# Questions tagged [plane-geometry]

Plane Geometry is about flat shapes like lines, circles and triangles , shapes that can be drawn on a piece of paper

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### Concyclic point made from Six arbitrary points

Let $A_1A_2A_3A_4A_5$ be irregular convex Pentagon and Let $P$ be arbitrary point anywhere in Plane geometry.
Let $X_1,X_2,X_3,X_4,X_5$ be Circumcircle of $\triangle PA1A3$; $\triangle PA2A4$; $\...

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### Which theorems have Pythagoras' Theorem as a special case?

Loomis famously wrote hundreds of proofs of Pythagoras' Theorem (reference below), but these are all basically proofs "from below". Today on Twitter @panlepan mentioned Carnot's theorem ...

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### Fermat point amidst polygonal obstacles

Consider $k$ distinct points in 2D-plane with $n$ convex polygonal obstacles. Is there a poly-time algorithm (poly in $k$ and the total number of obstacle vertices) to find a point outside of all ...

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### Writing the plane as {(x,y,z): x+y+z=0} [closed]

One can coordinatize the plane by choosing three axes at 120 degree angles and representing points by triples $(x,y,z)$ with $x+y+z=0$. Is there an accepted name for this kind of coordinate system? (...

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### Number of orbits for abelian group actions

Suppose $G$ is an abelian group acting faithfully on two sets, $X$ and $Y$, of the same size. None of $G$, $X$ and $Y$ is finite.
Now suppose $G$ is the union of abelian groups $G_i$, where $i$ varies ...

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### A generalization of the law of tangents

The law of tangents is a statement about the relationship between the tangents of two angles of a triangle and the lengths of the opposing sides.
Let $a$, $b$, and $c$ be the lengths of the three ...

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### Is every atriodic nonseparating plane continuum chainable?

There exist atriodic tree-like continua which are not chainable, though the examples that I'm aware of are very complicated.
Is every atriodic tree-like plane continuum chainable? This is equivalent ...

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### A plane ray which limits onto itself

A ray is a continuous one-to-one image of the half-line $[0,\infty)$.
If $f:[0,\infty)\to \mathbb R ^2$ is continuous and one-to-one, then we say that the ray $X=f[0,\infty)$ limits onto itself if for ...

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### How big can a triangle be, whose sides are the perpendiculars to the sides of a triangle from the vertices of its Morley triangle?

Given any triangle $\varDelta$, the perpendiculars from the vertices of its (primary) Morley triangle to their respective (nearest) side of $\varDelta$ intersect in a triangle $\varDelta'$, which is ...

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### On convex planar regions that can be cut into only a specified number of mutually congruent and connected pieces

References:
https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1838617/dividing-an-equilateral-triangle-into-n-equal-possibly-non-connected-parts
On congruent partitions of planar regions
https://research....

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### Minimum bounding rectangle of symmetric convex bodies in the plane : is the ball the worst case

The minimal rectangle containing the euclidean ball in the plane is the standard cube $B_\infty = [-1;1]^2$. I would like to know if the euclidean ball is the worst symmetric convex body to be ...

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### Trigonometry and plane geometry

This will be a variation on the theme of this question, or maybe a rephrasing of it with a somewhat readjusted emphasis.
In this posting I introduced the function
\begin{align}
& f_3(\theta_1,\...

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### An open triangle problem in plane geometry

Some years ago, I asked some 'famous' people in an advanced Plane Geometry forum about the following:
Let $ABC$ be arbitrary triangle, how can one construct a point $P$ in the plane such that $P$ is ...

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### Two triangles have the same centroid theorem

Let $\triangle ABC$ and $\triangle A'B'C'$ be two triangles. The line through $A$ and perpendicular to $AA'$ meets the line through $B'$ and perpendicular to $BB'$ at $A_b$; The line through $A$ and ...

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### Four incenters lie on a circle-Does this theorem have a name?

When I read the new paper 100 CHARACTERIZATIONS OF TANGENTIAL QUADRILATERALS-section 7, I remember that I posed some problem associated with tangential quadrilateral from 2014 in here and 2015 in here ...

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### Are there infinitely many "generalized triangle vertices"?

