# Questions tagged [incidence-geometry]

Abstract incidence geometries like projective spaces, polar spaces, generalized polygons, as well as incidence problems in the real or complex Euclidean spaces (eg. Szemerédi–Trotter theorem).

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### Combinatorics of projective planes over commutative rings

An axiomatic projective plane is a point-line incidence structure with the following axioms:
any two distinct points are collinear (via a unique line);
any two distinct lines meet in a unique point;
...

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### Segre's theorem in $3$ dimensions with a “twist”

As I understand, there is a $3$-dimensional analogue of Segre's theorem stating that the maximum size of a set in ${\bf F}_q^3$ ($q$ odd) with no three points collinear is $q^2+1$. I am trying to ...

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### Projective planes over non-division rings

Is there a "right" notion of a projective plane over a general (unital, non-division) ring?
Let me explain what type of object I am looking for. Let $R$ be an arbitrary (not necessarily ...

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### Point-line incidence bounds over positive characteristic fields

I am aware of work on point-line incidence bounds over $\mathbb{R}$, $\mathbb{C}$, and finite fields, in particular various versions of the Szemeredi-Trotter bounds. I would like to know if work along ...

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### Infinite-dimensional quasifields

In their seminal paper on translation planes (The Construction of Translation Planes from Projective Spaces, Journal of Algebra 1:85-102, 1964, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8693(64)90010-9), Bruck and ...

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### Perfect matchings in infinite regular bipartite graphs

This question was motivated by a discussion here and is related to a previous question here.
Let $\kappa$ and $\lambda$ be cardinals such that $0<\lambda\leq \kappa$. Let $G=(A\cup B, E)$ be a ...

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### Injective choice function for finite Fano planes

Let $H=(V,E)$ be a hypergraph that is a finite Fano plane, that is, $V$ is a finite set and $E$ has the following properties:
for $e_1\neq e_2\in E$ we have $|e_1|=|e_2|$, as well as $|e_1\cap e_2|=1$...

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### What can be said about a class of incidence structures closed under duals and complements?

Note that I do not work in combinatorics, and so this question might be a bit naive. The question is inspired by some structures that arise in my research within representation theory.
Recall that an ...

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### Question involving an incidence geometry theorem from Larry Guth's book Polynomial Methods in Combinatorics [2016]

At the very beginning of Chapter 11 of Larry Guth's book, we are given the following theorem which is supposed to be proved within the chapter:
Theorem 11.1. There is a constant K so that the ...

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### Generalized quadrangles and their connection to prime powers

Generalized quadrangles are a commonly know geometric structures.
A generalized quadrangle is an incidence structure $(P,B,I)$, with $I \subseteq P \times B$ an incidence relation, satisfying certain ...

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### Generic linear subspaces of symmetric matrices

Let $\mathcal{S}_{n}(\mathbb{R})$ be the real vector space of symmetric $n\times n$ traceless matrices with real entries and let $L\subset \mathcal{S}_{n}(\mathbb{R})$ be a linear subspace. Noticing ...

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### How many squares can be formed by $n$ points in general position in the plane?

[This is much in the spirit (but different from) the questions from different posters: How many squares can be formed by using n points? and How many squares can be formed by using n points: revisited?...

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### graph built from orthogonal Latin Squares

I've asked the following question on MathExchange site, with a bounty, with no answer or comments. Maybe I would have additional comments here. The problem came to be while reading some articles on ...

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### Why should it be hard to generalize Dvir's proof of the finite field Kakeya conjecture to the Euclidean case?

Let $q$ be prime and let
$q\delta \sim 1.$ Let $K$ be any set of $Cn\delta$-separated tubes in $B(0,2)$, where $C_n$ is some constant depending on $n$. Let us consider a grid of $q^n$ points scaled ...

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### Does any real projective plane incidence theorem follow from axioms?

Is it known whether any projective geometry statement that holds true in the real projective plane (equivalently, can be deduced from Hilbert axioms) follows from the standard projective axiomatics?
...

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### Geometric interpretation of the exceptional isomorphism $PSp(4,3)=PSU(4,2^2)$

It is well-known that there is an isomorphism between $PSp(4,3)$ (the symplectic group of dimension $4$ over $\mathbb F_3$) and $PSU(4,2^2)$ (the unitary group defined by $4\times4$ unitary matrices ...

