# Questions tagged [rational-functions]

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111
questions

**3**

votes

**0**answers

27 views

### Convexity of integral trajectories of rational vector field

Suppose we have a vector field determined by a rational function,
of the form
$$
R(z) = \alpha i z + \sum_{j=1}^k \frac{c_j}{z-r_j}
$$
where $\alpha \in \mathbb{R}$, and the other constants are in $\...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

347 views

### Algebraic closure of $\mathbb{C}(t)$

Let $\mathbb{C}(t)$ be the field of rational functions $f(t) = \frac{p(t)}{q(t)}$ with $p,q\in\mathbb{C}[t]$.
For instance, the function $g(t) = \sqrt{t}$ does not belong to $\mathbb{C}(t)$ but is ...

**8**

votes

**3**answers

499 views

### residue calculation for rational function

A colleague and I are working on a problem and part of it comes down to evaluating the residue of a rational function. In particular,
$$
\mathrm{Res} \left( z^{kn-1} \left( az^{m}+1 \right)^{-k}; r \...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

263 views

### Approximation of analytic function by a fixed number of monomials

This question seems simple but I can't manage to disprove it. Let $N\in \mathbb{N}$. We know that by its analyticity that this precise linear combination of monomials
$
\sum_{n=0}^K \frac1{n!} x^n
$
...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

80 views

### Inferring polynomial rate of convergence from polynomial bound

Let $x_n$ be a non-negative valued sequence and suppose that the following hold:
$\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} x_n =0$
There exists some polynomial function $p$ of degree at-least $1$ such that:
$$
\|x_n\...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

36 views

### Characterization of dimension over $\mathbb{Q}$ of infinite sums of rational functions

Let $P(n)=(n+r_1)(n+r_2)...(n+r_k)$ be a polynomial with simple, rational, negative roots (i.e. $r_i>0$) and degree $k\geq 2$ (I stick with negative roots as I don't have to worry about dividing by ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

27 views

### Partial fraction form of multivariate rational fraction

Suppose that a multivariate function $f$ can be expressed as a ratio of polynomials $f(x) = \frac{P(x)}{Q(x)}$. Denote the respectives degrees of $P$ and $Q$ being $m$ and $n$.
E.g, suppose that i ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

298 views

### Roots of polynomials of particular type

How to find the solutions $x $ of the following equation: $$\frac{n_1}{x + n_1} + \frac{n_2}{x + n_2} + \cdots +\frac{n_k}{x + n_k} = 1$$ where $n_i$s are natural numbers.
For the case $k=2$, I get ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

76 views

### Extension of closed-form solvability of polynomial equations of x and exp to rational expressions?

Is my conjecture below true?
It's a new conjecture. It's an extension of Lin's theorem in [Lin 1983] which is cited in [Chow 1999] - see both references at the bottom of this page.
It seems that Ferng-...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

243 views

### Algebraic geometry additionally equipped with field automorphism operation

I am looking for some facts on theory, which is essentially algebraic geometry but with field automorphisms added as 'basic' operations. (Precisely, I mean universal algebraic geometry for (universal) ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

219 views

### Constructive definition of noncommutative rational functions (aka free skew fields)

The question
Let $F$ be a field. (I am fine with assuming $F=\mathbb{Q}$, but I suspect
that a "right" answer will be independent of $F$.) Let $k$ be a nonnegative integer.
Question. Is ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

97 views

### Determine whether a rational function on the codomain of a surjective morphism is regular

Let $X$ be a smooth affine algebraic variety with a (not necessarily free) action by an algebraic torus $T$. Let $Y$ be the quotient stack $X/T$ and let $p:X\rightarrow Y$ be the quotient map. Suppose ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

250 views

### Chebyshev rational approximation of $e^{x}, x >0$: does it exist?

It's well known that the scalar function $e^x$, for $x \in (-\infty,0]$ can be approximated by Chebyshev rational approximation. In practice, one wants to use a partial fraction decomposition form ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

412 views

### How I can prove or disprove that $\frac{x}{y+z}+\frac{y}{x+z}+\frac{z}{y+x}=1$ has solutions in rationals? [duplicate]

The motivation of this question is to look if there is such solution in rational number to the identity which mentioned here, I have done many attempts using Wolfram Alpha to find such pairs of ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

493 views

### Again, polynomial bijection $f:{\mathbb Q}\times{\mathbb Q}\times{\mathbb Q}\to {\mathbb Q}$

Assume that there is no polynomial $f(x,y)\in{\mathbb Q}[x,y]{}$ such that $f\colon {\mathbb Q}\times{\mathbb Q}\to {\mathbb Q}$ is a bjiection. Does this imply that there is no polynomial $f(x,y,z)\...

