# Questions tagged [primitive-roots]

For questions related to primitive roots, the generators of the multiplicative group of integers modulo n.

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### State of the art for primitive roots

I was recently compiling some notes for an undergrad-level course on number theory, and I went over the proof of the fact that $(\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z})^\times$ is cyclic for any prime $p$: it's a ...
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### list of primes for which 2 is a primitive root

I am looking for a list of primes $\le N$ for which 2 is a primitive root, with $N$ as large as available. I know of a table of smallest primitive roots for all primes below 1000, from which such a ...
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### How to prove an approximation of a combinatorics identity

How to prove that $$\sum_{k\ge 0} \binom{n}{rk} =\frac{1}{r}\sum_{j=0}^{r-1}(1+w^j)^n$$ can be approximated as $\frac{2^n}{r}$, where $n\ge 0$, $r\ge 0$, $n>r$ and $w^r=1$ is a primitive $r$-th ...
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### Bases of the special form

Let $R = \mathrm{GF}(q)$, $S = \mathrm{GF}(q^n), \ n\geq 2$ be extension of $R$, $h$ be a primitive element of $S$. I want to count or estimate the number $N$ of bases of the following form. Let \...
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### Primes for which 2 is a primitive root

I am writing a paper in which I keep referring to primes p for which 2 is a primitive root mod p and so I want to give a name for these primes. Is there a name for these primes in the literature ...
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### Least non primitive root

There is an abundant literature, and even here on MO no shortage of questions, on the question of the smallest prime primitivee root modulo $q$ (where $q$ is a prime, or more generally an odd prime ...
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### Proof theory and primitive roots

I have had this question on my mind for two decades. We know, after Heath-Brown, that one out (say) of 3, 5, 7 is a primitive root mod p for infinitely many primes p. We just don't know which one. (We ...
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### primitive root 2 in (Z/pZ)* for prime p and generating GF(2^{p-1})

It appears (from computer experiments) that if $p$ is a prime such that 2 generates the multiplicative group $\mathbb{F}_p^\times$ of the corresponding finite field $\mathbb{F}_p$, then the ...
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### Approximate primitive roots mod p

Artin conjectured that if $a$ is an integer which is not a square and not $-1$ then $a$ is a primitive root for infinitely many primes. This conjecture has not been resolved, but partial results are ...
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### primitive roots and primes

Given a positive integer $n > 1$, is it true that there exists infinitely many primes $p$ such that $n$ is a primitive root modulo $p$.
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### Primitive roots

If Artin's conjecture on primitive roots is true, then 2 generates $(\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z})^\times$ for infinitely many primes $p$. Can one at least show that $(\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z})^\times$ is ...
Let $p \ne 2$ be a prime and $a$ the smallest positive integer that is a primitive root modulo $p$. Is $a$ necessarily a primitive root modulo $p^2$ (and hence modulo all powers of $p$)? I checked ...
The standard definition is that $a\in\mathbb{Z}$ is a primitive root modulo $p$ if the order of $a$ modulo $p$ is $p-1$. Let me rephrase, to motivate my generalization: $a\in\mathbb{Z}$ is a ...