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Questions tagged [cryptography]

Questions concerning the mathematics of secure communication. Relevant topics include elliptic curve cryptography, secure key exchanges, and public-key cryptography (eg. the RSA cryptosystem).

2
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43 views

What is the computational complexity of equivalence up to a critical point in the one generator free self-distributive algebra?

Suppose that there exists a rank-into-rank cardinal. Then let $R$ be the relation on the set of terms in the language of self-distributive algebras (or LD-monoids) on one generator where we set $R(s,t)...
1
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1answer
51 views

encryption with wavelet transform

I need to know about an article, book or other reference that deals with encryption using Fourier transform and the Wavelet. (I plan to use matlab or other recommended software.)
0
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1answer
262 views

Reason Coppersmith fails here?

Take classic problem of finding $P,Q$ in balanced semi-prime $N=PQ$. $P$ has a binary expansion and so does $Q$. We can set the binary $0/1$ variables to be $x_1$ through $x_{\lceil\log P\rceil}$ and ...
0
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0answers
103 views

Does Coppersmith technique suffice to factor?

Take classic problem of finding $P,Q$ in balanced semi-prime $N=PQ$. Is there evidence that no extension of Coppersmith technique will accomplish factoring $N=PQ$ in polynomial time? Technically I am ...
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0answers
50 views

Method of Coppersmith optimal for multivariate?

It is shown that Coppersmith method yields optimal integer root extraction for univariate polynomials in https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.08065 and a follow up work attempts this for bivariate polynomials ...
4
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1answer
219 views

Is total degree version and $x,y$ degree version of Coppersmith's theorem correct?

The notes here https://web.eecs.umich.edu/~cpeikert/lic13/lec04.pdf have the note 'Small decryption exponent $d$: so far the best known attack recovers $d$ if it is less than $N^{.292}$. This uses a ...
1
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1answer
106 views

Cryptography with general RSA type integers?

Denote $\mathcal N_r=\{n\in\mathbb Z:\exists\mbox{ distinct equal bit primes }p_1,\dots,p_r:n=p_1p_2\dots p_{r-1}p_r\}$. $\mathcal N_1$ refers to primes and $\mathcal N_2$ referes to balanced ...
4
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1answer
330 views

Density of integers with a large rough divisor

Let $N < 2^a$ be a positive integer chosen uniformly at random. Let $\tilde{N}$ be the result of removing from $N$ all its prime factors less than $2^b$. What is the probability that $\tilde{N}$ is ...
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0answers
83 views

Example of a zero-knowledge protocol for a strictly Pi_n sentence?

I'm looking for an example of a zero-knowledge protocol such that (1) the prover Peggy can demonstrate to the verifier Victor that she has a proof of $P$ (to the usual standards of a zero-knowledge ...
4
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1answer
390 views

Is it hard to decide whether a matrix is a square of another matrix?

According to the well-know quadratic residue (QR) theory over integers, we know that it is hard to decide whether a given integer $m\in\mathbb Z_N$ is a quadratic residue (i.e., a square of another ...
2
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1answer
91 views

How to compute Weber polynomials efficiently?

Given $\tau\in H$ (up-half plane) and $q=e^{2\pi i \tau}$, Weber polynomail is defined as $$f(\tau)=q^{-\frac{1}{48}}\prod_{i=0}^{\infty}(1+q^{i-\frac{1}{2}}).$$ My question is: How can I compute a ...
1
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1answer
102 views

How to compute the Müller modular polynomials?

According to R.A.Kazmi's dissertation "Isogenies and Cryptography" (Page 22), given an isogeny degree $l$, the Müller modular polynomials are defined as $$G_l(x,y)=\sum_{r=0}^{l+1}\sum_{k=0}^{v}a_{...
6
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1answer
376 views

Minimum number of operations necessary to arrive at any configuration

Let $k \geq 2$ and $N_1, N_2, ..., N_k$ be positive integers. Let $S=\{(a_1,a_2,...,a_k) \in \mathbb{Z}^k:1 \leq a_i \leq N_i\}$ and $A=\{1,2,...,\prod_{i=1}^{k} N_{i}\}$. Given a bijective map $f:...
5
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0answers
218 views

Elliptic curve sequences needed for universal forgery

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) admits universal forgery (UF) if the Attacker can solve the equation $$z=\frac{f_{k-1}(x,y)f_{k+1}(x,y)}{f_{k}(x,y)^2},$$ where $k$ is unknown, $f_{k}...
5
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1answer
105 views

Elliptic curves: for $P = aG$ for some $a$, what is $Q = a^{-1}G$?

