Questions tagged [sums-of-squares]

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4
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56 views
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Witt ring of a field with Pythagoras number $2$

I am currently looking at a few simple properties of the Witt ring of a field $K$ (by which I mean the ring of Witt classes of quadratic forms, not the ring of Witt vectors), which are clearly true ...
0
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1answer
103 views

Linear independence of complex polynomials and a “sum of squares” conjecture

This will take me some time to explain. Let $n \geq 2$ be a fixed integer. Let $p_i(z)$, for $i = 1,\ldots,n$ be $n$ nonzero complex polynomials of degree at most $n-1$. I am interested in ...
2
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0answers
83 views

Representation of a power of a quadratic form

Let $A=A^t$ be a non-singular symmetric matrix. For any multi-index $\gamma=(\gamma_1,\dots,\gamma_n)$ of degree $\vert \gamma\vert=\gamma_1+\dots+\gamma_n=2d$, let $b_\gamma=\frac{\partial}{\partial ...
2
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0answers
34 views

Does there always exist a(n uniform) polynomial that makes a positive definite symmetric matrix with polynomial entries into a sum of squares?

Suppose that I have a square and positive definite for every evaluation $x\in\mathbb{R}^{n}$ symmetric matrix $M(x)\in(\mathbb{R}[x])^{s\times s}.$ Does there always exist a polynomial $p(x)\in\...
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0answers
43 views

Lower bounds on lengths of sum-of-squares representations of particular polynomials

I am looking for literature on the problem of finding minimal (in the sense of number of terms) sum-of-squares representations of particular non-negative multivariate polynomials with rational ...
0
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0answers
93 views

Is there a characterization of Pythagorean ellipses?

A quadratic bivariate $$\Phi(x,y)=a_{2,0}x^2+a_{1,1}xy+a_{0,2}y^2+a_{1,0}x+a_{0,1}y+a_{0,0}=0$$ describes an ellipse if the constraint $$a_{1,1}^2-4a_{2,0}a_{0,2}<0$$ holds. Given an ellipse $\Phi(...
1
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1answer
133 views

Can I prove that a polynomial representing the 4th moment of a weighted-sum of random variables is a sos?

I am looking at the 4th central moment of a weighted-sum of correlated random variables, which takes the form $$\mu_4 = \sum_{i,j,k,l=1}^n w_i w_j w_k w_l \mu_{ijkl}$$ where $\mu_{ijkl}$ are the ...
7
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2answers
569 views

A generalization of partition function to the sums of squares

The well known partition function $p(n)$ is defined as the number of ways to represent $n$ as the sum of natural numbers. An asymptotic formula for $p(n)$ is $$p(n)\sim\frac{1}{4n\sqrt{3}}\exp\left(\...
11
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0answers
304 views

Is there yet an example of a non-negative convex polynomial that cannot be written as a sum-of-squares?

I have read that it remains an open question, whether an example can be constructed of a non-negative convex polynomial that cannot be written as a sum-of-squares. My reading includes the following ...
16
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1answer
460 views

Is it true that $\{x^4+y^2+z^2:\ x,y,z\in\mathbb Z[i]\}=\{a+2bi:\ a,b\in\mathbb Z\}$?

Recall that the ring of Gaussian integers is $$\mathbb Z[i]=\{a+bi:\ a,b\in\mathbb Z\}.$$ Clearly $$(a+bi)^2=a^2-b^2+2abi\ \ \mbox{and}\ \ (a+bi)^4=(a^2-b^2)^2-4a^2b^2+4ab(a^2-b^2)i.$$ Question. Is it ...
-1
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1answer
213 views

Questions on $x^2+y^2+z^2$, $x^2+y^2+2z^2$ and $x^2+2y^2+3z^2$

Question 1. My computation in 2018 suggests that a sum of two integer squares is a sum of three nonzero integer squares if and only if it is not of the form $$4^km\ \ (k=0,1,2,\ldots;\ \ m=1,2,5,10,13,...
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447 views

univariate integer version of Hilbert's 17th problem

Let $f(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $d$ with integer coefficients such that $f(x)\geqslant 0$ for all real $x$. Is it necessarily true that there exists an integer $N(d)$ such that $N(d)\cdot f$ is a ...
-1
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1answer
168 views

