# Questions tagged [perfect-numbers]

A perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors.

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### On "Euclidean" odd perfect numbers

In what follows, we let $N = r^s u^2$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, i.e. $r$ is the special prime satisfying $r \equiv s \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(r,u)=1$. In this preprint, ...
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### Is there a similar formula like Ramanunjan's Eisenstein series identity for $\sum_{k=1}^{n-1}k^2 \sigma(k)\sigma(n-k)$?

This question is related to the last question about van der Pol's identity for the sum of divisors. In Touchard (1953) it is mentioned that the sum of divisors $\sigma(n)$ satisfies the following ...
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### Frey's elliptic curve and perfect numbers?

Let $E_n:y^2=x(x-\sigma(n)/2)(x+\sigma(n)/n)$ be a Frey-elliptic curve, where $\sigma$ denotes the sum of divisors of the natural number $n$. If $n$ is a perfect number ($\sigma(n)=2n$) then the $j$-...
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### Perfect numbers, Galois groups and a polynomial

Let $f(n,t) = \sum_{k=0}^{r-1} d_k t^k$ where $D_n = \{d_0=1,d_1,\cdots,d_{r-1}\}$ are all divisors of $n$. For instance $$f(28,t) = 28 t^{5} + 14 t^{4} + 7 t^{3} + 4 t^{2} + 2 t + 1$$ For even ... 232 views

### Inductively computing Mersenne primes / perfect numbers?

For two sets $A,B$ set $A+B = \{a +b | a \in A,b \in B\}$. Let $(x_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ be independent variables. Let $\sigma(n)$ be the sum of divisors of $n$. Set $\hat{\phi}(1) = \{x_1\}$ and ... 359 views

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### Odd perfect numbers having as prime factors exclusively Mersenne primes and Fermat primes

I don't know if the following question is in the literature, please add a commment if it is in the literature. I add my thoughts and motivation below in last paragraph, it is discursive and ...
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### Bounds for two arithmetic functions, when one assumes that $n$ are odd perfect numbers

For an integer $n>1$ in this post we denote the Dedekind psi function as $\psi(n)=n\prod_{\substack{p\mid n\\p\text{ prime}}}\left(1+\frac{1}{p}\right)$ and the product of distinct primes dividing ...
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### Around a characterization for even perfect numbers, similar than Euclides-Euler theorem, in terms of totatives

In this post we denote the sum of divisors function as $$\sigma(n)=\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d,$$ then an even perfect number is a positive integer $n\equiv 0\text{ mod }2$ for which $\sigma(n)=2n.$ As ...
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### What work can be done to study the solutions of $\varphi\left(x^{\sigma(x)}\sigma(x)^x\right)=2^{x-1} x^{3x-1}\varphi(x)$?

For integers $n\geq 1$ I denote the Euler's totient function as $\varphi(n)$ and the divisor function $\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d$ as $\sigma(n)$, that are two well-known mulitplicative functions. We ...
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### Attempt of exploit the equation $1/\operatorname{rad}(n)=1/2-2\varphi(n)/\sigma(n)$ in the context of even perfect numbers, and a related conjecture

It is well known that the problem concerning even perfect numbers is to prove or refute if there are infinitely many of them. Few weeks ago I wrote the following conjecture, where $\varphi(n)$ denotes ...
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### Perfect Runs of Consecutive Integers

A run of 2 or more consecutive integers is said to be perfect if the sum of its terms equals the sum of all the their proper divisors, adding common divisors as often as they occur. For example, 672, ...
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### A conjecture regarding odd perfect numbers

(Note: I asked this question in MSE this June 2018 but did not receive any responses there. I have therefore cross-posted it here, hoping that it gets answered.) Let $\sigma(z)$ denote the sum of ...
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### Perfect numbers and perfect powers

This was asked earlier at MSE. The observation that 28 = 27 + 1 shows that it is possible to have consecutive perfect numbers and perfect powers. However, this must be extremely rare. Is it ...
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### does infinite leinster groups indicates infinite perfect numbers?

The simplest definition i managed to find is: Leinster group is a finite group which her order equal the sum of its normal subgroups order, and as a perfect number is a positive integer that is equal ...
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### Conjecture on odd perfect numbers

I'm a grad student in mathematics and I've been working with a very gifted high school student (likely the smartest high school student I've ever met) on problems he's brought up and some competition ...
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### On odd perfect numbers and a GCD

(Note: This question is closely related to this other one in MSE.) Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number. From this paper in NNTDM, we have the equation i(q) := \frac{\sigma(n^2)}{q^k}=\frac{...
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### If $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number with Euler prime $q$, is $\sigma(q^k)/n + \sigma(n)/q^k$ bounded from above?

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM If $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number with Euler prime $q$, is $\sigma(q^k)/n + \sigma(n)/q^k$ bounded from above? MOTIVATION Let $\sigma=\sigma_{1}$ denote the classical ...
### Can $k$ be arbitrarily large in the following equations?
(Note: This question was cross-posted from MSE per Dris's request.) Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number in Eulerian form. (That is, $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and \$\gcd(q,...