Questions tagged [probabilistic-number-theory]

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A variant of Turán–Kubilius inequality

Let $\omega(n)$ the number of distinct prime factors of $n$ (counted without multiplicity). A famous consequence of Turán–Kubilius inequality is $$ \sum_{n\leq x}(\omega(n)-\log\log x)^2=O(x\log \log ...
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0answers
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Erdos multiplication table problem avoiding integers with too many distinct prime factors

Consider multiplication operation $$f(x_1,x_2)=x_1x_2$$ where $x_i\in\{1,\dots, n_i\}\backslash T_i$ with $n_1, n_2\in\{1,\dots,\infty\} $ where $T_i$ is set of positive integers less than $n_i$ which ...
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0answers
45 views

Distribution of table entries in Erdos multiplication table problem

Consider multiplication operation $$f(x_1,\dots, x_k)=\prod_{i=1}^kx_i$$ where $x_i\in\{1,\dots, n_i\}$ with $n_1,\dots, n_k\in\{1,\dots,\infty\}$. At $k =2$ with $n_1=n_2$ this is the standard Erdos ...
4
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1answer
237 views

Is there a connection of prime numbers and Extreme Value Theory?

As most others are, so am I fascinated by primes. By the theorem of Euclid and the sieve of Eratosthenes the $ k \ge 2$ - th prime is given by: $$ p_k = \min_{x>1,\gcd(x,p_1 \cdots p_{k-1})=1} x ...
4
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1answer
153 views

Small linear relations between primitive Pythagorean triples $\mathsf{II}$

WillJagy answered a linear relation question on Pythagorean Triples in Small linear relations between primitive Pythagorean triples $\mathsf I$. Now let $a^2+b^2=c^2$ be a primitive Pythagorean ...
1
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1answer
141 views

Small linear relations between primitive Pythagorean triples $\mathsf I$

Say $a^2+b^2=c^2$ is a primitive Pythagorean triple. Then consider the Linear Diophantine Equation $$ua^2+vb^2+xab+ybc+zca=0$$ where $(u,v,x, y, z)\in\mathbb Z^4$ are variables. If $(u,v,x, y, z)\neq(...
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0answers
135 views

Funny questions about Moebius Function

I need to firstly claim that my research is not about number theory, however, I am pretty interested in it, especially funny questions in number theory, e.g. Kollatz Conjecture. Three years ago, I ...
0
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1answer
96 views

Probabilistic interpretation of square free numbers and other properties

We can use the Lindberg condition to show the distribution of number of prime divisors of an integer approaches Gaussian. Is there a similar probabilistic formulation for square free numbers? That is,...
6
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0answers
151 views

Smooth integers with lower bound on $\omega(n)$

Define $(b,c)$-smooth integers to be integers having all prime factors bigger than $c$ and smaller than $b$. Probability a number is $(b,1)$-smooth is governed by the Dickman function while ...
2
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1answer
136 views

Non-asymptotic results in probabilistic number theory

I'm a beginner. When I searched for results in probabilistic number theory most of the results were asymptotic in nature. Are there any results like with probability 1-$\epsilon$ (w.h.p) some property ...
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4answers
268 views

Approximately satisfying simultaneous vector linear diophantine equations?

Pick three $a,b,c$ vectors in $\mathbb Z^n$ uniformly with $\max(\|a\|_\infty,\|b\|_\infty)<T$ and $\|c\|_\infty<T^2$ and an $\epsilon>0$. Assume $a$ and $b$ are coordinatewise coprime (...
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0answers
43 views

Probability distribution of infinity norm of non-zero solutions of random linear homogeneous equation?

What is the probability distribution of infinity norm of non-zero solutions of a single random linear homogeneous equation with coefficients uniform in $(-b, b)\cap\mathbb Z$ and how does the ...
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0answers
81 views

Deterministically finding a subsequence of integers matching modular roots?

Take two integers $n$ and $m$ with $0<\log_2m<n<m$ and let $r_1=f_1(n)\bmod m$ and $r_2=f_2(n)\bmod m$ for functions $f_1,f_2:\mathbb Z\rightarrow\mathbb Z$. Denote the $\ell$ roots of $(f_i(...
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0answers
79 views

What is the probability of 'yes' to this likely $coNP$ problem?

Pick a set of primitive (gcd of coordinates is $1$) integer points $\mathcal T$ in $\mathbb Z^n$. Denote the set of $n$ many algebraically independent homogeneous system of polynomials (thus zero-...
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0answers
125 views

Probability of small solutions to an uniform random linear diophantine equation?

Take the set $$T(c_1,\dots,c_t)=\{(x_1,\dots,x_t)\in\mathbb Z^t\backslash\{(0,\dots,0)\}:\sum_{i=1}^tc_ix_i\equiv0\bmod q\}$$ where $c_1,\dots,c_t\in(-q/2,q/2)\cap\mathbb Z$. What is probability ...
5
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1answer
379 views

How many roots of polynomial in $\mathbb Z[x]$ and $\mathbb Q[x]$ are integers on average?

