# Questions tagged [pr.probability]

Theory and applications of probability and stochastic processes: e.g. central limit theorems, large deviations, stochastic differential equations, models from statistical mechanics, queuing theory.

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### Example where concentration of measure fails nontrivially

A metric probability space $(X, \mu, \rho)$, i.e., a complete separable metric space with a probability measure on its Borel sets, is said to satisfy (Gaussian) concentration of measure property if ...
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### Metric spaces which can be partitioned into a finite number of barycentric spaces

Let $(X,d)$ be a compact metric space. When does there exist an $\epsilon>0$ and $x_1,\dots,x_n\in X$ such that: $\{\operatorname{Ball}_{X,d}(x_k,\epsilon)\}_{k=1}^n$ is an open cover of $X$, ...
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### Identity for Hilbert-valued Gaussian random vectors

Let $X$ be a zero-mean Gaussian random element in a separable Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ with covariance operator $\Sigma$. Let $f:\mathcal{H} \to \mathbb{R}$ be a real-valued function. Can we show ...
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### On an angle distribution of a random linear subspace of a given dimension

$\newcommand\R{\mathbb R}$ Let $u$ be a fixed unit vector in $\R^n$, and let $\Pi_u$ be the hyperplane in $\R^n$ with normal vector $u$. Let $B$ be the (say open) unit ball in $\R^n$ centered at the ...
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### Lower-bound for $\mathbb E[e^{-b(v^\top X - c)^2}]$, when $X$ is log-concave in high-dimensions

Let $d$ be a large positive integer. Fix a unit-vector $v \in \mathbb R^d$, and scalars $b,c \in \mathbb R$ with $b > 0$. Let $X$ be a log-concave random vector in $\mathbb R^d$ normalized so that ...
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### Probabilistic proof for derivative of invariant distribution of a Markov chain

Let $P$ be an irreducible Markov matrix, and $\pi$ its stationary distribution. Let $D$ be a perturbation matrix which is zero except for two entries in row $r$: $$D_{rg}=+1 \qquad D_{r\ell}=-1.$$ Let ...
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### Probability measure of trapezoidal area

Let $Pr_{(X,Y)}$ be a probability distribution of a random vector $(X,Y)$. Let $F$ be the cumulative distribution function of $(X,Y)$. Define  \mathcal{A}\equiv \{(x,y): x\leq 2 \text{ and }x-y\leq ...
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### Is the bicategory of sets and relations a Markov category?

I am reading Patterson's paper Knowledge representation in bicategories of relations. It looks like it has many of the properties of the Markov categories which Fritz has been detailing in A ...
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### Weak concentration bounds for averages of independent random variables in Orlicz spaces

Let $\phi$ be an $N$-function, (i.e. $\phi : \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0} \to \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}$ is convex and satisfies $\lim_{t \to 0} \frac{\phi(t)}{t} = 0, \lim_{t\to \infty} \frac{\phi(t)}{t} = \infty$)....
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### Moment of the hitting measure of a subgroup

Given a [finitely generated] group $G$ and a finite generating set $S$, a measure $\mu$ will have finite $\alpha$-moment if $\sum_{g \in G} \mu(g) |g|_S^\alpha$ is finite (where $|g|_S$ is the word ...
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### $\lim_{r \to +\infty}\frac{1}{\sqrt{2r \ln(\ln(r))}}(B_r-B_{\left \lfloor{\sqrt{2r \ln(\ln(r))}}\right \rfloor})= 0$ a.s.?

Consider a Brownian motion $B$ and let $f(r)=\sqrt{2r \ln(\ln(r))}.$ Is it true that $\lim_{r \to +\infty}\frac{1}{f(r)}(B_r-B_{\left \lfloor{f(r)}\right \rfloor})= 0$ a.s. ? If so, how to prove it? ...
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### As increasingly higher degree terms are added to a "random" polynomial, how fast do the roots approach the unit circle?

As increasingly higher degree terms are added to a "random" polynomial, the roots of a polynomial can be proven to approach the unit circle. For example, see the MathOverflow question Why ...
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Suppose $f(x)$ is a probability density on $\mathbb{R}$. Let $\varphi(t)=\int e^{itx}f(x)dx$ denote the Fourier transform (characteristic function). It is well-known that if $\int |x|^p f(x)dx<\... 1answer 182 views ### Expected value of orthogonal projection$X^{+}X$Let$X\in\mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$, where$m<n$, be a random matrix where the rows$x_i$($i=1,...,m$) are sampled i.i.d. from Gaussian distribution with mean$0$and covariance$\Sigma$, i.e.$x_i\...
After reading the paper The connective constant of the honeycomb lattice equals $\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}}$ by Hugo Duminil-Copin and Stanislav Smirnov (arXiv:1007.0575) published some time ago in Annals Math....