# Questions tagged [periodic-functions]

The periodic-functions tag has no usage guidance.

37
questions

0
votes

0
answers

31
views

### Lower bound of infinite sum of shifts

This is an extension of https://mathoverflow.net/posts/452526.
So, it appears that $\sin(xt)$ serves as a better lower bound instead of a linear equation, in fact the series appears to uniformly ...

1
vote

1
answer

90
views

### Bounds of periodic functions formed from infinite series of shifts

Recently, I have become quite obsessed with the follow series:
$$f(t,x)=\sum_{m=-\infty}^{\infty} (-1)^m f(t+x m)$$
where $f$ is analytic. This series automatically produces a periodic function with ...

2
votes

1
answer

159
views

### The sum of $q^{-2}$ over nonzero Gaussian integers

I'm reading about the Weierstrass zeta function. In this context,
$\phi(z)=\zeta(z)-\pi\bar{z}$
is periodic over the lattice
$$\mathcal{L}=\{a+bi\mid a,b\in\mathbb{Z}\}.$$
If we take $w\in\mathcal{L}\...

4
votes

1
answer

450
views

### Are the irrotational and solenoidal parts of a smooth vector field linearly independent?

Let $\textbf{F}\in \mathbb{R}^3$ be a smooth vector field for all space. It is well known using Helmholtz decomposition that we can decompose $\textbf{F}$ into two vector fields in $V$: $$\textbf{F} = ...

6
votes

3
answers

219
views

### Vanishing periodizations $\sum_{k \in \mathbb Z} f(t+ak)$ of a function $f$ for different values of $a$ implies $f=0$?

Consider a continuous function $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb C$ with rapid decay (e.g. $|f(t)| < e^{-t^2}$). For a constant $a>0$ let
$$
F_a(t) = \sum_{k \in \mathbb Z} f(t+ak)
$$
be the ...

0
votes

0
answers

155
views

### Solving a nonlinear differential equation

I need to solve the following equation:
$$y'(t)+2[\cos y(t)+\Omega(t)]=0,$$
where
$$\Omega(t)=-2\eta +\frac{2(\eta^2-1)}{\eta-\cos(4\sqrt{\eta^2-1}t)}$$
with $\eta>1$.
Undoubtedly, the differential ...

2
votes

0
answers

55
views

### Name of functions that are the discrete sum of a periodic discrete function

Research I am currently engaged in involves the usage of discrete functions of the following form.
Let $a$ be a finite sequence of integers with length $n$ with $a^\infty = a \circ a \circ \dots$ ...

3
votes

1
answer

300
views

### Fourier series of $e^{(\cos(\pi x) - m)^2}$

I'm looking for the Fourier coefficient of a "periodic Gaussian", which writes
$$
f(x) = e^{-\frac{1}{2s}(\cos(\pi x) - m)^2}
$$
It is a real even 2-periodic function, so its Fourier ...

13
votes

1
answer

606
views

### Would efficient factoring have any *other* useful applications?

This question is certainly somewhat opinion-based, but hopefully not hopelessly so.
The granddaddy of all applications for an efficient period finding or factoring capability (e.g. Shor's algorithm) ...

-1
votes

1
answer

76
views

### Fundamental of a signal

Consider the space $S$ of real functions with the norm $$\|f\|^2 = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} e^{-x^2/2} f^2(x) ~\mathrm{d}x, $$
or any reasonable Euclidean norm such that bounded ...

2
votes

0
answers

70
views

### Periodic functions on groups

I'll give you some context: We can say that a (classic) periodic function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ with period $\omega$ is an invariant function under the cyclic subgroup $G=\langle\omega\...

3
votes

0
answers

147
views

### Negative eigenvalue for a periodic Sturm-Liouville problem

Let $f \in C^{\infty}([0, 2\pi])$ be a smooth function and consider the following periodic Sturm-Liouville problem:
$$\begin{cases} u''(x) + f(x)u(x) = - \lambda u(x) \\
u(0) = u(2\pi) \\
u'(0) = u'(2\...

