# Questions tagged [pr.probability]

Theory and applications of probability and stochastic processes: e.g. central limit theorems, large deviations, stochastic differential equations, models from statistical mechanics, queuing theory.

Theory and applications of probability and stochastic processes: e.g. central limit theorems, large deviations, stochastic differential equations, models from statistical mechanics, queuing theory.

7,901
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I'm trying to understand whether I can use the following equality in my application -- for $u,v,w \in \mathbb{R}^d$:
$$\cos(u,w)\approx \cos(u,v)\cos(v,w)$$
Where $\cos(x,y)$ gives cosine of the angle ...

3
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2
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Let $\mathcal{A} = \{\Sigma \in PSD_{n\times n}(\mathbb{R}), \wedge \forall i,\Sigma_{ii}=1\}$. Then $\mathcal{A} \subset M_{n\times n}(\mathbb{R})$ is convex, closed, and bounded.
For each $\Sigma \...

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This question is regarding a special case of this question, for which it is plausible the details are known.
The Carbery-Wright inequality is an "anti-concentration inequality" that states ...

3
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1
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319
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For $s \in (0,1)$, we consider the spectral fractional Laplacian
\begin{align}
(-\Delta)^{-s}u = \sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\lambda_k^{-s}(\phi_k,u)_{L^2}\phi_k
\end{align}
where
\begin{align*}
\begin{cases}
...

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0
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I already asked this question in MSE (see https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/4527325/almost-sure-equivalence-of-regular-conditonal-probability-of-a-progressive-proce).
Consider the (canonical ...

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When dealing with U process I meet with such a uniform entropy to calculate.
For any $\eta>0$, function class $\mathcal{F}$ containing functions $f=\left(f_{i, j}\right)_{1 \leq i \neq j \leq n}: \...

5
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1
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152
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Let $\mathcal{G}_n = \{ N(\mu,\Sigma) ; \mu \in \mathbb{R}^n, \Sigma > 0\}$ be the collection of Gaussian distributions on $\mathbb{R}^n$ with full support.
If $f : \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^k$ ...

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Question:
Did Kolmogorov develop a set of axioms for probability theory motivated by Algorithmic Information Theory in the 1960s?
Context:
In 1965, Andrey Kolmogorov considered three approaches to ...

3
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I am trying to understand the the following paper https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.10971.pdf, in particular Example 2:
If $ Y \sim N(0,1)$, the standard normal on $\mathbb{R}$, then
$ \begin{align*} \Big( \...

1
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1
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(I asked this question on MSE 10 days ago, but I got no answer.)
Let $X$ and $Y$ be two independent identically distributed binomial random variables with parameters $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $p \in (0,1)...

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I feel like this is maybe an incredibly trivial problem, and I'm just missing something. I may also be describing a well-known model that I cannot find the name for, so any comment/suggestion is ...

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I am interested in the following procedure that yields a sequence $D_1,D_2,\ldots,$ of probability distributions over $\mathbb{R}^n$.
Let $D_1$ be the $n$-dimensional Gaussian distribution with ...

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1
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Suppose you have Banach spaces $\mathcal B_\alpha$ where $\alpha$ is in some index set $I$. Let $\mu_\alpha$ be Gaussian measures on $\mathcal B_\alpha$ with Cameron-Martin spaces $\mathcal H_{\mu_\...

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In this paper (https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.ejp/1465067185) a pseudo spectral gap is introduced of a time homogeneous, $\phi$-irreducible, aperiodic Markov chain on a Polish state space with ...

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Let $(X_i)$ be a stationary Markov chain on $S$ (a potentially uncountable space with a Borel sigma algebra) with stationary distribution $\pi$ and transition kernel $P$. Let $(Y_i)$ be a stationary ...

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The Williams decomposition is
Let $(B_{t}-\nu t)_{t\geq 0}$ be a Brownian motion with negative drift $\nu>0$ and let $M_{\infty}^{-\nu}:=\sup_{t\in [0,\infty]}(B_{t}-\nu t)$. Then conditionally on ...

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We are given a convex shape $S$ in the $d$-dimensional Euclidean space, whose boundary is formed by portions of $2d$ different spheres, one portion per sphere. The radius of each sphere is the same, $...

