# Questions tagged [ultrafilters]

The ultrafilters tag has no usage guidance.

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### Ultrafilters preserving infinite joins

A filter $U$ over a boolean algebra (isomorphic to a powerset) $A$ "preserves" a join $a = \bigcup_{i\in I}a_i$, if $a\in U$ implies $a_i\in U$ for some $i\in I$. (A join $a$ is infinite if $I$ is.) ...

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### Completeness number of ultrafilters

In what I write below, by "ultrafilter" I mean a non-principal ultrafilter.
Given an ultrafilter $U$ on some set $S$, let $\mu$ be the least cardinal such that $U$ is $\mu$-complete but not $\mu^+$-...

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### A property of an ultrafilter

Let $\mathcal U$ be a free ultrafilter on a set $X$. For $n\in\mathbb N$ let $\mathcal F$ be a family of $n$-element subsets of $X$ such that $\bigcup\mathcal F\in\mathcal U$.
Question. Is there a ...

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### Are separability and ccc equivalent for closed subspaces of $\beta N$?

Let $\beta \mathbb N$ be the Stone-Cech compactification of the integers. Then $\beta \mathbb N\setminus \mathbb N$ is non-separable because if fails the ccc condition, that is, it has an uncountable ...

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### Ideals on $\mathbb N$ and large sets that have small intersection

Let $\mathcal I$ be a (non-principal) ideal of subsets of $\mathbb N$. Suppose that every family $\mathcal{A} \subset \wp(\mathbb N)\setminus \mathcal I$ with the following property is countable:
$$A,...

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### Identification of ultrafilters with measures

We know that each ultrafilter $p$ on $\mathbb{N}$ can be identified with a finitely additive $\{0,1\}$-valued probablity measure $\mu_{p}$ on the power set of $\mathbb{N}$.
Now my question is which ...

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### Selectors for bases of ultrafilters

If $\mathcal{U}$ is a selective (Ramsey) ultrafilter on $\omega$ and $\mathcal{B}$ is its base, then for every sequence $A_0\supsetneq A_1\supsetneq A_2\supsetneq\ldots$ in $\mathcal{B}$ there exists $...

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### Selective ultrafilter on $\omega$ is normal. Clear proof

In this question I had asked about proof of the property of selective ultrafilter. As was answered, the proof is trivial if we know that ultrafilter is selective iff it is Ramsey ultrafilter. The ...

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### What are the components of the Stone-Cech Remainder?

Suppose $X = \displaystyle\bigsqcup_{i \in I} X_i$ is the disjoint union of infinitely many continua. The components of the Stone-Cech remainder $X^*$ can be described as follows. Treat $I$ as a ...

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### Set of subsequences with the same ultrafilter limit of the original sequence

Let $\mathscr{U}$ be a free ultrafilter on the positive integers $\mathbf{N}$ and fix $U \in \mathscr{U}$ such that $U$ is not cofinite (thanks J.D.Hamkins for the correction.)
Consider the natural ...

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### Ultrafilters and diagonal arguments

Is there a diagonal argument to show that if $x$ is infinite then ${\cal P}(x)$ (the power set of $x$) is smaller than $\beta x$ (the set of ultrafilters on $x$)?
(Added later. I tried commenting ...

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201 views

### Is there a 'local' version of Near Coherence of Filters?

The axiom Near Coherence of Filters (NCF) is known to be independent of ZFC.
Axiom (NCF I): For any two free ultrafilters $\mathcal D$ and $\mathcal E$ on $\mathbb N$, there exist finite-to-one ...

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291 views

### Permutation on $\omega$ and Ramsey ultrafilter

let $\pi:\omega\to\omega$ be permutation and $\mathcal{F}$ is Ramsey selective ultrafilter on $\omega$. There are uncountable many growing increasing subsequences of $\pi$. Can one proof that one of ...

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### Possible cofinalities of cuts of ultraproducts

Suppose $\kappa$ is a regular cardinal, $\bar{\mu}=(\mu_i: i<\kappa)$ is an increasing sequence of regular cardinals ($>\kappa$) and set
$pcut(\bar \mu)=\{ (\lambda_1, \lambda_2):$ for some ...

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### The Wallman and interval topologies on non-principal ultrafilters with the Rudin-Keisler preorder

If $(P,\leq)$ is a pre-odered set (that is, $\leq$ is a reflexive and transitive relation) and $x\in P$, we set $(\uparrow_{\leq} x) = \{p\in P: p\geq x\}$ and $(\downarrow_{\leq} x) = \{p\in P: p\leq ...

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### “Gaps” in the Rudin-Keisler ordering

If $(P,\leq)$ is a poset and $p\in P$, then we say that $p$ is the lower part of a gap there is $q \in P$, $q>p$ such that $[p,q] = \{p,q\}$. (This is equivalent to the statement that $(\uparrow p) ...