Given $d,B>0$ the number of polynomials in $\mathbb Z[x]$ of degree $d$ and coefficient size at most $B$ have at least one integer roots should be $B^{O(d)}f(d)$ at some function $f$ (from Random ...
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0answers
44 views

Does a weighted sequence derived from a sequence matching the Siegel lemma BV bound behave as an uniformly random sequence?

Pick integers $r_1',\dots,r_t'$ that achieve the Bombieri Vaaler bound for the Siegel lemma and find an $m$ (it exists by Dirichlet Pigeonhole) such that given prime $T$ gets $m(r_1',\dots,r_t')\equiv(...
3
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0answers
156 views

Modular root of $-1$

Take two distinct coprime integers $a,b$ and take $q=a^2+b^2$. Consider the equation $(xy^{-1})^2\equiv-1\bmod q$. The solutions are two roots which correspond to $(x,y)=(a,b)$ and $(x,y)=(b,a)$. Look ...
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2answers
210 views

On distribution of size of integer points in a subspace associated to a linear diophantine equation

Take $A,B,C,D$ pairwise coprime with $$n<A,B,C,D<2n$$ $$ n/4<|A−B|,|C−D|,|A−C|,|A−D|,|B−C|,|B−D|$$ and consider the space of solutions to $ACa+ADb+BCc+BDd=0$ spanned by $3\times 4$ matrix $$N=...
3
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0answers
123 views

Improving prime number generation probability?

Deterministic generation of primes in polynomial time is unknown. Is there a way to probablistically in $O(n^c)$ time bound for some $c>0$ generate polynomially $\Omega(n^c)$ many integers in $[0,...
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0answers
124 views

$L^\infty$ norm lower bound for Integer points in null spaces of recursively defined integer vectors?

Letting $\otimes$ be matrix kronecker/tensor product with $n\in\Bbb N$ as a parameter define non-negative integer vectors recursively $$v_1=\begin{bmatrix}a_1&b_1\end{bmatrix}\in\Bbb Z_{>0}^2$$ ...
1
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1answer
201 views

Generalized notion of divisor function?

Divisor function $d(n,m)$ counts the number of $q\in\Bbb N$ with $b<q<m$ such that $n\bmod q\equiv0$. Given $b>0$ what is the correct asymptotic, probabilistic and average case behavior of ...
2
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2answers
698 views

Occurrence of simultaneous small remainders?

Fix $(a,b)=1$, $a<b<2a$ and $a,b>n^{1/(2t)}$ and fix a prime $T\approx n^{\tau+\frac1k}$ where $\tau\geq1$ and $k=2(t-1)$. We can show using exponential sums there is an $m_{_T}$ such that $T/...
9
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2answers
188 views

If normal with respect to prime base then normal for all bases

I tried to find it on internet but couldn't so m asking this here. I want to ask if a number is normal with respect to all prime number base then do we know that it is normal with respect to any base. ...
5
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0answers
295 views

Asymptotic estimate for a random model of primes

Question Let $$ \pi_{rm_c}(x) = \sum_{ \substack{ {n\leq x}\\{(n+a,P(\sqrt{n}))=1}}} 1-1, $$ where $P(x)$ is the product of all primes less or equal to $x$ and $a$ is a random integer constrained to ...
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1answer
167 views

Exact statistics in the Frobenius coin problem

The Frobenius coin problem guarantees that if $(a,b)=1$, then $$ax+by$$ does not represent exactly $\frac{(a-1)(b-1)}2$ numbers all below $g(a,b)=ab-a-b$ if $x,y\geq0$ holds. Assume $m\in[0,ab-a-b]$ ...
3
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0answers
202 views

Reference request: Darboux properties of real-valued set functions (measures, densities, etc.)

Fix a set $S$ and let $f: \mathcal P(S) \rightharpoonup \mathbf R$ be a real-valued partial function on the power set of $S$; denote by $\mathcal D$ the domain of $f$. We say that $f$ has: (i) the ...
4
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2answers
357 views

Relative-totient function (2nd attempt)

Let $\Lambda(x,y)$ be the count of totatives of $x$ that are less than or equal to $y$. I am asking for the following result to be verified, (particularly the final proposal), I have found no ...
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2answers
443 views

The number of totatives to the nth primorial, in an interval shorter than the nth primorial

(The notation of this question will be improved over the next few days, sorry for the lack of clarity at the moment.) Can, and if so when can, we determine the amount of natural numbers which are ...
3
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0answers
212 views

Probability that an integer contains no $1\bmod 4$ prime factor

$n$ represents integer variable. What is the probability that and integer contains at most $r(n)$ prime factors of form $1\bmod 4$ where $r(n)$ is a function of $\omega(n)$ (number of distinct prime ...
13
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2answers
652 views

Number of distinct factors

Denote $\omega(m)$ to be number of distinct factors of $m$ as defined in http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DistinctPrimeFactors.html. At every $c>0$, given $n\in\Bbb N$ define $$S(n,c)=\big\{m\in\Bbb N:...
2
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0answers
266 views

A variant frobenius problem

From Sylvester's theorem we know that using only coins of sizes $a,b$, we can change exactly $\frac{(a-1)(b-1)}2$ different big coins up to $(a-1)(b-1)$. Denote sets $$\mathcal{S_1}=[c_1n,d_1n]\cap\...
5
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1answer
427 views

How many random matrices does it take to generate a matrix algebra?