**4**

votes

**4**answers

474 views

### Does there exist a rational polynomial $P(x)\in{\mathbb Q}[x]{}$ such that $P(\zeta(s))=\zeta(P(s))$?

let $P(x)\in{\mathbb Q}[x]{}$ be a rational polynomial with $P(1) >1$ and $\zeta $ be the Riemann zeta function , I want to know if there exist a rational polynomial such that $P(\zeta(s))=\zeta(P(...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### Trasforming a system of rational equations into an equivalent system of polynomial equations

Suppose that a system of rational equations $r_1=0, r_2=0, \dots, r_m=0$ defines a zero dimensional variety $V$.
Is there an algorithm to produce polynomials $p_i$, starting from the rational ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

309 views

### About $a_n = \frac{a_{n-1}(a_{n-1} + C)}{a_{n-2}}.$

Let $A,B,C > 0$. Put $a_1 = A$ and $a_2 = B$ and, for integer $n > 2$,
$$a_n = \frac{a_{n-1}(a_{n-1} + C)}{a_{n-2}}$$
and
$$ T = \lim_{k \to \infty} \frac{a_k}{ a_{k - 1}}.$$
Notice the limit ...

**8**

votes

**0**answers

202 views

### “Taylor series” is to “Volterra series” as “Padé approximant” is to _________?

Padé approximants are often better than Taylor series at representing a function. Given a Taylor series, one can use Wynn's epsilon algorithm to easily produce the Padé approximants to it.
Volterra ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

149 views

### Extend any morphism to suitable projective variety? [closed]

Let $F: X\to \mathbb{P}^n$ be a morphism from an affine variety to projective space (over some algebraically closed field of characteristic zero). Can we always find an open immersion $\iota: X\...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

222 views

### How to measure how much a rational function/a singularity of variety is complicated?

There are some theorems about various zeta functions which states the rationality of those.
For example, when you consider Igusa's zeta function, roughly the generating series of solutions mod $p^n$ ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

401 views

### When does $\sqrt{a_1} + \cdots + \sqrt{a_k} \in K$ imply $\sqrt{a_1}, \ldots, \sqrt{a_k} \in K$?

Consider $R = \mathbb{Z}[X_1, \ldots, X_k]$, the polynomial ring in $k$ variables over $\mathbb{Z}$, and let $S = \mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{X_1}, \ldots, \sqrt{X_k}]$. Then $S/R$ is an integral extension of ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

68 views

### Root of the expectation of a random rational function

I am trying to figure out a formula for the unique $\lambda>1$ such that
$$
\mathbb{E}\bigg[\frac{X}{\lambda -X}\bigg]=1
$$
where $X$ is a discrete random variable taking values in $\{\frac{1}{n},....

**3**

votes

**2**answers

329 views

### Transformation of a fourth degree polynomial

Given $$ P (x) = ax ^ 4 + bx ^ 3 + cx ^ 2 + dx + e = a (x ^ 2 + p_1x + q_1) (x ^ 2 + p_2x + q_2) $$ for some $ a, b, c, d, e, p_1, q_1, p_2, q_2 \in \mathbb R$, prove that $ P (x) $ can be reduced to ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

36 views

### Algorithm to determine if a rational fraction has only non negative coefficients

Is there an algorithm that takes as input a polynomial in two variables $P \in \mathbb{N}[x,y]$ and outputs YES if and only if the coefficients of the series $\frac{1}{1-(x+y)} - \frac{1}{1-P}$ are ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

134 views

### On sums of minima and maxima

Let $h_1,\ldots,h_n$ be positive integers, and define
$$m(h_1,\ldots,h_n)=\sum_{r_1=0}^{h_1-1}\ldots\sum_{r_n=0}^{h_n-1}\min\left\{\frac{r_1}{h_1},\ldots,\frac{r_n}{h_n}\right\}$$
and
$$M(h_1,\ldots,...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

274 views

### Detecting if a series represents a rational function

A lemma by Kronecker states that the series $f(z):= \sum_{i=0}^{\infty} c_i z^i$ represents a rational function if and only if for every $m \gg 0$ the determinant of the following matrix is equal to ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

310 views

### Relation between coefficients of expansions

Related to Relations between coefficients of expansions of a rational function at 0 and infinity
I commented at the linked question that the question seemed less about what happened "at infinity", ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

557 views

### Relations between coefficients of expansions of a rational function at 0 and infinity

This question goes in the bucket of "this must be well known, but I don't see it and am not sure where to look it up."
Given two Laurent power series $A(t)=\sum_{k>N}a_kt^k$ and $B(t)=\sum_{k>M}...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

315 views

### Is Videla's solution of Hilbert's tenth problem for rational functions over field of characteristic 2 wrong?

The paper in question.
Quick introduction to the problem: suppose that $F$ is a finite field of characteristic 2
(for purposes of this post $F = \mathbb{F}_2$ will suffice) and let $F[t]$ and $F(t)$ ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

167 views

### Generating series of rational$\times \exp($rational$)$

It is known that rational functions $f\in \mathbb C(x)$, $0$ not a pole, are the sum of generating series $\sum_{n\geq 0} a_nx^n$ where $(a_n)_n$ is solution of a linear recurrence with constant ...