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### About the paper by Buekenhout, Delandtsheer, Doyen, Kleidman, Liebeck and Saxl

The paper by Buekenhout, Delandtsheer, Doyen, Kleidman, Liebeck and Saxl called Linear spaces with flag transitive automorphism groups (Geom. Dedicata) from 1990 annonces a very powerful ...

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### Are two “perfectly dense” hypergraphs on $\mathbb{N}$ necessarily isomorphic?

We say that a hypergraph $(\mathbb{N}, E)$ where $E\subseteq {\cal P}(\mathbb N)$ is perfectly dense if
$\mathbb{N}\notin E$,
all $e\in E$ are infinite,
$e_1, e_2 \in E$ implies $|e_1\cap e_2| = 1$,...

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### theories where angles exist without a metric

The underlying basic question, which I'm sure I'm not the first to ask, is what are the possible exotic/nonintuitive models of Euclid's axioms/postulates, outside the one where "lines" are interpreted ...

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### What (if anything) is the connection between the Feit-Higman Theorem and the regular plane tilings?

Here are two facts that are superficially similar.
Tiling Theorem: The only regular tilings of $\mathbb{R}^2$ are achieved by triangles, squares, and hexagons.
Feit-Higman Theorem: The only finite ...

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### What are $(m,n)$-pseudoplanes?

An incidence geometry is a set $P$ (the "points"), a set $L$ (the "lines"), and a relation $I\subseteq P\times L$ ("incidence"). Equivalently, a bipartite graph with the halves of the partition ...

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### Very symmetric quadrangle in $\Bbb CP^2$

Is there a quadrangle $Q \subset \Bbb CP^2$, namely $Q$ is a set of four points, such that every permutation of $Q$ can be realizad by an isometric projectivity of $\Bbb CP^2$?
Clearly the analogous ...

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### For which finite projective planes can the incidence structure be written as a circulant matrix?

It is well known that the projective plane of order $2$ can be represented by the circulant matrix $M_2:=circ(x,x,1,x,1,1,1)= \begin{pmatrix}
x&x&1&x&1&1&1\\
1&x&x&...

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### Bounds on k-tuple points for intersections of hyperplanes

Suppose that $H_1$,...,$H_d$ are hyperplanes in $\mathbb P^n$ (over some field -- you can pick). For $k \geq n$, let $t_k$ denote the number of points through which there pass exactly $k$ hyperplanes....

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### Lines meeting a given set in a unique point

Let $p$ be a fixed prime, and suppose that $S$ is a subset of the affine plane $\mathbb F_p^2$. If $|S|\le p+1$, then by the pigeonhole principle, through any given point $s\in S$ there is a line $L=L(...

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### On the determinant of incidence matrices (of graphs and other geometries)

Let $\Gamma = (P,L,I)$ be a point-line geometry (here, $P$ is the point set, $L$ the line set, and $I$ is the symmetric incidence relation). (As an example, $\Gamma$ could be a graph.) I suppose $\...

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### Lower bound on the distance set using incidences of points and circles

Suppose that $P$ is a set of $N$ points in the plane. Can we get a lower bound for the cardinality of the distance set $d(P)$ from the Szemerédi–Trotter theorem?
Here is my try.
The Szemerédi–Trotter ...

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### Does there exist a finite hyperbolic geometry in which every line contains at least 3 points, but not every line contains the same number of points?

It seems to me that the answer should be yes, but my naive attempts to come up with an example have failed.
Just to clarify, by finite hyperbolic geometry I mean a finite set of points and lines such ...

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### The Sylvester-Gallai theorem over $p$-adic fields

The famous Sylvester-Gallai theorem states that for any finite set $X$ of points in the plane $\mathbf{R}^2$, not all on a line, there is a line passing through exactly two points of $X$.
What ...

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### Can all lines in the euclidian plane be ordinary?

Is there a set $X \subset \mathbb{R}^2$ such that every straight line in the plane is ordinary in relation to it? i.e. if $r$ is any straight line then $|r \cap X|=2$.

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### Can one axiomatize projective lines using the cross-ratio?

I known axiomatizations of projective spaces of dimension > 2 and also of projective planes (either those obeying the axiom of Pappus, which come from fields, or those obeying the axiom of Desargues, ...

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### Blocking sets in three dimensional finite affine spaces

What is the smallest possible size of a set of points in $\mathbb{F}_q^3$ which intersects (blocks) every line?
Clearly the union of three affine hyperplanes that intersect in a singleton, say $x = 0,...

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### Synthetic projective lines

The classical synthetic notion of projective plane consists of a set of points, a set of lines, and a relation of incidence between the two, such that any two distinct points lie on a unique line and ...