3
votes

1
answer

427
views

### What is the big-O time complexity of computing $1/N$ to $\log_{2}(N)$ bits of precision?

I am considering large integer values of $N$ (100 or more digits in base-$10$).
In my algorithm, I need to be able to compute the reciprocal of $N$ with enough precision that the repetend will have ...

2
votes

0
answers

105
views

### Can all (inverse) trigonometric functions with periodic iterates be characterized?

I wonder whether all (composites of) trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions with periodic functional iterations can be found. In order to specify what I mean by that, let's introduce some ...

3
votes

2
answers

468
views

### When is the periodisation of a function continuous?

Consider a function $f\in\mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R})$, where $\mathcal{C}_0(\mathbb{R})$ denotes the space of bounded continuous functions vanishing at infinity. I am interested in the $T$-periodisation ...

5
votes

0
answers

130
views

### The space of periodizable tempered distribution

The periodization operator $\mathrm{Per}$ is defined for a Schwartz function $\varphi \in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R})$ as
\begin{equation}
\mathrm{Per} \{ \varphi \} (x) = \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} \varphi( ...

2
votes

1
answer

113
views

### $x '(t) + g (x (t)) = f (t),\quad \forall t\in \mathbb R$ have periodic solution $\iff\; \frac 1T \int_0 ^ T f (t) dt \in g (\mathbb R) $

I have a research work concerning the equation: $$x '(t) + g (x (t)) = f (t),\quad \forall t\in \mathbb R$$
f and g are defined and continuous in $\mathbb R$ and with values in $\mathbb R$.
...

3
votes

1
answer

695
views

### Almost periodicity of Bessel functions

We know that a periodic function (e.g. a trigonometric function) has the property
$$
f(x+n\Lambda)=f(x) \qquad n\in\mathbb Z
$$
A Bessel function is not exactly periodic, because the value of the ...

3
votes

0
answers

118
views

### An elliptic function built from a log-theta-function integral?

I'm studying the apparent ellipticity of $$\Theta(z,a):=\frac{\exp(\tfrac2a\int_0^a\ln\vartheta(x+z)\,dx)}{\vartheta(z)\vartheta(z+a)},\tag1$$with $a$ is a free parameter and \begin{align}\vartheta(z)&...

0
votes

0
answers

161
views

### What functions can one try employing to fit an apparently doubly-periodic real function over $[0,1]$?

I have a cosine-like data curve over $x \in [0,1]$ that I can rather well-fit by
a function of the form $a \cos{2 \pi x} +b$. Although good, the fit is still lacking,
in that the residuals from the ...

1
vote

0
answers

46
views

### Mean of a periodic velocity field and trajectory displacement bound

Suppose $u(t,x)$ is a smooth velocity field on $[0,\infty)\times \mathbb{R}$ and periodic in space, i.e., $u(t,0)=u(t,1)$ $\forall t$. Assume that $\int_0^1 u(t,x) \,dx = c$, independent of time. Let $...

3
votes

1
answer

238
views

### Smoothing a periodic function of two variables

Let $F \colon \mathbb{R}^2 \to \mathbb{R}^n$ be a $C^{1}$-function 1-periodic in each variable, so it can be considered as a function on the flat torus $\mathbb{T}^2 = \mathbb{R}^2 / \mathbb{Z}^2$. We ...

11
votes

1
answer

534
views

### Periodic function $f$ for which $f(x^2)$ is periodic too

There is the following question which was asked multiple times on Math.SE (e.g. here and here) without any final result:
Question: Is there a periodic function $f:\Bbb R \to\Bbb R$ of smallest ...

3
votes

0
answers

105
views

### Probability of Intersection of Randomly Shifted Pulses

Defining a function $f_{a,T}:\mathbb R \to \{0,1\}$ to be $T$-periodic ($\forall x: f_{a,T}(x)=f_{a,T}(x+T)$), with $a\in[0,T]$ such that $\forall x\in [0,T] : f_{a,T}(x)= 1 \iff x\in [0,a]$.
Given ...