$7n=x^2+2y^2+4z^2$ with or without $x^2\equiv y^2\equiv z^2\pmod 7$

It is well known that any positive odd integer can be written as $x^2+2y^2+4z^2$ with $x,y,z\in\mathbb Z$. Question 1. Whether for any odd integer $n>93$ there are $x,y,z\in\mathbb Z$ such that $7n=...
2
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1answer
449 views

$x^2+7y^2=2^n$ and sums of four squares

Lagrange's four square theorem states that each $m\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ can be written as a sum of four squares. Recently, I found that the diophantine equation $x^2+7y^2=2^n$ has certain ...
11
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1answer
840 views

SOS polynomials with rational coefficients

Suppose we are given a univariate polynomial with rational coefficients, $p \in \Bbb Q [x]$, and are told that $p$ can be expressed as the sum of $k$ squares of polynomials with rational coefficients. ...
0
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1answer
94 views

On a sum of squares representation

We know $p a^2+q b^2+r ab$ can be represented as square (trivially) when $$p,q\geq0$$ $$r^2=|4pq|$$ holds and as a sum of squares (again trivially) of form $(m a+n b)^2$ under readily explainable ...
4
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1answer
182 views

The power of chi-square test

Under the null hypothesis, if we have $$\sqrt{n} \vec{x} \, \rightarrow_d \, N(0, I_p),$$ the test statistic can be construct as: $$\hat{\Psi} = n \vec{x}^{\top} \vec{x} \, \rightarrow_d \,\chi^2_p.$$ ...
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0answers
78 views

Find the integer part of the sum [closed]

Find the integer part of this sum Right answer is 200000000010000000000. But i don’t know how to solve it.
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0answers
74 views

What is the relation between different generalizations of linear programming?

Linear programming subsumed by each of Semidefinite programming (SDP) Convex programming (CXP) SOS programming (SSP) Is there any relation between each pair in the three? Are all three equivalent in ...
3
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0answers
67 views

Sum of squares of polynomials in one variable with missing powers

As we known, a positive polynomial in $\mathbb{R}\left[x\right]$ can be expressed as a sum of squares of polynomials. The problem is that whether this holds if some powers is missed. Let $A$ be a ...
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55 views

Sum of four squares from sum of $k\geq5$ squares - scaled version $\mathsf I$

Every natural number is sum of $4$ squares and every natural number bigger than $169$ is sum of five squares. Suppose $n>169$ and $x'x=n$ at a vector $x\in\mathbb Z^5$ then can we find a matrix $M\...
0
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1answer
122 views

Matrix whose entries are given by polynomial $A_{ij} = p(\lambda_i, \lambda_j)$; when is it positive semidefinite?

Let $A$ be a matrix whose entries are given by a polynomial, $$ A_{ij} = p(\lambda_i, \lambda_j) $$ where $p(\lambda_i,\lambda_j) = p(\lambda_j,\lambda_i)$ is symmetric. Are there standard methods ...
1
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1answer
149 views

Small linear relations between primitive Pythagorean triples $\mathsf I$

Say $a^2+b^2=c^2$ is a primitive Pythagorean triple. Then consider the Linear Diophantine Equation $$ua^2+vb^2+xab+ybc+zca=0$$ where $(u,v,x, y, z)\in\mathbb Z^4$ are variables. If $(u,v,x, y, z)\neq(...
3
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1answer
324 views

Efficient computation of $\sum_{i=1}^{\sqrt{n}} i^2\cdot\left\lfloor{\frac n{i^2}}\right\rfloor$

