# Questions tagged [quadratic-reciprocity]

The quadratic-reciprocity tag has no usage guidance.

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### Conceptual explanation for extra/missing $p$ solutions to $x^2+y^2=a \pmod p$ at $a=0$

Throughout, $p$ will denote a prime integer, and $k$ an arbitrary integer.
I have worked through V. Lebesgue's proof of quadratic reciprocity outlined by Keith Conrad in this MO thread, and I feel ...

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### Quadratic equations over Gaussian integers

Given an equation $x^2\equiv(a+ib)\bmod(c+id)$ where $a,b,c,d\in\mathbb Z$ holds, how to test if the equation has solutions and how to find the solutions in polynomial in $\log(|abcd|)$ time if $c+id$ ...

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### Could a nice principle be extracted from this lemma of Gauss

I asked the following question in the math SE, with a bounty of 200 pts, without result.
question:
To prove the quadratic reciprocity law, Gauss needed the following lemma:
If $p$ is a prime number ...

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### Quadratic reciprocity for three primes?

The quadratic reciprocity law states that for $p_1\ne p_2$ prime, the product $\left(\frac{p_1}{p_2}\right)\left(\frac{p_2}{p_1}\right)$ takes values $1$ or $-1$ depending on whether $p_1$ and $p_2$ ...

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### Legendre Symbol of a Very, Very Large Value

I'm trying to use FLINT (Fast Library for Number Theory) to calculate the Legendre Symbol of the following:
$$\left(\frac{n! + 1}{p}\right)$$
In my case, $p$ is a positive, odd prime (specifically $...

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### Expressing quartic Dirichlet characters modulo primes $p\equiv 1\bmod 4$ with Legendre symbols

Looking through some old notes of mine from two years ago I found some crude notes writing what amounted to the statement that for any prime $p\equiv 1\bmod 4$ one could express for any odd integer $p\...

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### Connection between Gauss's lemma and Zolotarev's lemma

So I was reflecting on the relationship between Gauss's Lemma and Zolotarev's Lemma in proofs of quadratic reciprocity:
GL: $(a/p) = -1^n$, where $n$ is the number of least positive residues of $ax$ ...

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### Density of "simultaneous squares"

Let $(u,v)$ be a pair of non-zero integers. We say that $(u,v)$ is a pair of simultaneous squares if for all primes $p$ dividing $u$, we have $\left(\frac{v}{p}\right) = 1$ and for all primes $q$ ...

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### nonabelian reciprocity law

I heard the following relation in a talk by Peter Scholze. Could someone explain "in a simple way" what is the precise relation between the polynomial $x^4-7x^2-3x+1 $ and the integral homology of the ...

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### Chowla's Construction of prime having least quadratic non-residue $\gg \log p$

This paper by NC Ankeny mentions that " S. Chowla has proved that there exist infinitely many primes $k$ where the
first $c_1\log k$ residues $(\bmod k)$ are all quadratic residues".
I recently ...

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### Given n and q, how to find p so q$\neq$n-th power (mod p)?

Reasonable exceptions allowed on $q$. Example solution: $n=2$.
Suppose $q$ is odd. Let $p$ be so $pq\equiv -1$ (mod 8). Then $q\neq$ 2nd power (mod $p$) is the same as $\left(\frac{q}{p}\right)=-1$...

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### Computation of Hilbert symbol of order 4

We have explicit expressions for the quadratic Hilbert symbol over $\mathbb Q$, for example $\left(\dfrac{x,y}2\right)_2=(-1)^{\frac{x-1}2\frac{y-1}2} (x,y\ne2)$. Are similar expressions known for the ...

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### distribution of $\sqrt{-1} \mod p$

While reading up on quadratic reciprocity, I learned that if $p = 4k+1$ then $-1$ has a square root in $\mathbb{Z} / p \mathbb{Z}$.
Let $r_p$ be an integer with $0\leq r_p < p$ and $r_p^2 \equiv -...

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### Averages of $L(s,\chi)$

Let $(\frac{m}{n})$ denote the usual quadratic Jacobi symbol.
What is the
abscissa of convergence
of the double Dirichlet series ?
$$
\sum_{\substack{m,n \in \mathbb{N} \\ \gcd(m,n)=1 \\m,n\equiv 1 \...

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### higher reciprocity theorems from ratios of Gauss sums

One recent proof of quadratic reciprocity involves computing various rations of the Gauss sum.
In Quadratic reciprocity and the sign of the Gauss sum via the finite Weil representation Gurevich, ...

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### Biquadratic reciprocity for $p\equiv 1\pmod 4$ and $q\equiv 3\pmod 4$

For a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod 4$, let $\left(\frac{\cdot}{p}\right)_4$ denote the rational biquadratic residue symbol; that is,
$$ \left(\frac{a}{p}\right)_4 =
\begin{cases}
\ \ \ ...

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### Consecutive non-quadratic residues

Inspired by this recent question, I wondered if a similar result is true for quadratic non-residues, namely, if it is true that for every $k \in \mathbb{N}$ there exists a prime $p$ such that exists $...

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### Gauss linking integral and quadratic reciprocity

In the setting of Mazur's "primes and knots" analogy, prime ideals $\mathfrak p\subset\mathcal O_K$ correspond to "knots" $\operatorname{Spec}\mathcal O_K/\mathfrak p$ inside a "3-manifold" $\...

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### Have we ever proved any non-solvable case of reciprocity without the Langlands program ?

The reciprocity of the title is the following not completely well-posed problem:
Fix $P(X)$ a monic irreducible polynomial of degree $n$, with coefficients in $\mathbb Z$. "Describe"
(in some sense) ...

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### What do theta functions have to do with quadratic reciprocity?

The theta function is the analytic function $\theta:U\to\mathbb{C}$ defined on the (open) right half-plane $U\subset\mathbb{C}$ by $\theta(\tau)=\sum_{n\in\mathbb{Z}}e^{-\pi n^2 \tau}$. It has the ...

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### Weil reciprocity vs Artin reciprocity

This is probably an easy question for the experts:
Given two rational functions $f$, $g$ on a non-singular projective algebraic curve X (over an algebraically closed field $k$) and $p \in X$, one ...

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### Can Eisenstein's lattice point proof of quadratic reciprocity be generalized?

I'm referring to this proof. The key formula ("Eisenstein's Lemma") is
$$\left(\frac{q}{p}\right)=(-1)^{\sum_{u}\lfloor\frac{qu}{p}\rfloor},\text{ where $u=2,4,\ldots,p-1$}$$
The sum in the ...

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### Context for "Coronidis Loco" from Weil's Basic Number Theory

In Samuel James Patterson's article titled Gauss Sums in The Shaping of Arithmetic after C. F. Gauss’s Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Patterson says
"Hecke [proved] a beautiful theorem on the different ...

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### What's the "best" proof of quadratic reciprocity?

For my purposes, you may want to interpret "best" as "clearest and easiest to understand for undergrads in a first number theory course," but don't feel too constrained.