# Questions tagged [axiom-of-choice]

An important and fundamental axiom in set theory sometimes called Zermelo's axiom of choice. It was formulated by Zermelo in 1904 and states that, given any set of mutually disjoint nonempty sets, there exists at least one set that contains exactly one element in common with each of the nonempty sets. The axiom of choice is related to the first of Hilbert's problems.

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### Applications of Zorn’s lemma that aren’t chain-complete/directed-complete?

Zorn’s Lemma applies to posets in which every chain has an upper bound. However, in all applications I know, the poset is also evidently chain-complete — chains have least upper bounds. A few ...
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### Is a function needed here?

This question is related to my question Can we choose an element from a class?. However, I decided to create a separate question. Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space and $H_1,\dotsc,H_n$ be closed ...
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### Does the axiom schema of collection imply schematic dependent choice in ZFCU?

This question was asked on math.stackexchange and didn't receive an answer. But I think it's interesting, and I at least would love to know the answer. Let ${\sf ZFCU}$ be the axioms of ${\sf ZFC}$ ...
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### Can we choose an element from a class?

Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space and $H_1,...,H_n$ be closed subspaces of $H$. Set $H_0:=H_1\cap H_2\cap...\cap H_n$ and let $P_i$ be the orthogonal projection onto $H_i$, $i=0,1,2,...,n$. I study ...
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### A simple form of choice

While reviewing some categorical versions of the axiom of choice, it occurred to me that none of the formulations I'm aware of actually reflect how I use choice in practice: pronounce that we 'choose ...
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### Global choice and skeletons of large categories

It is stated on the nlab that the axiom of choice is equivalent to the statement that all small categories have a weak skeleton, meaning a skeletal category which is equivalent to them. Is the axiom ...
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### Cofinality without choice: can this coarse definition suffer badly?

This is a rephrased version of a question previously asked at MSE without success. Working in $\mathsf{ZF}$, it is no longer possible in general to give every linear order an ordinal cofinality. For ...
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### Do we need full choice to “efficiently” use (sub)bases?

This question was previously asked and bountied at MSE without success. Suppose $(X,\tau)$ is a topological space, $B$ is a base for $\tau$, and $U\in \tau$ is an open set. Consider the following two ...
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### Does $H\vDash AC$

The set $H_\kappa$ of sets hereditarily of cardinality less than $\kappa$ is defined as $H_\kappa=\{x||tc(x)|\lt\kappa\}$. What if we define the set $H=H_{Ord}$ of sets hereditarily of cardinality ...
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### Is the hereditary version of this weak finiteness notion nontrivial?

Say that a set $X$ is $\Pi^1_1$-pseudofinite if every first-order sentence $\varphi$ with a model with underlying set $X$ has a finite model. The existence of infinite $\Pi^1_1$-pseudofinite sets is ...
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### Models of $\mathsf{ZF^-_2}$ over $\mathsf{ZF}$

Let $\mathsf{ZF^-_2}$ be a second-order ZF without Powerset, and the second-order Collection in place of Replacement. It is easy to see that every transitive model of $\mathsf{ZF^-_2}$ is closed under ...
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### Does $\text{AC}_{\text{WO}}$ prove $\Theta \neq \aleph_{\omega+1}?$

The choice principle $\text{AC}_{\text{WO}}$ proves a large amount of cardinal arithmetic. It's well-known to imply DC, that successor cardinals are regular, and that for all $X$, there is $\lambda$ ...
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### Is this notion of finiteness closed under unions?

This was asked and bountied at MSE without success. Throughout, we work in $\mathsf{ZF}$. Say that a set $X$ is $\Pi^1_1$-pseudofinite if for every first-order sentence $\varphi$, if $\varphi$ has a ...
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### What is first-order logic with Dedekind-finite sets of variables?

The usual set up of first-order logic is with an infinite reservoir of variables which we can use in formulas. This is one of the annoying reasons why we need to put $\aleph_0$ into the cardinal ...
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### Do vector spaces without choice satisfy Cantor-Schroeder-Bernstein?

If $V \hookrightarrow W$ and $W \hookrightarrow V$ are injective linear maps, then is there an isomorphism $V \cong W$? If we assume the axiom of choice, the answer is yes: use the fact that every ...
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### Automorphism groups of the complex numbers, and other fields

If one accepts the Axiom of Choice (AC), then the automorphism group of $\mathbb{C}$ is a huge and wild group, very poorly understood. But apparently if one does not accept the Axiom of Choice, then ...
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### Wiki for consequences of axiom of choice?

I raised the following question as part of another MO question, but I am following the suggestion of Nate Eldredge to make it a question in its own right. For many years, there has a been a valuable ...
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### Is the theory Flow actually consistent?

Recently the paper Adonai S. Sant'Anna, Otavio Bueno, Marcio P. P. de França, Renato Brodzinski, Flow: the Axiom of Choice is independent from the Partition Principle, arXiv:2010.03664 appeared on ...
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### BCT equivalent to DC

Do you know where I can find proof of equivalence Baire Category Theorem and DC (Axiom of Dependent Choice)? It is well known fact but I can't find appropriate literature with the proof.
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### Does Hahn-Banach for $\ell^\infty$ imply the existence of a non-measurable set?

Working over ZF but without the Axiom of Choice (AC), assume that the Hahn–Banach Theorem holds for $\ell^\infty$. Does it follow that there exists a set of real numbers that is not Lebesgue ...
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### Axiom of Countable Choice and meager sets

Let us recall that the Axiom of Countable Choice (denoted by ACC) says that the countable product $\prod_{n\in\omega}X_n$ of nonempty sets $X_n$ is nonempty. It is easy to see that ACC implies that ...
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### The strength of “There are no $\Pi^1_1$-pseudofinite sets”

For $\Gamma$ a set of second-order sentences in the empty language, say that a set $X$ is $\Gamma$-pseudofinite if $X$ is infinite but for every sentence $\varphi\in\Gamma$ which is satisfied in every ...
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### Very large axiom of choice

let me say that I am not a set theorist, but I have to settle up some things in category theory and I need your help. What I'd like to do is, in some way, use axiom of choice for proper classes. I ...