**5**

votes

**3**answers

258 views

### fixed points of quadratic iteration

Consider the well-known iteration $f:z\to z^2 + c,$ and consider the values of $c$ for which $0$ is a periodic point. Experiment shows that most such values of $c$ (about $480$ out of $512$ for period ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### approximating the $|x|$ function

I'm familiar with Newman's rational approximation of the absolute value function via rational functions. Are there other explicit functions that approximate $|x|$ with exponential error? I was under ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

359 views

### On a vanishing integral inner product

Let $G(z)$ be an $n\times m$ rational matrix-valued function of full column rank on the unit circle. Further, let $P(z)$ be an $m\times m$ rational matrix-valued function positive definite on the unit ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

131 views

### Are the inverses of a set of quadratic polynomials linearly independent?

Is a collection of reciprocals of monic reducible quadratic polynomials, that is functions of the form
$$ \{ \left( (x-a_i)(x-b_i) \right)^{-1} \}_{i=1}^{k}, $$
linearly independent over a finite ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

288 views

### A simple matrix multiplication query [closed]

The entries of $\begin{bmatrix}a&b\\c&d\end{bmatrix}\begin{bmatrix}a'&b'\\c'&d'\end{bmatrix}=\begin{bmatrix}aa'+bc'&ab'+bd'\\ca'+dc'&cb'+dd'\end{bmatrix}$ are curiously given ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

306 views

### Pade approximation of a rational function

I believe I have a naive or hard question because I couldn't find any results in the Internet yet. Any help is greatly appreciated.
So suppose I have two rational functions $R_1(x)$ and $R_2(x)$, i....

**0**

votes

**0**answers

81 views

### Coefficients of a special meromorphic function

The problem described below appears elementary, but I can't figure out the answer or find it in the literature. I apologize if I have missed something very basic.
Let me begin with considering a ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

210 views

### An analogue of rational functions for Hahn series

For any field $k$, we have both the field $k(t)$ of rational functions (formal quotients of polynomials, i.e. the field of fractions of $k[t]$) and the field $k((t))$ of formal Laurent series (which ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

181 views

### Inverse image of a Jordan curve

If there exists a rational map $R$ from the extended plane $\hat{\mathbb{C}}$ to itself, and a Jordan curve $J$ on the plane, such that $R$ has no critical value on the curve, can we say that the ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

128 views

### The class of all iterated antiderivatives of rational functions

Consider the following property of a function $f$:
There exists a non-negative integer $n$ such that the $n$'th derivative of $f$ is a rational function.
Question 1: Is there a name in the ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

458 views

### Splitting of polynomials over rational function fields

Let $K$ be a number field, and let $P(t,X)$ be a monic polynomial in $X$ with coefficients in $K(t)$.
I would like to understand the set $T$ consisting of those $t_0 \in K$ such that the polynomial $...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

165 views

### Rational functions and polynomials with infinitely many integer values

Let $f\in \mathbb{C}(x)$ be a rational function.
Assume that we have an infinite collection $\{p_n\}_{n\in \mathbb{N}}$ of positive integers such that for every $n$ it holds that $f(p_n)\in\mathbb{N}$...

**2**

votes

**3**answers

294 views

### Interpolation by rational functions reference

I have been hearing a lot about a theory of interpolation using rational function, parallel to that of polynomial interpolation.
I'm looking for a book chapter, or even short lecture notes, that will ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

302 views

### An upper bound on Zolotarev numbers

Let $k$ be an integer and disjoint closed sets $E,F\subset\mathbb{R}^2$. Consider the Zolotarev number
$$Z_k(E,F):= \inf_{r\in\mathcal{R}_{k,k}}\frac{\sup_{z\in E}|r(z)|}{\inf_{z\in F}|r(z)|},$$
...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

87 views

### Convexity of a set related to certain class of Laurent polynomials

For $r,s\in\mathbb{N}$, let
$$L(z):=\sum_{j=-r}^{s}a_{j}z^{j}$$
be a Laurent polynomial with real coefficients such that there exists a closed curve $\gamma$ encircling the origin, i.e., $0\in\mbox{...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

206 views

### Surprisingly simple minimum of a rational function on $\mathbb R_+^n$

Motivation:
The following problem has occurred in a study of energy dissipation in a chain of coupled, damped oscillators.
The problem:
Let me define specific rational functions $f$, $g$, and $...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

98 views

### Galois invariant rational functions and base change

Let $X$ be an algebraic variety defined over a perfect field $k$, let $\bar k$ be
the algebraic closure of $k$, let $X_{\bar k}$ be the base change of $X$ over $\bar k$ and let $G ={\rm Gal}(\bar k/k)$...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

184 views

### Characterizing rational functions on $\mathbb{Q}$ in terms of smooth extensions to $\mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbb{Q}_p$

Consider a function $f$ from a cofinite subset of $\mathbb{Q}$ to $\mathbb{Q}$. As established here and here $f$ extending to a smooth function on a cofinite subset of $\mathbb{R}$ is not sufficient ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

748 views

### When are growth series rational?

For a finitely generated group $G$ with generating set $S$, one can define the word metric. Using this, we are able to define the sequence $\sigma(n)$ by
$ \sigma(n) = |\mathcal{S}(e,n)| $, which is ...