I need to compute efficiently the sum $$ \sum_{i=1}^{\sqrt{n}} i^2\cdot\left\lfloor{\frac n{i^2}}\right\rfloor. $$ We can do this in $O({\sqrt{n}})$ but I need a faster algorithm: for example, it ...
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1answer
182 views

Write $n^2$ as $x^2+y^2+2\times4^z$ or $x^2+y^2+5\times 4^z$

In March 2018, I formulated the following somewhat curious question. Question 1. Whether for any integer $n>1$ there is a nonnegative integer $k$ such that $n^2-2\times 4^k$ or $n^2-5\times 4^k$ ...
3
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1answer
213 views

How are natural numbers that cannot be written as a sum of exactly four squares of naturals characterized? [closed]

This is most probably asked here already in some other form (as it seems to be a very basic question) but since I have't found some question very similar to this one I feel obliged to ask (also ...
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0answers
149 views

Hahn's approach to Hilbert's 17th problem?

The Wikipedia article on Hahn Series mentions that these were studied by Hahn "in his approach to Hilbert's seventeenth problem". Is this correct? If so, what was this approach, and where can I ...
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0answers
65 views

Are those two Sum-Of-Squares approach for unconstrained polynomial optimization related?

I found 2 approaches to solve an unconstrained polynomial optimization problem using the Lasserre / SOS hierarchy: $$ \inf_{x\in\mathbb{R}^n}\quad p(x), $$ where $p$ is a polynomial of even degree ...
2
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0answers
144 views

Sums of squares in fields

Which fields $k$ have the property that any sum of squares is a square ? Are there elegant characterizations and/or classifications known for this type of field ? And what if we replace "fields" by "...
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0answers
88 views

Lagrange's four squares theorem in other fields [duplicate]

Is something known about analogues of Lagrange's four squares theorem in number fields other than $\mathbb{Q}$? I'm more interested in the case of finite extensions of $\mathbb{Q}$. For example, is ...
6
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1answer
200 views

Spherical Bessel functions. Sum of squares

In (1) there is a property of spherical Bessel functions, which's derivation I can not find in the literature. ${\mathsf{j}_{n}^{2}}\left(z\right)+{\mathsf{y}_{n}^{2}}\left(z\right)=\sum_{k=% 0}^{n}\...
4
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0answers
462 views

Four-square Conjecture

Lagrange's four-square theorem states that every nonnegative integer can be written as the sum of four squares. My following conjecture is much stronger than this classical theorem. Four-square ...
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1answer
342 views

Positive integers written as $\frac{a(a+1)}2+\frac{b(b+1)}2+4^c5^d$

Let $\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$. Those $T_n:=n(n+1)/2$ with $n\in\mathbb N$ are called triangular numbers. It is well known that $$\{T_a+T_b+T_c:\ a,b,c\in\mathbb N\}=\mathbb N\tag{1}$$ which was ...
1
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1answer
115 views

Constrained optimization of sum of squares polynomials

Consider the problem $$ \min p(x) \text{ subject to } g_j(x)\le 0 \quad p,g_j\in\text{SOS}, \qquad (*) $$ i.e. $p,g_j$ ($j=1,\ldots,m$) are sum of squares (SOS) polynomials. Can this problem be ...
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0answers
39 views

Sums of squares lengths in coordinates rings of plane curves

let $C\subseteq\mathbb{P}^2$ be a plane algebraic curve and let $\mathbb{R}[C]$ be its real coordinate ring. Let $d\geq 1$ and let $p(d)$ be the smallest number such that every sum of squares in $\...
18
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1answer
662 views

Lagrange four-squares theorem — deterministic complexity

Lagrange's four-squares theorem states that every natural number can be represented as the sum of four integer squares. Rabin and Shallit gave a randomised algorithm that finds one of these solutions ...
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1answer
739 views

Sums of two squares in arithmetic progressions

Let $r(n)$ denote the number of representations of $n$ as the sum of two squares. Are there any known results on $$\sum _{n\leq x\atop {n\equiv a(q)}}r(n)$$ and in particular is there an asymptotic ...
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0answers
93 views

Does positivstellensatz and SOS proof system help here?

