# Questions tagged [forcing]

Forcing is a method first used to prove the continuum hypothesis is independent of the classical axioms of set theory

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### Countable closure of quotient forcing

Let us say that a partial order is "countably closed with infima" if every descending $\omega$-sequence has an infimum.
Suppose $P$ and $Q$ are posets that are countably closed with infima, ...

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### When are two forcing posets "the same"?

Let $B$ and $C$ be complete Boolean algebras. To avoid triviality I may also want them to be atomless. For $b\in B$ nonzero, denote $B\upharpoonright b=\{p\in B:p\leq b\}$, which can be viewed as a ...

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### Forcing axiom for a single poset

Let $FA_\kappa (\mathbb{P})$ be the claim that for every family $\mathscr{D}$ of dense sets in the poset $\mathbb{P}$ with $\vert \mathscr{D} \vert = \kappa $ there is a filter $G$ such that for all $...

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### Small Violations of Choice: Can we force AC without collapsing the cardinalities of ordinals?

We say that a model $M$ of $\mathsf{ZF}$ satisfies Small Violations of Choice ($\mathsf{SVC}$) if all (any) of the following apply:
There is a model $V\subseteq M$ such that $V\vDash\mathsf{ZFC}$, ...

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### Some questions on a paper of Gerald Sacks

I've been reading Sacks' Countable admissible ordinals and hyperdegrees as I'm interested in Theorem 5.3 of the paper:
Let $M$ be a countable standard model of $\mathsf{ZF}$ and $V=L$. Suppose $\...

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### Uniformization of almost disjoint families

Suppose $\mathcal{F} \subseteq \mathcal{P} (\omega) $ is an almost disjoint family and $\aleph_0 < \vert \mathcal{F} \vert = \kappa < 2^{\aleph_0} $. Is it consistent that for some such cardinal ...

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### When is the ground model $[\kappa]^\lambda$ cofinal in $[\kappa]^\lambda$ in a forcing extension?

Suppose that $\lambda\leq\kappa$ are infinite cardinals. Say that a notion of forcing $\mathbb{P}$ is $[\kappa]^\lambda$-bounding if, whenever $G\subseteq\mathbb{P}$ is $V$-generic,
$$V[G]\vDash(\...

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### A Sacks-like model in which $2^{\aleph_0} = \aleph_3$

This question is a follow-up of this one. In the previous question I asked if it was known the consistency of $\operatorname{cof}(\mathcal{L})=\aleph_1 + 2^{\aleph_0}=\aleph_3$, and the answer in that ...

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### Extending Namba forcing to arbitrary lengths

Namba forcing is stationary-preserving and forces $cf(\omega_2^{\mathbf{V}}) = \omega$. Ronald Jensen used $\mathcal{L}$-forcing to iterate Namba posets in order to solve the extended Namba problem: ...

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### Forcing a unique $\Delta_3^1$ generic real

I know Jensen developed a forcing notions in $L$ that adds a unique, minimal and $\Delta_3^1$ $L$-generic real. In his paper Definable sets of minimal degree he says that Solovay had already shown the ...

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### Arithmetically-hyperimmune-free degrees are comeager

I think proposition XIII.1.22 of Odifreddi is false but I wanted to check I wasn't being dumb. Here's the claim.
Definition: The set$^1$ $A$ is arithmetically-hyperimmune-free if every function $f$ ...

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### Given an elementary embedding $j: M\to N$ and a strong master condition $q\in N$, how are we able to construct a generic over $M$ from $M$?

Suppose we have an elementary embedding $j: M\to N$, a forcing notion $\mathbb{P}\in M$, and a strong master condition $q\in j(\mathbb{P})$. A strong master condition for $j$ and $\mathbb{P}$ is a ...

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### Are the completeness Games $G_{\lambda+1}(P)$ and $G_{\lambda^+}(P)$ equivalent for INC?

The completeness game $G_{\gamma}(P)$ for a partial order $P$ has players COM and INC play alternatingly and descendingly elements of $P$ with player INC playing first and player COM playing at limit ...

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### Where can I find information about this concept of 'dual ideals'?

I have come across the following notion of (what I am calling) dual ideals, and I am looking for any work in which this notion has been considered, and particularly anything about transferring ...

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### Closure properties of elementary embeddings resulting from generic iterations

In the context of generic embeddings, we fix a set $Z$, an ideal $I$ on $Z$, and $G$ a generic ultrafilter on $\mathcal{P}(Z) / I$. In $V[G]$, we can define the generic ultrapower $Ult(V, G)$ and an ...

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### Question related to number of distinct forcing extensions of a countable model

A bit of context: the below question is motivated by roughly the following scenario: we have some countable model $\mathcal{M}$, and want to “count” the number of functions/sets $f$ such that $\...