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Is there a discrete space Markov chain, starting from a fixed state, whose stationary distribution is a multimodal distribution and that mixes in polynomial time?
For example, Ising model on say a ...

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1
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I am looking for an example of the following:
Find a bijective, differentiable function $f$ and continuous probability density functions $q_1\ne q_2$ such that $f_*q_1=p=f_*q_2$, where $f_*$ is the ...

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Let us consider the group of measure-preserving homeomorphisms of $\mathbb T^2$ (with transformations identified if they agree almost
everywhere) called $G[\mathbb T^2, \mathcal L^2]$. We shall ...

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Given positive integers $k$ and $n$, we define the probability distribution $p_{n,k}$ on $S_n$ as:
$$
p_{n,k}(\sigma):=\frac{\#\{(\tau_1,\dots,\tau_s)\mid \sigma=\tau_1\dots\tau_s, \text{ each }\tau_i\...

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In https://arxiv.org/abs/0912.3423, a family of random homeomorphisms of the circle is constructed. Main Question: Can the construction be generalized to higher space dimensions, e.g. to $\mathbb T^2$?...

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Given a positive Borel measure without atoms $\tau$ on the circle $\mathbb T =\mathbb R /\mathbb Z =[0,1)$ , in https://arxiv.org/abs/0912.3423 a homeomorphism $h:[0,1)\to [0,1)$ is defined as
\...

3
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Suppose $x_i \stackrel{\text{i.i.d}}{\sim} \mathcal{N}(\mu,\Sigma)$. What can we say about dependence on $b$ of Frobenius/spectral norm quantities below?
$$f(b)=\left\|\frac{1}{b}\sum_{i=1}^b x_i x_i^...

2
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Let $A>0$ be fixed and consider $X_1,\ldots$ i.i.d. nonnegative random variables such that $E[1/X_1]<\infty$.
Is is true that $$\sup_{a\in \big (0,\frac A{\sqrt n} \big]} \sum_{i=1}^n 1_{X_i>...

3
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1
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Suppose $X_1, \cdots, X_n \sim_{\mathrm{iid}} U([-1,1])$, where $U([-1, 1])$ denotes the continuous uniform distribution over the interval $[-1, 1]$ (so $E[X_i] = 0$ and $\text{Var}[X_i]= 1/3$). Let $...

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0
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Let $E$ be a polish and let $P$ and $Q$ be finitely supported probability measures on $X$. What conditions are required to ensure that: for every $\delta>0$ there exists a $\delta$-optimal ...

6
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3
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288
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Let $ t>0 $, and we look at the random walk $S_{n}=\sum_{i=1}^{n}X_{n}$ on $\mathbb{Z}$ with $S_0=0$ where $$ \mathbb{P}\left(X_{n}=1\right) =\frac{1}{2}\left(1+\frac{1}{n^{t}}\right)
$$ $$ \...

3
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1
answer

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We are given a convex shape $S$ lying inside the hypercube $[0,1]^d$ in the $d$-dimensional Euclidean space. Let the volume $V(S)$ of $S$ be $\tfrac12$ (I guess nothing changes for any other fixed ...

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Let $X$ and $Y$ be separable and reflexive Banach spaces with Schauder bases. Let $\mu$ be a non-zero finite Borel measure on $X$ and let $L^p(X,Y;\mu)$ denote the (Boehner) space of strongly p-...

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Thank you in advance for your help!
I am interested in studying the following probability:
$$P\big[\max_{H \subset X,|H|=k} \sum_{i \in H} \mathbf{a}_i^T \mathbf{w} \ge 0 \big],$$
where $\mathbf{a}_i$ ...

4
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0
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We are given a convex shape $C$ lying inside the hypercube $[0,1]^d$ in the $d$-dimensional Euclidean space. Let the volume of $C$ be $\tfrac12$ (I guess nothing changes for any other fixed constant ...

4
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2
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Let $X_i\sim N(0,\sigma_i^2)$ and $\operatorname{Corr}(X_i,X_j)>0$. Is it possible to show that $$\frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^N X_i \overset{p}\rightarrow E[X_i]=0.$$ Do you have a reference to a law of ...

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According to Kolmogorov 0-1 law, if $ \left(X_{i}\right)_{i=1}^{\infty} $ are independent, then the tail sigma algebra is trivial. I want to construct such variables which are "almost independent&...

