q\left(\!\left(\frac1T\right)\!\right)$. One has the map: $\circ:k\times\{v\in k\mid\deg(v)>0\}\to k$ defined by $f\circ g=\sum_{n\ge-m}a_ng^{-n}$ where $f=\sum_{n\ge-m}a_n\frac1{T^...

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### Identity theorem in $p$-adic geometry/analysis

If one wants to do $p$-adic analysis and geometry, it is often bad so adapt "naively" complex analytic ideas, basically because $\mathbb{Q}_p$ is disconnected. The modern approach to this is,...