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### Is the sumset or the sumset of the square set always large?

Let A be a finite subset of $\mathbb{N}$, $\mathbb{R}$, or a sufficiently small subset of $\mathbb{F}_{p}$.
Do we have a lower bound of the form $|A|^{1+\delta}$ on the following quantity:
$$\max (|\...

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### Minimal number of intersections in a convex $n$-gon?

For a convex polygon $P$, draw all the diagonals of $P$ and consider the intersection points made by those diagonals. Let $f(n)$ be the minimal number of such intersections where $P$ ranges over all ...

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### Incidence geometry and matrices

Supposing I have a $0/1$ or $\pm1$ matrix $A$ of size $m\times n$, is there a minimum $d$ (that works for every $m\times n$ $A$) such that there exists $m$ lines $r_1,\dots,r_m$, $n$ lines $s_1,\dots,...

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### Generalized geometries

Let $S$ be a non-empty set. A geometry of type $n$ for $n\geq 1$
on $S$ (consisting of at least $n$ elements) is a set ${\mathfrak P}\subseteq
{\mathcal P}(S)$ such that
all members of $\mathfrak P$ ...

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365 views

### Applications of small Kakeya sets over finite fields

It was proved by Dvir that a Kakeya set in $\mathbb{F}_q^n$ has size at least $q^n/n!$, a bound which was later improved to $q^n/2^n$.
For $n = 2$ and $q$ odd the exact bound is $q(q+1)/2 + (q-1)/2$ ...

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### Points on $k$ Circles

Let $k$ be a fixed positive integer. We want to find the minimum number $f(k)$, such that for a set of finite points in the plane, if any $f(k)$ of them are on $k$ circles, then all of them are on $k$ ...

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### How close can one get to the missing finite projective planes?

This question can be interpreted as an instance of the Zarankiewicz problem. Suppose we have an $n\times n$ matrix with entries in $\{0,1\}$ with no $\begin{pmatrix}1 & 1\\ 1& 1\end{pmatrix} $ ...

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### Is there a “Bipartite” Szemeredi-Trotter theorem?

One version of the Szemeredi-Trotter theorem states the following:
Given a set of $L$ lines in the plane, the number of points incident to at least $k$ lines is bounded above by a constant times $L/k ...

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### Subplanes of Finite Projective Planes

If a finite projective plane $\pi_1$ of order $m$ contains, as a sub plane, a
finite projective plane $\pi_2$ of order $n$, then $m \geq n^2$ with equality holding only in the case of a Baer sub plane....

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### Point sets with tangents through every point

Let $D=(P,L)$ be either a $(v,k,\lambda)$-design or a near-linear space (or, more generally, any incidence structure with "points" and sets of points which are called "blocks" or "lines") and let $S \...

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### When is a 0-1 matrix a one-intersection incidence matrix?

The following problem is what motivated my previous MO question.
It is easily seen that for any given 0-1 matrix $M$, one can always find
a set $\mathcal P$ of points, and a set $\mathcal C$ of simple ...

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### Fano plane drawings: embedding PG(2,2) into the real plane

By a drawing of the Fano plane I mean a system of seven simple curves and
seven points in the real plane such that
every point lies on exactly three curves, and every curve contains
exactly three ...

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### Incidence matrices of generalized quadrangles

Is there somewhere a database of incidence matrices of generalized quadrangles that one can download?

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### Is any $G$-set a coset geometry (in the sense of Tits-Buekenhout)?

Hi there!
Let $X$ be a left $G$-set, and $\Delta=${$x_1,\ldots,x_n$} a fundamental domain of $G$ in $X$. In other words, $G$ acts on $X$ from the left, and {$Gx_1,\ldots,Gx_n$} is the orbit space $X/...

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### Covering all, but $k$ points with affine subspaces

For non-negative integer $d\le n$ and $k\le 2^n$, how many affine subspaces of co-dimension $d$ are needed to cover all, but exactly $k$ elements of the vector space ${\mathbb F}_2^n$, and what are ...

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### About a graph embedding from R^3 to…

I was working on something and stumbled upon the following situation. I have in front of me a configuration $L$ of lines in $\mathbb{R}^{3}$ and say I consider the graph $G$ having as vertex set $L$ ...

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### Axiomatization of the incidence geometry of the Euclidean plane

There are several well-known axiomatizations of Euclidean plane geometry, the language of which is usually considered to include at least the relations of
incidence (point-line, point-segment, or ...