The quadratic-reciprocity tag has no usage guidance.

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### Given n and q, how to find p so q$\neq$n-th power (mod p)?

Reasonable exceptions allowed on $q$. Example solution: $n=2$.
Suppose $q$ is odd. Let $p$ be so $pq\equiv -1$ (mod 8). Then $q\neq$ 2nd power (mod $p$) is the same as $\left(\frac{q}{p}\right)=-1$...

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**1**answer

109 views

### Computation of Hilbert symbol of order 4

We have explicit expressions for the quadratic Hilbert symbol over $\mathbb Q$, for example $\left(\dfrac{x,y}2\right)_2=(-1)^{\frac{x-1}2\frac{y-1}2} (x,y\ne2)$. Are similar expressions known for the ...

**11**

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**2**answers

579 views

### distribution of $\sqrt{-1} \mod p$

While reading up on quadratic reciprocity, I learned that if $p = 4k+1$ then $-1$ has a square root in $\mathbb{Z} / p \mathbb{Z}$.
Let $r_p$ be an integer with $0\leq r_p < p$ and $r_p^2 \equiv -...

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**0**answers

137 views

### Averages of $L(s,\chi)$

Let $(\frac{m}{n})$ denote the usual quadratic Jacobi symbol.
What is the
abscissa of convergence
of the double Dirichlet series ?
$$
\sum_{\substack{m,n \in \mathbb{N} \\ \gcd(m,n)=1 \\m,n\equiv 1 \...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

232 views

### higher reciprocity theorems from ratios of Gauss sums

One recent proof of quadratic reciprocity involves computing various rations of the Gauss sum.
In Quadratic reciprocity and the sign of the Gauss sum via the finite Weil representation Gurevich, ...

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**1**answer

308 views

### Biquadratic reciprocity for $p\equiv 1\pmod 4$ and $q\equiv 3\pmod 4$

For a prime $p\equiv 1\pmod 4$, let $\left(\frac{\cdot}{p}\right)_4$ denote the rational biquadratic residue symbol; that is,
$$ \left(\frac{a}{p}\right)_4 =
\begin{cases}
\ \ \ ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

523 views

### Consecutive non-quadratic residues

Inspired by this recent question, I wondered if a similar result is true for quadratic non-residues, namely, if it is true that for every $k \in \mathbb{N}$ there exists a prime $p$ such that exists $...

**19**

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**1**answer

789 views

### Gauss linking integral and quadratic reciprocity

In the setting of Mazur's "primes and knots" analogy, prime ideals $\mathfrak p\subset\mathcal O_K$ correspond to "knots" $\operatorname{Spec}\mathcal O_K/\mathfrak p$ inside a "3-manifold" $\...

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**2**answers

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### Have we ever proved any non-solvable case of reciprocity without the Langlands program ?

The reciprocity of the title is the following not completely well-posed problem:
Fix $P(X)$ a monic irreducible polynomial of degree $n$, with coefficients in $\mathbb Z$. "Describe"
(in some sense) ...

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**3**answers

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### What do theta functions have to do with quadratic reciprocity?

The theta function is the analytic function $\theta:U\to\mathbb{C}$ defined on the (open) right half-plane $U\subset\mathbb{C}$ by $\theta(\tau)=\sum_{n\in\mathbb{Z}}e^{-\pi n^2 \tau}$. It has the ...

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2k views

### What can we do to raise awareness of reciprocity laws? [closed]

The study of reciprocity laws is a centerpiece of modern mathematics. Of the last ten Fields Medalists, two of them (Ngô Bảo Châu and Laurent Lafforgue) were awarded Fields Medals for their work on ...

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**1**answer

939 views

### Weil reciprocity vs Artin reciprocity

This is probably an easy question for the experts:
Given two rational functions $f$, $g$ on a non-singular projective algebraic curve X (over an algebraically closed field $k$) and $p \in X$, one ...

**18**

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**1**answer

1k views

### Can Eisenstein's lattice point proof of quadratic reciprocity be generalized?

I'm referring to this proof. The key formula ("Eisenstein's Lemma") is
$$\left(\frac{q}{p}\right)=(-1)^{\sum_{u}\lfloor\frac{qu}{p}\rfloor},\text{ where $u=2,4,\ldots,p-1$}$$
The sum in the exponent ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Context for “Coronidis Loco” from Weil's Basic Number Theory

In Samuel James Patterson's article titled Gauss Sums in The Shaping of Arithmetic after C. F. Gauss’s Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Patterson says
"Hecke [proved] a beautiful theorem on the different ...

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**22**answers

18k views

### What's the “best” proof of quadratic reciprocity?

For my purposes, you may want to interpret "best" as "clearest and easiest to understand for undergrads in a first number theory course," but don't feel too constrained.