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201 views

### Infima in the Rudin-Keisler ordering

Let $\text{NPU}(\omega)$ be the set of non-principal ultafilters on $\omega$. The Rudin-Keisler preorder on $\text{NPU}(\omega)$ is defined by
$${\cal U} \leq_{RK} {\cal V} :\Leftrightarrow (\exists f:...

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### Ultraproduct of metric spaces

Let $I$ be a set and $\mathcal{U}$ be an ultrafilter on $I$. Suppose that $(X_{i}, d_{i})_{i\in I}$ is a family of pointed metric spaces with a distinguished point $e_{i}$ for each $i\in I$. We set
$$...

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### Are free ultrafilters as posets product-irreducible?

Let $\kappa\geq \aleph_0$ be a cardinal, and suppose that ${\cal U}$ is a non-principal ultrafilter on $\kappa$. We regard ${\cal U}$ as a poset $({\cal U}, \subseteq)$.
Suppose that there are posets ...

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### What is the Turing degree associated with an ultrafilter $U$?

I asked Turing degree of a turing machine with access to an (arbitrary) nonstandard integer, not thinking about the possiblity that this could depend on the model used. The question was not formulated ...

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### Products of spaces with an underlying free ultrafilter as topology

If ${\cal U}$ is any ultrafilter on $\omega$, the pair $(\omega,{\cal U}\cup \{\emptyset\})$ is a connected topological space. Is there a non-principal ultrafilter ${\cal U}$ on $\omega$ such that we ...

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### Cardinality of a set of pairwise non-order-isomorphic ultrafilters on $\omega$

It is well known that there are $2^{2^{\aleph_0}}$ many non-principal ultrafilters on $\omega$. Is there a set ${\frak U}$ of non-principal ultrafilters on $\omega$ with $|{\frak U}| = 2^{2^{\aleph_0}}...

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### Extending ground model ultrafilters

Work over a model of $\sf GCH$. Suppose that $\kappa$ is some regular cardinal, and $U$ is a uniform ultrafilter on $\kappa^+$.
Does $U$ have some canonical extension after forcing with $\...

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### Existence of maximal analytic P-ideal

An ideal $\mathcal{I}$ on the positive integers $\mathbf{N}$ is a P-ideal if for every sequence $(A_n)$ of sets in $\mathcal{I}$ there exists $A \in \mathcal{I}$ such that $A_n\setminus A$ is finite ...

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### Non-wellorderable ultrafilters with wellorderable bases

There are some models in which $2^\omega$ is not wellorderable but there is a free ultrafilter over $\omega$. What about the consistency of: $2^\omega$ is not wellorderable + AC for countable sets of ...

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251 views

### Defining cones and Turing cones

In Set Theory Jech defines a cone to be a subset of the Baire Space $\mathcal{N}$ of the form
$$\operatorname{cone}(x_0)= \{x : x_0 \in L[x]\}$$
where $x_0 \in \mathcal{N}$. Jech then defines the ...

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### $\operatorname{AD}$ and the measurability of $\omega_1$

Are there proofs of the measurability of $\omega_1$ (under $\operatorname{AD}$) that do not use Turing degrees nor the $\Sigma_1^1$ boundedness lemma?
I've been struggling to find an "elementary" ...

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### can every Gromov-Hausdorff limit be realized as a metric ultralimit?

Let $(X_i)$ be a countable collection of bounded metric spaces, pre-compact in the Gromov-Hausdorff metric. It is well-known that for any choice of non-principal ultrafilter $U$ on $\mathbb N$, the ...

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### Notion of non-selectivity of ultrafilters

A non-principal ultrafilter $\mathcal{U}$ on $\omega$ is called selective (or Ramsey) if for every partition $\mathcal{P}$ of $\omega$ disjoint with $\mathcal{U}$ there is $A\in\mathcal{U}$ such that $...

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### Ultrafilters preserved by $\mathbb{P}$ but not by products?

Let $U\in V$ be an ultrafilter on $\omega$. We say $U$ is preserved under forcing with $\mathbb{P}$ if $\Vdash \forall x\subset \omega \ \exists Z\in U \ Z\subset x \vee Z\subset x^c$. In other words,...

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### Extracting subsequences in Banach spaces, along an ultrafilter?

There are various principles in Banach space theory that allow one to pass from a given sequence of vectors $(x_n)$, to a subsequence $(x_{n_k})$ with some desired property. I'm thinking here, in ...

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### Preservation of Baumgartner's I-ultrafilters under various forcings

For $I\subset \mathcal{P}(2^\omega)$, an ultrafilter $U$ on $\omega$ is said to be an I-ultrafilter if for all $f:\omega \to 2^\omega$, there exists $A\in U$ such that $f''[A]\in I$ [Baumgartner]. In ...

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### What are the minimal requirements for the definable hyperreal field plus transfer?

It is interesting that to prove the transfer principle for the definable hyperreal field, one requires no more choice than for proving, for instance, the countable additivity of the Lebesgue measure. ...

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### Can There be Rudin-Keisler Immediate Sucessors?