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### Proof (or reference) about the cc-ness of termspace forcing

Recall that for $P$ a forcing order and $\dot{Q}$ a $P$-name for a forcing order, the termspace forcing $T(P,\dot{Q})$ consists of minimal-rank names for elements of $\dot{Q}$, ordered by $\dot{q}'\...

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### Hereditarily Lindelöf spaces with density continuum

Since there are L-spaces (provably in ZFC), under CH we have regular, hereditarily Lindelöf spaces with density continuum. However, I cannot find an example of such a space under not CH, nor a proof ...

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### Amoeba collapse

Here is a naive idea for a forcing $\mathbb A(\kappa)$, for an inaccessible cardinal $\kappa$. Conditions are pairs $(P,p)$, where $P \in V_\kappa$ is a partial order and $p \in P$. We define the ...

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### Comparing Mathias forcing notions relative to various filters

Let $\mathcal F$ be a (non-principle, non trivial, ...) filter on $\omega$. The Mathias Forcing relative to $\mathcal F$ is the forcing notion $\mathbb M(\mathcal F)$ consisting of pairs $(s, X)$ with ...

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### Ramsey-like property with order condition

I wonder if there are regular cardinals $\lambda$ and $\kappa$ such that $\kappa < \lambda \leq 2^\kappa$ and such that, consistently, the following holds:
Let $c: [\lambda]^2 \to \kappa$ be such ...

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### Minimum transitive models and V=L

Is there a c.e. theory $T⊢\text{ZFC}$ in the language of set theory such that the minimum transitive model of $T$ exists but does not satisfy $V=L$?
You may assume that ZFC has transitive models. ...

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### Strategic vs. tactical closure

The Banach-Mazur game on a poset $\mathbb P$ is the $\omega$-length game where the players alternate choosing a descending sequence $a_0 \geq b_0 \geq a_1 \geq b_1 \geq \dots$. Player II wins when ...

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### Forcing Martin's Axiom without cardinal arithmetic

We know that if $\kappa>2^{\aleph_0}$ and $\kappa^{<\kappa}=\kappa$, then there is a c.c.c. forcing which forces $\sf MA+2^{\aleph_0}=\kappa$. Traditionally, we even start with $\sf GCH$, which ...

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### Cofinal well-founded subset in mod finite order

The mod finite order on ${}^\omega \omega$ is defined as $f \leq^\ast g$ if and only if $f(n) \leq g(n)$ except for finitely many $n \in \omega$. My question is: can we always extract a cofinal well-...

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### Highly improper forcings

The following question comes from a typo in an old notebook of mine (I changed what I was calling my forcing notion partway through writing the definition of properness):
Say that a forcing $\mathbb{P}...

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### Is this equivalent to (some version of) Hechler forcing?

Let $\omega^{<\omega}$ be the set of finite strings of naturals, and let $\omega^{<\omega}_{\not=\emptyset}$ be the set of nonempty finite strings of naturals. Consider the following forcing ...

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### Is there a more modern account of the main results of "Adding Dependent Choice" by D. Pincus?

I would like to read Pincus' article Adding dependent choice, where he proves, among other things, the consistency of the theory $\mathsf{ZF+DC+O+\neg AC}$, where $\mathsf{DC}$ stands for Dependent ...

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### Czelakowski's claimed proof of the Twin Prime Conjecture

It seems like the article "The Twin Primes Conjecture is True in the Standard Model of Peano Arithmetic: Applications of Rasiowa–Sikorski Lemma in Arithmetic (I)" by Janusz Czelakowski ...

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### How hard is it to get "absolutely" no amorphous sets?

A beautiful and surprising (to me at least) result around the axiom of choice is that, while full $\mathsf{AC}$ is preserved by forcing, a model of $\mathsf{ZF}$ + "There are no amorphous sets&...

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### $2^{|V|}$ class cardinalities without global choice

Is it consistent with Morse-Kelley set theory without global choice (but with choice for sets) that there are $2^{|V|}$ proper classes of different cardinalities?
Alternative question: Is it ...

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### Examples of the use of forcing to build up models of stronger theories?

I'm very new to the subject of forcing. I always got the impression that with forcing we begin with say a model $M$ of a theory $\sf T+I$ and produce another model $M[G]$ that is also a model of $\sf ...

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### Is there a proof of independence of AC from Z that is done in Z?

The proof that $AC$ is independent of $\sf ZF$ axioms is done by forcing and constructibility, and these don't beg any consistency strength more than that of $\sf ZF$.
Is there a known similar proof ...

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### Unbounded subset of $\omega$ in $V[G]$ has an unbounded subset in $V$?

