# Questions tagged [perfect-numbers]

A perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors.

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### On "Euclidean" odd perfect numbers

In what follows, we let $N = r^s u^2$ be an odd perfect number given in Eulerian form, i.e. $r$ is the special prime satisfying $r \equiv s \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(r,u)=1$. In this preprint, ...

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### Steuerwald's theorem

Background:
The perfect numbers are the positive integers $n$ such that $$\sigma(n)=2n,$$ where $\sigma(n)$ is the sum of divisors function.
The function $\sigma(n)$ is multiplicative and satisfies $$\...

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### On Carmichael function and aliquot parts of odd perfect numbers

I've asked nine months ago this question on Mathematics Stack Exchange with identifier 4430381 and same title. There is not answer for this question on Mathematics Stack Exchange, I wondered if this ...

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### Given that $H = \frac{n^2}{\sigma(q^k)/2} = G \times J^2$, where $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number, then what is the value of $\gcd(G, J)$?

Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$ satisfying $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,n)=1$. Denote the classical sum of divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\...

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### Divisibility relation with a specific sum of divisors

Let $\sigma(n)$ be the sum of the divisors of $n$. Is it always true that if $n$ is odd, that $$n\mid\sum_{k=1}^{\frac{n-1}{2}}k^2\sigma(k)\sigma(n-k)?$$
I have checked this up to $n=100$, and I ...

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### Alternative proofs of Euclid-Euler theorem

What are some alternative methods of proof for the necessity direction of the above theorem, ie $n$ an even perfect number $\Rightarrow n$ is of form $2^{a-1} (2^a - 1)$ where $2^a - 1$ is a Mersenne ...

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### Number of distinct near-squares primes dividing an odd perfect number

I'm curious about if the following question is in the literature or what work can be done about it.
Denote the number of distinct primes dividing an odd perfect number $N$ with the arithmetic function ...

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### If $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$, then under what other conditions on $\sigma(p^k)/2$ does $k=1$ follow?

Let $N = p^k m^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $p$ satisfying $p \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(p,m)=1$.
Descartes (1638), Frenicle (1657), and subsequently [Sorli (2003) - ...

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### Does this Theorem 2 from Dandapat et al. imply that $\gcd(\sigma(p^k),\sigma(a^2)) > 1$?

Write the odd perfect number $m=p^k a^2$ as a product of primes
$$m = p^k {p_1}^{2a_1} \cdots {p_v}^{2a_v}.$$
(Note that it is known that $v \geq 9$ by work of Nielsen.) Let $N(m)$ be the number of ...

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### Help with R. Ryan's "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy Index."

I'm reading Richard Ryan's article "A simpler dense proof regarding the abundancy index" and got stuck in his proof for Theorem 2. The Theorem is stated as follows:
Suppose we have a ...

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### On odd perfect numbers $p^k m^2$ with special prime $p$ satisfying $m^2 - p^k = 2^r t$ - Part II

(Preamble: We have asked this same question in MSE two weeks ago, without getting any answers. We have therefore cross-posted it to MO, hoping that it gets answered here.)
The topic of odd perfect ...

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### On improving the upper bound $I(m^2) \leq \frac{2p}{p+1}$, if $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number with special prime $p$

(Preamble: This question is an offshoot of this answer to an MSE question with the same title.)
Denote the classical sum of the divisors of the positive integer $x$ by $\sigma(x)=\sigma_1(x)$ and the ...

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### Does $n \mid \sigma(n^2)$, if $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number?

Let $\sigma(x)=\sigma_1(x)$ be the classical sum of divisors of the positive integer $x$.
It is known that
$$\gcd(\sigma(q^k),\sigma(n^2))=\frac{\bigg(\gcd(n,\sigma(n^2))\bigg)^2}{\gcd(n^2,\sigma(n^2))...

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### On odd perfect numbers and a GCD - Part III

Let $m = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$ satisfying $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,n)=1$.
It is known that
$$\gcd(\sigma(q^k),\sigma(n^2)) = \frac{(\gcd(n,\sigma(n^...

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### Can perfect numbers be seen $p$-adically?

It is well known that all even perfect numbers are of the form $N=(2^{q}-1).2^{q-1}$ with $M_{q}:=2^{q}-1$ a Mersenne prime.
As the very defining property of such a perfect number is to fulfill the ...

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### On the Diophantine equation $m^2 - p^k = 2^r t$, where $r \geq 2$ and $\gcd(2,t)=1$

This question is an offshoot of this closely related MO question.
Here, we consider the Diophantine equation
$$m^2 - p^k = 2^r t,$$
where $r \geq 2$ and $\gcd(2,t)=1$.
Furthermore, we place the ...

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### On odd perfect numbers $q^k n^2$ satisfying $n^2 - q^k = 2^r t$

Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$, satisfying
$$n^2 - q^k = 2^r t$$
where $r \geq 2$ and $\gcd(2,t)=1$.
We could prove that:
(1) $2^r t > 2n$. (We can modestly ...