I have a system of $m$ homogeneous degree $2$ polynomial equations in $\mathbb Z[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ where $m=poly(n)$. Take $$f_1(x_1,\dots,x_n)=0$$ $$\dots$$ $$f_m(x_1,\dots,x_n)=0$$ to be the system. ...
0
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0answers
114 views

Do many homogeneous polynomials help in faster integer root extraction?

Given $n$ homogeneous algebraically independent total degree $2$ polynomials with no $x_1^2,\dots,x_n^2$ variable in $\mathbb Z[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ with promise that it has non-zero integer roots with ...
3
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0answers
164 views

On sums of three squares

Let $\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$. By the Gauss-Legendre theorem on sums of three squares, any $n\in\mathbb N$ with $n\equiv1,2\pmod4$ can be written as $x^2+y^2+z^2$ with $x,y,z\in\mathbb N$. Clearly, ...
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0answers
271 views

Is 100 the only Leyland number that is a square?

Leyland numbers (named for Paul Leyland) are positive integers of the form $x^y + y^x$ , where x and y are naturals > 1, and also the number 3. The OEIS link is https://oeis.org/A076980 I thought ...
6
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2answers
1k views

Sums of squares of primes [closed]

Question: What is the least number that is a sum of three squares of primes in exactly six ways? ... I know it is not research mathematics. Happy new year! EDIT: Now that it is answered I should ...
2
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1answer
165 views

Sieve bound for the sum of two squares

Let $$S(n) = \sum_{p \le n} b(n-p),$$ where $b(a)=1$ is $a$ is a sum of two squares of positive integers and $b(a)=0$ otherwise. Trivially by PNT we have $$S(n) \ll \sum_{p \le n}1 \le \frac{n}{\log n}...
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0answers
218 views

Can we write each positive integer as $x^2+y^2+\varphi(z^2)$?

As odd squares are congruent to $1$ modulo $8$, any integer of the form $4^k(8m+7)$ with $k,m\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ cannot be written as the sum of three squares. To avoid such congruence ...
6
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0answers
269 views

Legendre's three-square theorem and squared norm of integer matrices

Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set of non-negative integers. Let $E_n$ be the set of integers which are the sum of $n$ squares. Let $F_n$ be the set of integers of the form $\Vert A \Vert^2$ with $A \in M_n(...
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2answers
379 views

Extension of Dickson's theorem on integers of the form $a^2+b^2+2c^2$

Theorems V in this paper of L.E. Dickson states that the following two sets are equal. $$E=\{a^2+b^2+2c^2 \ | \ a,b,c \in \mathbb{Z}\} \ \text{ and } \ F=\mathbb{N} \setminus \{4^k(16n+14) \ | \ k,n \...
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3answers
2k views

Lagrange four squares theorem

Lagrange's four square theorem states that every non-negative integer is a sum of squares of four non-negative integers. Suppose $X$ is a subset of non-negative integers with the same property, that ...
7
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1answer
385 views

Can a positive polynomial on sphere be represented as the sum of squares of spherical harmonics

Let $p\in {\mathbb{R}}[x_1,\ldots, x_d]$ be a homogenous polynomial degree $2n$. We know that if $p$ is positive on $[-\pi,\pi]^d$, $p$ is sum of squares polynomial, i.e. $p$ can be witten as sum of ...
2
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2answers
360 views

Number of ways to write an integer as a sum of squares modulo $k$

Given a natural number $n$ and an element $k \in \mathbb{Z}_n$, how many solutions are there in $\mathbb{Z}_n$ to the equation $x^2+y^2 =k$? That is, I'm wondering whether there is a mod-$n$ version ...
13
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1answer
728 views

For a proof of the three-square theorem without using Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions

The three-square theorem states that $n\in\mathbb N=\{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ is the sum of three squares if and only if it is not of the form $4^k(8m+7)$ ($k,m\in\mathbb N$). This was first proved by ...