4
votes

0
answers

379
views

### Evaluating an integral of a periodic function. It's positive?

My purpose is to show that this integral
\begin{equation}
I_t(x)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}e^{-\frac{\cosh^2(u)}{2x}}\,e^{-\frac{u^2}{2 t}}\,\cos\left(\frac{\pi\,u}{2t }\right)\,\cosh(u)\,du\,\,,\,\,x,...

0
votes

0
answers

24
views

### Difference between $W^{k,p}([0,1]^d)$ and $W^{k,p}(\mathbb{T}^d)$

Let $\mathbb{T}^d \sim \mathbb{R}^d/\mathbb{Z}^d$. I know that $$W^{k,2}(\mathbb{T})\equiv\{f\in W^{k,2}([0,1]); f^{(i)}(0) = f^{(i)}(1), i = 0, \ldots, k-1\}.$$
Are there similar characterizations ...

15
votes

2
answers

708
views

### A conjecture about $\lfloor n!\cdot q/e\rfloor-\,!n\cdot q$

I was thinking about this question asked at Math.SE, when I came up with the following conjecture.
For every $q\in\mathbb Q$ consider a sequence $s_n^{(q)}$ (terms within the sequence are indexed by $...

1
vote

0
answers

189
views

### Quantification of the extent of periodicity in a time series using fractal analyses

I need metrics to quantify and compare the extent of periodicity between any two given time series, considering the time series were "almost periodic". By "almost periodic" I mean: if I were to take ...

8
votes

1
answer

707
views

### Does there exist a nonconstant, periodic, real analytic function with period 1 and rational Maclaurin coefficients?

Does there exist a nonconstant, real analytic function $f \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that $f$ is periodic with period 1 and whose Maclaurin coefficients are all rational?
(The function $\...

4
votes

1
answer

183
views

### Periodic functions over different lattices in $\mathbb R^d$ are linearly independent [closed]

I have the following claim that I think have been proved by someone, but I can not find the reference, hence I would like to ask for help. Here is the claim:
Let $f_1, \ldots, f_n$ be continuous ...

5
votes

1
answer

746
views

### Besicovitch Almost Periodic Functions a subspace of what?

The common example of a nonseparable Hilbert space comes from the collection of Besicovitch almost periodic function spaces. Starting with $L^p_{\text{loc}}(\mathbb{R})$ we look at those elements ...

4
votes

1
answer

225
views

### Under what conditions can interval exchanges be approximated by periodic maps?

Under what conditions can an interval exchange be approximated by periodic maps? (in the weak topology for the Lebesgue measure on $[0,1]$ ).
Are there non-trivial examples of periodically ...

1
vote

1
answer

235
views

### Convergence of a sum to the integral

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a 1-periodic function. I am looking about the conditions on $(a,b)\in\mathbb{R}^2$ such that we have the property :
$$\frac{1}{n}\sum_{\ell=0}^{n-1}f(a+b\...

1
vote

1
answer

599
views

### Discretizing a cosine function?

I'd like to start by noting that for some fixed natural $N$ basis functions for my system will be generated by $f(k,x)$ as defined and explained here or in numerous other sources:
$$f(k,x) = \sqrt2 \...

1
vote

2
answers

1k
views

### Is there a periodic function without minimum period such that all the possible periods are irrationals? [closed]

Let $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ be a periodic function. We say $f$ is without minimum period if, $\forall t$ such that $f(x+t)=f(x)\forall x$, there is a $t'$ such that $0<t'<t$ and $f(x+t')=f(x)\...

0
votes

1
answer

266
views

### Least common period of a finite sum of exponentials

Hello,
I have come across the function
$f(t) = \sum_{j=1}^n c_j e^{2 \pi i a_j t}$
with $c_j \in \mathbb{C}$, $c_j\neq 0$ and $a_j\in\mathbb{R}$, $a_j \neq 0$ for $j=1,...,n$, and the $a_j$ ...

14
votes

5
answers

2k
views

### What is $\sum (x+\mathbb{Z})^{-2}$?

This is a simple question, but its been bugging me. Define the function $\gamma$ on $\mathbb{R}\backslash \mathbb{Z}$ by
$$\gamma(x):=\sum_{i\in \mathbb{Z}}\frac{1}{(x+i)^2}$$
The sum converges ...