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### Improving the lower bound $I(n^2) > \frac{2(q-1)}{q}$ when $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number

Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number with special prime $q$ satisfying $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,n)=1$.
Define the abundancy index
$$I(x)=\frac{\sigma(x)}{x}$$
where $\sigma(x)$ ...

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### On odd perfect numbers and a GCD - Part II

(Note: A detailed version of this question was posted in MSE last April 15, 2020. It has not received any responses there as of yet. I have therefore cross-posted it here, hoping that it is ...

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### On the nearest-square function and the quantity $m^2 - p^k$ where $p^k m^2$ is an odd perfect number

This question has been cross-posted from this MSE question and is an offshoot of this other MSE question.
(Note that MSE user mathlove has posted an answer in MSE, which I could not completely ...

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### Can an even perfect number be a sum of two cubes?

A similar question was asked before in https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/2727090/even-perfect-number-that-is-also-a-sum-of-two-cubes, but no conclusions were drawn.
On the Wikipedia article of ...

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### A geometric approach to the odd perfect number problem?

Let $e_d$ be the $d$-th standard-basis vector in the Hilbert space $H=l_2(\mathbb{N})$.
Let $h(n) = J_2(n)$ be the second Jordan totient function.
Define:
$$\phi(n) = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{d|n}\sqrt{h(d)}...

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### Is there a similar formula like Ramanunjan's Eisenstein series identity for $\sum_{k=1}^{n-1}k^2 \sigma(k)\sigma(n-k)$?

This question is related to the last question about van der Pol's identity for the sum of divisors.
In Touchard (1953) it is mentioned that the sum of divisors $\sigma(n)$ satisfies the following ...

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### Van der Pol's identity for the sum of divisors and a quartic polynomial equation for odd perfect numbers

In Touchard (1953) it is mentioned that the sum of divisors $\sigma(n)$ satisfies the following recurrence relation ($n>1$):
$$n^2(n-1) = \frac{6}{\sigma(n)} \sum_{k=1}^{n-1}(3n^2-10k^2)\sigma(k)\...

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### Touchard / van der Pol's identity for the sum of divisors and an elliptic curve for perfect numbers

In Touchard (1953) it is mentioned that the sum of divisors $\sigma(n)$, satisifies the following recurrence relation ($n>1$):
$$n^2(n-1) = \frac{6}{\sigma(n)} \sum_{k=1}^{n-1}(3n^2-10k^2)\sigma(k)\...

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### Frey's elliptic curve and perfect numbers?

Let $E_n:y^2=x(x-\sigma(n)/2)(x+\sigma(n)/n)$ be a Frey-elliptic curve, where $\sigma$ denotes the sum of divisors of the natural number $n$.
If $n$ is a perfect number ($\sigma(n)=2n$) then the $j$-...

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### Perfect numbers, Galois groups and a polynomial

Let $f(n,t) = \sum_{k=0}^{r-1} d_k t^k$ where $D_n = \{d_0=1,d_1,\cdots,d_{r-1}\}$ are all divisors of $n$.
For instance
$$f(28,t) = 28 t^{5} + 14 t^{4} + 7 t^{3} + 4 t^{2} + 2 t + 1$$
For even ...

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### Inductively computing Mersenne primes / perfect numbers?

For two sets $A,B$ set $A+B = \{a +b | a \in A,b \in B\}$.
Let $(x_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ be independent variables. Let $\sigma(n)$ be the sum of divisors of $n$.
Set $\hat{\phi}(1) = \{x_1\}$ and ...

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### The action of the unitary divisors group on the set of divisors and odd perfect numbers

Let $n$ be a natural number. Let $U_n = \{d \in \mathbb{N}\mid d\mid n \text{ and } \gcd(d,n/d)=1 \}$ be the set of unitary divisors, $D_n$ be the set of divisors and $S_n=\{d \in \mathbb{N}\mid d^2 \...

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### If $n$ is a multiperfect number, then necessarily does one of its prime factors $p$ satisfy $p \parallel n$?

My question is as in the title:
If $n$ is a multiperfect number, then necessarily does one of its prime factors $p$ satisfy $p \parallel n$?
I quote from an answer by Varun Vejalla to a closely ...

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### Least number of factors $\sigma(p^e)$ of representation of $\sigma(N)$ to get the least multiple of $\operatorname{rad}(N)$, for odd perfect numbers

I've cross-posted this from the post of Mathematics Stack Exchange that I've asked (Apr, 2nd 2020) with title On the least number of factors $\sigma(q^{e_q})$ to get the least multiple of $\...

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### Odd perfect numbers having as prime factors exclusively Mersenne primes and Fermat primes

I don't know if the following question is in the literature, please add a commment if it is in the literature. I add my thoughts and motivation below in last paragraph, it is discursive and ...

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### Bounds for two arithmetic functions, when one assumes that $n$ are odd perfect numbers

For an integer $n>1$ in this post we denote the Dedekind psi function as $\psi(n)=n\prod_{\substack{p\mid n\\p\text{ prime}}}\left(1+\frac{1}{p}\right)$ and the product of distinct primes dividing ...