There are several well-studied orderings on the set $\omega^*$ of ultrafilters on the natural numbers. Three popular ones are $\le_i$ for $i = 1,2,3$. We define $\mathcal U \le_i \mathcal V$ to mean ...

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### Description of $\big(\ell^\infty(\mathbb N)\big)^{\!*}$ via ultrafilters

Let $\beta\mathbb N$ is the set of ultrafilters on $\mathbb N$ and $\mathscr F\in\beta\mathbb N$. Assume that $l_{\mathscr F}\in\big(\ell^\infty(\mathbb N)\big)^{\!*}$ is the functional which assigns ...

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### Representation of the elements of $c_0^\perp$ as integrals over ultrafilters

Let
$$
X=\big\{\varphi\in\ell_\infty^{\,*}(\mathbb N) : \varphi(\{a_n\})=0\,\,\text{whenever $a_n\to 0$}\big\}.
$$
If $\varphi_{\mathscr F}(\{a_n\})$ is the limit of $\{a_n\}$ with respect to the non-...

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### Does Łoś's theorem imply choice given a free ultrafilter?

In the paper "Łoś's theorem and the boolean prime ideal theorem imply axiom of choice" Howard has shown that Łoś's theorem and the boolean prime ideal theorem imply axiom of choice. At the end of the ...

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### When can you canonically extend an ultrafilter after forcing?

Suppose that $V$ is a model of $\sf ZFC$, and fix some regular $\kappa$, say $\omega_1$ for practical purposes.
Let $\cal U$ be an ultrafilter on $\omega_1$ in $V$ which is non-principal and even ...

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### What is the name for a Banach space property closed under ultraproducts?

In Banach space theory, a super-property is a property of a Banach space that is preserved under ultrapowers. (Update (2015-09-28): The property must also be closed under isometric embeddings.) (...

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### Embedding $\beta\mathbb{N}$ into a product of Cantor sets

Let us consider $\beta\mathbb{N}$, the Stone-Čech compactification of the natural numbers (where we do not take $0$ to be a natural number, so the only idempotent elements are nonprincipal ...

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### Are ultralimits the Gromov-Hausdorff limits of a subsequence?

Let $(M_i,p_i)$ be a sequence of $n$-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with lower Ricci curvature bound $-1$. Fix a non-orincipal ultrafilter and let X be the ultralimit of the sequence.
Does there ...

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### Comparing cardinalities of the spectrum of two masas in $B(H)$

If I imagine that (the self-adjoint part of) a C*-algebra $A$ represents the algebra of observables of some quantum system, then certain perspectives on algebraic quantum theory would ask me to ...

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### Is it possible that all ultrafilters are determined by the meet-semilattice of sub-ultrapowers?

Suppose that $\mathcal{Z}$ is a filter on a set $X$. Let $\Pi(X)$ denote the lattice of all partitions of the set $X$. Then $(\Pi(X),\wedge)$ is a meet-semilattice where
$P\wedge Q=\{R\cap S|R\in P,S\...

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### Lowering from filters to ultrafilters for an infinitary relation

Let $U$ be a set. Let $N$ be a (possibly infinite) index set. Let $f$ be an $N$-ary relation on $U$ (that is $f$ is a set of functions $N\rightarrow U$).
I denote $\mathcal{L}\in \upuparrows f \...

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### Expressing a value related to an infinitary relation through ultrafilters

Let $U$ be a set. I denote $\mathfrak{A}$ the lattice of filters on $U$ ordered reverse to set theoretic inclusion of filters. I denote $\bigvee$ and $\bigwedge$ correspondingly the supremum and ...

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### Ultrafilters of weight $\aleph_2$ in Sacks model

It is well-known that in Sacks model there are P-points and even Ramsey ultrafilters, but what the usual (i.e. findable in the literature) proofs for these facts do is proving that ground model P-...

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### Ultraproduct of Forcing Extensions & Forcing Extension of Ultraproduct

Notation:
$M[{\mathbb{P}}:G]$ denotes the forcing extension of $M$ by $\mathbb{P}$-generic filter $G$.
$\prod_{\mathcal{F}}\langle M_i~|~i\in I\rangle$ denotes the ultraproduct of models using the ...

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### Preservation of ultrafilters by Sacks forcing

It is well-known that, if $p$ is a Ramsey (selective) ultrafilter on $\omega$, then after adding a Sacks real $p$ remains an ultrafilter (well, it's really the upwards closure of $p$ the one that's an ...

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### How many elementary equivalent models are unifiable by ultrapower?

Definition. A class $\mathcal{C}$ of pairwise elementary equivalent $\mathcal{L}$-structures is unifiable by ultrapower if there is an index set $I$ and an ultrafilter $F$ on it such that $\forall M,N\...

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### Can the structure of an ultrafilter determine the structure of its ultrapower?

Usually we work with ultrafilters as pure sets without any structure.
Q1. Is there any important notion of structure on an ultrafilter?
Q2. Is there any non-trivial notion of structure on ...