Briefly, I'd like to know whether there are infinitely many "generalized triangle centers" which - like the orthocenter - are indistinguishable from a vertex of the original triangle. This ...

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### Least area and least perimeter triangles that contain a convex planar region - how different can they be?

Is there a planar convex region whose enclosing triangles of least perimeter and least area have different areas and different perimeters? And if so, which region maximizes the difference between the ...

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### What is the average component size of a coloring?

Supose each cell of a big (or infinite) grid is colored at random by one of $k$ colors. Then the connected monochromatic components (here components are not supposed to contain "wasp waists",...

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### Maximizing the area of a region involving triangles

I thought of a question while making up an exercise sheet for high school students, and posted it on MathStackExchange but did not receive an answer (the original post is here), so I thought perhaps ...

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### To extend the Steiner-Lehmus theorem

The Steiner Lehmus theorem (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steiner%E2%80%93Lehmus_theorem) states: Every triangle with two angle bisectors of equal lengths is isosceles.
Question: What could one say ...

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### Does the intersection of two moving curves contain a continuous curve?

Suppose we have two plane curves, $A$ and $B$. They are continuous, but they need not be smooth or "nice" in any other way. The lines cross each other once.
Now $A$ undergoes a continuous ...

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### Is a line associated with antipodal points (the fact, it is the generalization of Simson line) known?

First time, I found a line associated with antipodal points, detail:
Let $ABC$ be a triangle, $(C)$ is circumconic of $ABC$. $P$ and $P'$ are two antipodal points. Construct three lines through $P'$ ...

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### Constant width curves and inscribed/ circumscribed ellipses

It is known (see for example the Wikipedia entry on the Reuleaux triangle) that for every curve of constant width (CCW), the largest inscribed circle and the smallest circumscribed circle are ...

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### Lines passing through many points of the form $(c^n,c^m)$

For $c>1$ consider the subset $X\subset \mathbb R^2$ consisting of all points $(c^n,c^m)$ where $n,m\in \mathbb Z$.
Question. Suppose $L\subset \mathbb R^2$ is a line that is not horizontal, not ...

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### Minimal $b_2$ in Sarkisov's construction

In the paper On the structure of conic bundles. Math. USSR, Izv.,
120:355–390, 1982, Theorem 5.10, Sarkisov constructed the first example of non-rational, rationally connected $3$-fold $X$ with $H^{3}...

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### Curves of constant width that contain triangles

Wikipedia references: Curve of constant width,
Reuleaux polygon.
We record a pair of questions on the same lines as Smallest 3-ellipses that contain triangles.
Questions:
How does one find and ...

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### Smallest 3-ellipses that contain triangles

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-ellipse
Question: How does one find and characterize the smallest 3-ellipses (n-ellipses with n =3) that contain a given triangle? 'Smallest' can mean 'least ...

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### Pseudo-Droz-Farny circles

I would like to present a construction of 2 circles. These 2 circles are somewhat similar in appearance to the well known Droz-Farny circles that can be drawn for every isogonal conjugate pairs of ...

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### Is the derivative the unique operation on points in the plane that preserves convexity?

Let $C(n)$ be the space of multisets of size $n$ of points in the Euclidean plane, topologised appropriately, and consider a surjective continuous map: $$D:C(n)\rightarrow C(n-1)$$
Such that the ...

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### Lemoine-Lozada circles

I made some rookie attempt to define the 4th Lemoine circle recently. The alternative name for this circle was suggested yesterday. Further investigation revealed a family of circles associated with ...

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### Tiling a Jordan polygon

I saw this problem some years ago, don't remember the source:
Let $P$ be a Jordan polygon (i.e. the only points of the plane belonging to two edges are the polygon vertices) that can be tiled with ...

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### Planar subsets with many pairs of points on distance $1$

Let $X$ be a subset of $\mathbb R^2$ consisting of $n$ distinct points. Let $d_1(X)$ be the number of pairs of points of $X$ on distance $1$ from each other. Define
$$d_1(n)=\sup_{X\subset \mathbb R^2|...

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### How does the affine Desargues theorem imply the little Desargues theorem?

Let $A$ be an (abstract) affine plane. We call $A$ a translation plane if the group of translations acts transitively on the set of points (Axiom 4a in Artin's book "Geometric algebra").
...