Let $\mathbb{F}$ be a finite field. Let $A\le \mbox{Mat}_n(\mathbb{F})$ be a matrix algebra. Is there a good bound on the number $k$ of random elements $a_1,\dots,a_k\in A$ that one needs to take ...
18
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1answer
1k views

How many integers divide a number that involves just three non-zero digits?

Just to be concrete, consider the digits to be binary. Hasse showed that among all the primes, only a fraction of $17/24 < 1$ divide a number of the form $2^n+1$. As a result, the integers that ...
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0answers
321 views

In which orders can the numbers of prime factors of consecutive integers be?

Let $\omega(m)$ be the number of distinct prime divisors of a positive integer $m>1$. I am interested in the relative orders in which the numbers $\omega(n+1),...,\omega(n+k)$ can occur. Given a ...
3
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1answer
366 views

Ratio of consecutive divisors and average

Let $2\leq d_1 < d_2,...,d_l < n$ be all the proper nontrivial divisors of $n$. I like to understand how much these divisors deviates from each other. Here are two questions in this regard: (1) ...
4
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1answer
538 views

Distribution function for divisors of an Integer

For a fixed $n$, let $D_n(x) = \{ d|n : d \leq x \}$ . We assume here $p \leq x \leq n/p$, where $p$ is the smallest prime factor of $n$. For example if $n = p^i$ for some prime $p$ then $D_n(x) \...
2
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1answer
171 views

expected number of shared 1s between two binary strings from a given set

Let say, I have two binary strings with length N, chosen from a set where there are $2^N-K,(K \ge 0)$ independent strings. What would be the expected number of Ones at the same index from two randomly ...
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2answers
6k views

Convergence of moments implies convergence to normal distribution

I have a sequence $\{X_n\}$ of random variables supported on the real line, as well as a normally distributed random variable $X$ (whose mean and variance are known but irrelevant). I know that the ...
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0answers
133 views

Relation between the densities of two functions and their additive convolution?

Suppose that for two integral-valued arithmetic functions $f_i$ ($i=1,2$), the following values are known: $$ \lim_{n\to \infty} \frac{ \{n:f_i(n) \text{ is odd}\}\cap \{0,1,\ldots, n-1\} }{n}.$$ (In ...
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2answers
438 views

using distribution of primes to generate random bits?

In his popular science book The Music of the Primes, Marcus du Sautoy tries to link the truth of the Riemann Hypothesis to the "randomness" of the primes. To do this, he invokes the idea of a "fair ...
2
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1answer
217 views

Has every divisibility-antichain density zero?

Let $A \subset \mathbb N$ be a antichain with respect to divisibility. Does this imply that the density of $A$ is $0$?
23
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2answers
1k views

Drawing natural numbers without replacement.

Suppose we start with an initial probability distribution on $\mathbb{N}$ that gives positive probability to each $n$. Let's call this random variable $X_1$ so we have $P(X_1=n)=p_{1,n}>0$ for all $...
3
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1answer
396 views

Work exploring application of probability to metric number theory problems

I am interested in studying the application of probabilistic tools to study metric number theoretic problems, specifically the Duffin-Schaeffer conjecture (http://www.math.osu.edu/files/duffin-...
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2answers
2k views

Is there any sense in which Dirichlet density is “optimal?”

A philosopher asked me an interesting math question today! We know that there are sets S of integers which don't have a "natural" or "naive" density -- that is, the quantity (1/n)|S intersect [1..n]| ...
13
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1answer
1k views

Heuristic reason for Polya's conjecture

Let $\lambda(n)$ be Liouville's function, so that for each positive integer $n = p_1^{m_1}\cdots p_r^{m_r}$, we have that $\lambda(n) = (-1)^{\sum^{r}_{k=1}{m_k}}$. In 1919, Polya conjectured that $L(...
10
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1answer
746 views

U(3) Sato-Tate measure.

An undergraduate is performing some computations, related to a Sato-Tate conjecture of $U(3)$ type (a curve over $Q$, for which the roots of local L-functions look like eigenvalues of a random matrix ...
16
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1answer
648 views

What's the probability that k + n^2 is squarefree, for fixed k?

While playing around with this question (when is the sum of two squares squarefree?), from some experimental computations (and bolstered by the fact that the density of squarefree positive integers is ...