4
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1
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Suppose $(S_n)_n$ is a sequence of real random variables. Denote their cumulant generating functions by $K_n(t) = \log\mathbb{E}\left[\mathrm{e}^{t S_n}\right]$, and assume that each $K_n$ is finite ...

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1
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Let $p_1$ and $p_2$ be two probability densities and $X_i\sim N(\mu_i,\Sigma_i)$. Write $w(X)\sim p$ if the law of the random variable $w(X)$ has a density equal to $p$. For general densities $p_i$, ...

8
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1
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It is said by Halmos, P.R.; in "Lectures on ergodic theory"
"Many of the difficulties of measure theory and all the pathology of the subject arise from the existence of sets of measure ...

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0
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Consider a 3D Bessel bridge $\rho_t$ connecting $(x,t)=(0,0)$ and $(x,t)=(0,T)$, whose SDE is given by
$$d\rho_t = \left(\frac{1}{\rho_t} - \frac{\rho_t}{T-t}\right)dt + dB_t,$$
where $B_t$ is a ...

5
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1
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Given a $d$-ball $\mathcal{S}^{d}$, let $P_n$ a set of $n$ points selected uniformly at random on the boundary $\mathcal{S}^{d-1}$ of $\mathcal{S}^{d}$. Let $\mathcal{C}_n$ the convex hull of $P_n$. ...

3
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3
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Let $\mathbf{y},\mathbf{x},\mathbf{z}$ are real-valued random vectors with possibly different dimensions. Assume $\mathbf{y}=f(\mathbf{x},\mathbf{z})$ for some function $f$.
If $\mathbf{z} \perp\!\!\!\...

0
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0
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Consider a standard centered Gaussian vector $(X_1,...,X_n)$ with an approximate block structure, i.e. there is $q$ and a partition of $\{1,...,n\}$ in $q$ classes such that if $i,j$ are in the same ...

3
votes

1
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Let $y\in \mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbf{x},\mathbf{z}\in\mathbb{R}^p$ be random variable and random vectors. Assume $y=f(\mathbf{x}+\mathbf{z},\mathbf{z})$ for some function $f$.
Is the following statement ...

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1
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Let $X$ be an $d\times d$ random matrix satisfying $\mathbb{E}[X]=0$ and $\|X\|_2\leq 1$ almost everywhere. Let $\mathcal{F}$ be the $\sigma$-field generated by $X$. Now suppose we have another $\...

3
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Main Question
Let $f:[0,1]\to [0,1]$ be continuous, let $B_n(f)$ be the $n$-th degree Bernstein polynomial of $f$, and let $r\ge 3$.
What is an explicit and tight upper bound on $C_1>0$ with the ...

1
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1
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Broadly speaking, I have a radial distribution on $\mathbb R^n$, i.e., the pdf only depends on the $\ell_2$-norm of the argument. I would like to obtain an expression for the pdf in the form $\int_{w=...

2
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1
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153
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The most common use of the Bakry-Emery criterion is for the measure $\mu(x)=e^{-u(x)} /Z$ where $u \in \mathcal{C}^2$. I would like to ask for an application to a smaller class.
Consider $u(x)=|x|^2 + ...

15
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1
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644
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What are the feasible $2^n$-tuples of entropies $h(S) := H(X_{i_1},\dots,X_{i_{|S|}})$ where $X_1,\dots,X_n$ are discrete random variables with some (unknown) joint probability distribution as $S=\{...

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1
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161
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I need help to understand the following :
For any non-negative random variable $\zeta$: $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\mathbb{P}(\zeta\geq k)\leq\mathbb{E}(\zeta)\leq 1+\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\mathbb{P}(\zeta\geq k)...

0
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1
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Let $S_{d-1}$ denote the unit sphere in $\mathbb{R}^d$ and let $(Z_x)_{x \in S_{d-1}}$ be a gaussian process with mean zero and covariance structure given by the square of the scalar product, i.e.
$$
\...

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0
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Let
$(E,\mathcal E)$ be a measurable space;
$(\kappa_t)_{t\ge0}$ be a Markov semigroup on $(E,\mathcal E)$;
$\mu$ be a finite measure on $(E,\mathcal E)$ which is subinvariant with respect to $(\...