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### Three squares in a rectangle

One of my colleagues gave me the following problem about 15 years ago:
Given three squares inside a 1 by 2 rectangle, with no two squares overlapping, prove that the sum of side lengths is at most 2. (...

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### A center of convex planar regions based on chords

This is based on Chapter 6 of 'Convex figures' by Yaglom and Boltyanskii. This post also continues On two centers of convex regions.
A point $P$ in the interior of a planar convex region $C$ divides ...

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### On a possible variant of Monsky's theorem

See Wikipedia for Monsky's theorem which states: it is not possible to dissect a square into an odd number of triangles all of equal area.
Questions: Are there quadrilaterals that allow partition into ...

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### Could somebody suggest a way to determine if a parallelogram contains another parallelogram?

I thought of one way to do this.
Using the algorithm which determines if a point is inside a parallelogram,
one can determine if the polygon contains the point within $2N$ steps ($N=2$ for ...

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### Three circles meet at a point [closed]

I am looking for the proof of the following proposition:
Proposition. Let $\triangle ABC$ be an arbitrary triangle with circumcenter $O$. Let $A',B',C'$ be a reflection points of the points $A,B,C$ ...

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### A problem on configuration of Dao's theorem on six circumcenters

Abstract: In the figure belows: Three lines through center of pair opposite red circle are concurrent. This is a statement of Dao's theorem on six circumcenter, a new theorem in plane geometry which ...

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### Arrangement of points, lines, and planes

Is it possible to construct a finite nontrivial arrangement of points, lines, and planes in 3-dimensional Euclidean space with the following properties?
every line is incident with four points and ...

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### Equal area of sum of pair opposite polygons conjecture

I am looking for a proof that:
if $A_{11}A_{12}...A_{1n}$; $A_{21}A_{22}...A_{2n}$; $\cdots$; $A_{i1}A_{i2}...A_{in}$; $\cdots$; $A_{m1}A_{m2}...A_{mn}$ are $m$ oriented regular polygons ($n$-gons), ...

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### Distribution over Penrose Tilings?

The set of possible kit-and-dart Penrose tilings is uncountably infinite. It would be very helpful to have some natural probability distribution $\mu$ over this set; such a distribution would allow ...

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### Triangulations of point sets — obtuse and acute triangles

Given a planar configuration of points in general position. It is known that the Delaunay triangulation is the 'fattest' triangulation possible. It is also easily seen that given 7 points with 6 of ...

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### Inequality in a triangle associated with Golden ratio

Let $ABC$ be arbitrary triangle, $D$, $E$, $F$ are the midpoints of $BC$, $CA$, $AB$ respectively. Define points, segments in the figure below. I am looking for a proof that:
$$DE+EF+FD \le (DG+DH+EI+...

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### Cutting convex polygons into triangles of same diameter

This question continues from: Cutting convex regions into equal diameter and equal least width pieces
Definitions: The diameter of a convex region is the greatest distance between any pair of points ...

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### Equal products of triangle areas

Can you prove the following claim:
Claim. Given hexagon circumscribed about an ellipse. Let $A_1,A_2,A_3,A_4,A_5,A_6$ be the vertices of the hexagon and let $B$ be the intersection point of its ...

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### Golden ratio as a property of conic section (is it known?)

I am looking for a proof of a discovery as follows:
Let $ABC$ be arbitrary triangle and $(\Omega)$ be an arbitrary circumconic of $ABC$ let $A'B'C'$ is its tangential triangle of $ABC$ respect to $(\...

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### Thirteen-point conic and four-point line, are they new?

We know that Five points determine a conic and Two Points Determine a Line. Here I found a simple construct of a conic through $7$ points (in PS I note that how the conic through thirteen points) and ...

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### What is the center of minimum distance of a region?

Suppose we have a compact plane region $R$ (not necessarily convex or connected). I am working in a problem which involves the point $p$ in $R$ that is, in average, the closest to every other point. ...

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### Cramer–Castillon problem like

Special case of Golden ratio as a property of conic section (is it known?) as follows:
Let $ABC$ be arbitrary triangle and $DEF$ is the its tangential triangle. Let $CF$ meets $AB$ at $G$ and $BE$ ...