This question is similar to a question I asked last year, but I'm not asking for the same thing.
Let $S$ be a set of ordinals, and consider the Levy collapse $\operatorname{Col}(\omega,S)$. Let $G$ ...

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### Any connection between extension of algebraic structure and forcing of set theory?

Any connection between extension of algebraic structure and forcing of set theory? And more, are there any approach from one of the two to other field to solve problem?

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### Can we use forcing to adjoin this set to a model of ZF+j+$\alpha$?

Let $M$ be a countable transitive model of $\sf ZF + j +\alpha$, where $j:V_{\alpha+1} \to V_\alpha$ is an external [not used in separation and replacement] bijection such that for any $S \in V_{\...

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### Preservation of stationary sets by Mitchell forcing quotients

It is well-known that Mitchell's forcing $\mathbb M$ for the tree property at $\omega_2$, which turns a weakly compact $\kappa$ into $\omega_2$ while adding many reals, is a projection of adding $\...

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### Consistency of a strange (choice-wise) set of reals, pt. 2

This is a follow-up on this question. Consider a set $X\subseteq \mathbb{R}$ such that
$X$ is not separable wrt its subspace topology
Every countable family of non-empty pairwise disjoint subsets of $...

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### Consistency of a strange (choice-wise) set of reals

Consider a set $X\subseteq \mathbb{R}$ such that
$X$ is not separable wrt its subspace topology
For all $r\in\mathbb{R}$ there exists a sequence $(x_n)_{n\in\omega} \subset X$ converging to $r$
In a ...

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### For which class of forcings does the "name dichotomy" hold?

Let $\mathbb P$ be a forcing that does not collapse $\omega_1$, $\theta$ sufficiently large and regular and $X\prec H_\theta$ a countable elementary substructure with $\mathbb P\in X$ as well as $p\in ...

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### Understanding descending intersections of generic extensions

Let $B_{0}\supseteq B_{1}\supseteq\dots\supseteq B_{\alpha}\supseteq\dots\,\,\left(\alpha<\kappa\right)$ be a descending sequence of complete Boolean algebras, $B_{\kappa}:=\bigcap_{\alpha<\...

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### Why can we assume a ctm of ZFC exists in forcing

Following Kunen's book, it makes clear that countable transitive models (ctm) exist only for a finite list of axioms of ZFC. So, why can we assume a ctm of the whole ZFC axioms exists and use it as ...

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### Is every first-countable Lindelof space of cardinality $<\mathfrak c$ a $Q$-space under MA?

Definition. A topological space $X$ is a $Q$-space if every subset of $X$ is of type $G_\delta$.
It is clear that every $Q$-space has countable pseudocharacter (= all singletons are $G_\delta$) and is ...

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### The set of ground model reals arbitrarily close to a new real in the forcing extension

Consider a forcing notion $\mathbb{P}$, a condition $p\in\mathbb{P}$, a $\mathbb{P}$-name $\dot{r}$ and a formula (with ground model parameters) $\varphi(x)$ such that $$p \Vdash \dot{r} \in \omega^\...

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### A property of Levy collapse forcing

Consider the following nice property for a forcing notion $\mathbb{P}$ (in a transitive model $M$ of $\mathtt{ZFC}$):
Let $G_1,G_2$ $\mathbb{P}$-generic over $M$ and $M[G_1]$ respectively. Then, if $...

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### Preservation of projective stationarity

A set $S \subseteq [\kappa]^\omega$ is called projective stationary if for every stationary $A \subseteq \omega_1$, and every algebra $F : \kappa^{<\omega}\to\kappa$, there is $z\in S$ such that $z$...

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### Does this proof by Shelah use any "hidden assumptions"?

Recall that the approachability ideal for $\kappa$, denoted $I[\kappa]$, consists of all sets $A\subseteq\kappa$ such that there is a sequence $\overline{a}=(a_{\alpha})_{\alpha\in\kappa}$ of bounded ...

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### Necessary and sufficient conditions for a forcing to add a Cohen real

Are there some necessary and sufficient conditions for a forcing notion to add a Cohen real in the generic extension?
In other words, given a non-atomic forcing p.o. $\mathbb{P}$, what are the ...

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### How often are forcing extensions of countable computably saturated models of $\mathsf{ZFC}$ computably saturated?

Recall that given a finite language $\mathcal{L}$, we say that an $\mathcal{L}$-structure is computably saturated (or recursively saturated) if for any computable set $\Sigma(\bar{x},y)$ of $\mathcal{...

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### $\mathtt{PSP}$ holding only for sets of cardinality $\mathfrak{c}$

Consider the sentence $\mathtt{PSP}_\mathfrak{c}$: "Every subset of $\mathbb{R}$ having the cardinality of the continuum contains a Cantor set".
A priori this sentence is weaker than the ...