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### Around a characterization for even perfect numbers, similar than Euclides-Euler theorem, in terms of totatives

In this post we denote the sum of divisors function as $$\sigma(n)=\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d,$$ then an even perfect number is a positive integer $n\equiv 0\text{ mod }2$ for which $\sigma(n)=2n.$ As ...

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### A possible axiomatic characterization of the set of divisors of a perfect number

Define a pro-perfect set $S$ to be a finite set of positive integers satisfying the following three properties:
$1\in S$.
$\displaystyle\sum_{n\in S}n^{-1}\in S$
There exists a unique permutation $\...

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### Is it possible to deduce statements for odd perfect numbers from the convolution sums involving divisor functions or other arithmetic functions?

Dividing and using some identities of [1] I've deduced the following facts, see also the remarks below. After these introductory paragraphs, to motivate our question, I am asking if we can deduce some ...

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### Equations involving quasiperfect numbers: a first search of odd solutions for this type of equations or well succinct reasonings about these

In this post we study the following equations that involve quasiperfect numbers, denoted as $x$, that are integers such that the sum of all its positive divisors is equals to $2x+1$, and certain ...

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### On $\sum_{\substack{1\leq d\mid n\\d<f(n)}}d$ and odd perfect numbers, for $f(n)$ the greatest prime factor or $\operatorname{rad}(n)$, respectively

First, in this paragraph we remember the definitions/notations for two number theoretic functions, for an integer $m>1$, we denote its greatest prime factor as $\operatorname{gpf}(m)$, and the ...

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### Bounds for the number of prime numbers less than the Euler's factor, the radical and the greatest prime factor, respectively, of an odd perfect number

As tell us the Wikipedia section dedicated to Odd perfect numbers (please, see also the related references if you need it), any perfect number has the form $$n=q^\alpha m^2$$
where the integer $\alpha\...

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### What work can be done to study the solutions of $\varphi\left(x^{\sigma(x)}\sigma(x)^x\right)=2^{x-1} x^{3x-1}\varphi(x)$?

For integers $n\geq 1$ I denote the Euler's totient function as $\varphi(n)$ and the divisor function $\sum_{1\leq d\mid n}d$ as $\sigma(n)$, that are two well-known mulitplicative functions. We ...

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### Attempt of exploit the equation $1/\operatorname{rad}(n)=1/2-2\varphi(n)/\sigma(n)$ in the context of even perfect numbers, and a related conjecture

It is well known that the problem concerning even perfect numbers is to prove or refute if there are infinitely many of them. Few weeks ago I wrote the following conjecture, where $\varphi(n)$ denotes ...

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### Perfect Runs of Consecutive Integers

A run of 2 or more consecutive integers is said to be perfect if the sum of its terms equals the sum of all the their proper divisors, adding common divisors as often as they occur. For example, 672, ...

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### A conjecture regarding odd perfect numbers

(Note: I asked this question in MSE this June 2018 but did not receive any responses there. I have therefore cross-posted it here, hoping that it gets answered.)
Let $\sigma(z)$ denote the sum of ...

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### Perfect numbers and perfect powers

This was asked earlier at MSE.
The observation that 28 = 27 + 1 shows that it is possible to have consecutive perfect numbers and perfect powers. However, this must be extremely rare. Is it ...

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### does infinite leinster groups indicates infinite perfect numbers?

The simplest definition i managed to find is: Leinster group is a finite group which her order equal the sum of its normal subgroups order, and as a perfect number is a positive integer that is equal ...

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### Conjecture on odd perfect numbers

I'm a grad student in mathematics and I've been working with a very gifted high school student (likely the smartest high school student I've ever met) on problems he's brought up and some competition ...

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### On odd perfect numbers and a GCD

(Note: This question is closely related to this other one in MSE.)
Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number.
From this paper in NNTDM, we have the equation
$$i(q) := \frac{\sigma(n^2)}{q^k}=\frac{...

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### If $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number with Euler prime $q$, is $\sigma(q^k)/n + \sigma(n)/q^k$ bounded from above?

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
If $q^k n^2$ is an odd perfect number with Euler prime $q$, is $\sigma(q^k)/n + \sigma(n)/q^k$ bounded from above?
MOTIVATION
Let $\sigma=\sigma_{1}$ denote the classical ...

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### Can $k$ be arbitrarily large in the following equations?

(Note: This question was cross-posted from MSE per Dris's request.)
Let $N = q^k n^2$ be an odd perfect number in Eulerian form. (That is, $q$ is prime with $q \equiv k \equiv 1 \pmod 4$ and $\gcd(q,...

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### Kindda-Perfect number: Is there a sequence of numbers which are equal to the sum of its proper divisors excluding itself as well as 1?

Perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper divisors. The smallest perfect number is 6, which is the sum of 1, 2, and 3.
Is there a sequence of numbers which are equal ...