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### Conceptual explanation for extra/missing $p$ solutions to $x^2+y^2=a \pmod p$ at $a=0$

Throughout, $p$ will denote a prime integer, and $k$ an arbitrary integer. I have worked through V. Lebesgue's proof of quadratic reciprocity outlined by Keith Conrad in this MO thread, and I feel ...
1 vote
124 views

### Quadratic equations over Gaussian integers

Given an equation $x^2\equiv(a+ib)\bmod(c+id)$ where $a,b,c,d\in\mathbb Z$ holds, how to test if the equation has solutions and how to find the solutions in polynomial in $\log(|abcd|)$ time if $c+id$ ...
751 views

### Could a nice principle be extracted from this lemma of Gauss

I asked the following question in the math SE, with a bounty of 200 pts, without result. question: To prove the quadratic reciprocity law, Gauss needed the following lemma: If $p$ is a prime number ...
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### Quadratic reciprocity for three primes?

The quadratic reciprocity law states that for $p_1\ne p_2$ prime, the product $\left(\frac{p_1}{p_2}\right)\left(\frac{p_2}{p_1}\right)$ takes values $1$ or $-1$ depending on whether $p_1$ and $p_2$ ...
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### Connection between Gauss's lemma and Zolotarev's lemma

So I was reflecting on the relationship between Gauss's Lemma and Zolotarev's Lemma in proofs of quadratic reciprocity: GL: $(a/p) = -1^n$, where $n$ is the number of least positive residues of $ax$ ...
128 views

### Density of "simultaneous squares"

Let $(u,v)$ be a pair of non-zero integers. We say that $(u,v)$ is a pair of simultaneous squares if for all primes $p$ dividing $u$, we have $\left(\frac{v}{p}\right) = 1$ and for all primes $q$ ...
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### nonabelian reciprocity law

I heard the following relation in a talk by Peter Scholze. Could someone explain "in a simple way" what is the precise relation between the polynomial $x^4-7x^2-3x+1$ and the integral homology of the ...
308 views

### Chowla's Construction of prime having least quadratic non-residue $\gg \log p$

This paper by NC Ankeny mentions that " S. Chowla has proved that there exist infinitely many primes $k$ where the first $c_1\log k$ residues $(\bmod k)$ are all quadratic residues". I recently ...
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### Given n and q, how to find p so q$\neq$n-th power (mod p)?

Reasonable exceptions allowed on $q$. Example solution: $n=2$. Suppose $q$ is odd. Let $p$ be so $pq\equiv -1$ (mod 8). Then $q\neq$ 2nd power (mod $p$) is the same as $\left(\frac{q}{p}\right)=-1$...
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### Computation of Hilbert symbol of order 4

We have explicit expressions for the quadratic Hilbert symbol over $\mathbb Q$, for example $\left(\dfrac{x,y}2\right)_2=(-1)^{\frac{x-1}2\frac{y-1}2} (x,y\ne2)$. Are similar expressions known for the ...
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### Can Eisenstein's lattice point proof of quadratic reciprocity be generalized?

I'm referring to this proof. The key formula ("Eisenstein's Lemma") is $$\left(\frac{q}{p}\right)=(-1)^{\sum_{u}\lfloor\frac{qu}{p}\rfloor},\text{ where u=2,4,\ldots,p-1}$$ The sum in the ...