Given an elliptic curve group with a generator $G$ where $G$ has a prime order, p. Given a point $P=aG$ for some unknown $a$. Is it possible to efficiently calculate $Q=a^{-1}G$ without a discrete ...
10
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1answer
984 views

Cryptographic Secret Santa

Is there a protocol for conducting a Secret Santa without a central authority? Precisely, we want to sample uniformly a permutation that has no one-cycles and reveal to each member his or her ...
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1answer
91 views

Number of iterations required for a transposition cipher to yield the original input

I have asked this question on math.stackexchange.com but received no response; hoping someone on here can help. Suppose a function $f$, representing what I call a "dynamic transposition cipher" ...
44
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1answer
16k views

Conjecturally unsafe RSA primes $p=27a^2+27a+7$

We got strong numerical evidence that primes of the form $p=27a^2+27a+7$ are unsafe for cryptographic purposes since they can be found in the factorization. Consider the following generic factoring ...
2
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2answers
134 views

On fixed point probability in discrete logarithm?

Given integer $n>2$ what is the probability that for a given $h\in\Bbb Z_n$ there is no $x\in[0,\varphi(n)-1]\cap\Bbb Z$ such that $h^{x\bmod\varphi(n)}\equiv x\bmod n$?
3
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2answers
135 views

Breaking the rotate-then-substitute alphabetic cipher

My question is not typical for MathOverflow, and arises in my teaching rather than research, but I think there will be readers who can give interesting answers. Identify $\{\mathrm{A}, \ldots, \...
3
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0answers
175 views

Why we are interested in p>3 Schoof's algorithm

In the Schoof's algorithm we are particularly interested in $char(K)>3$, where $K$ is the field. I know Schoof's algorithm is mostly used over large prime fields. Also, when we are transforming ...
3
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1answer
209 views

Zero Knowledge Proof - Offline Information [closed]

I've been reading about Zero Knowledge Proofs with some interest, but I'm still unclear if it can be used to solve my real-life problem. I'm wondering if someone can help me understand a little ...
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1answer
154 views

SAT problem in Gödel numbering [closed]

I am working on a cryptography project and I have come up with this problem. Let's say I have a boolean expression L with $k$ variables $A_{1},..., A_{k}$. Let's assume this boolean expression is ...
67
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13answers
4k views

What computational problems would be good proof-of-work problems for cryptocurrency mining?

What computational mathematics problems that could be used as proof-of-work problems for cryptocurrencies? To make this question easier to answer, I want proof-of-work systems that work in ...
1
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0answers
58 views

Varieties with potential key exchanges

I am looking for varieties $V$ that satisfy an identity of the form $$f(\mathbf{a},g_{1}(\mathbf{b},\mathbf{x}),...,g_{m}(\mathbf{b},\mathbf{x})) =r(\mathbf{b},s_{1}(\mathbf{a},\mathbf{x}),...,s_{n}(\...
2
votes
0answers
84 views

Example of action of an infinitely countable group that has important ergodic/statistical property?

I work in probability and I am looking for an important example of action of an amenable countable group in other areas of math for which the (pointwise) ergodic theorem is actually quite important. ...
2
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0answers
203 views

Is conjugacy problem hard in braid group?

Recently I studied the braid group and conjugacy problem. It is believed that conjugacy problem is hard on braid group. My friend gave me an EXE file, and I use it for solving conjugacy problem, as an ...
3
votes
1answer
229 views

Using High Level Probability Theory (eg Markov Chain Mixing) in Cryptography/Cryptanalysis

I'm currently doing a PhD in probability theory, specifically (discrete space) Markov chains and their mixing properties. As well as my current main project, I'm looking to have a side project, eg to ...
0
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1answer
148 views

Prime divisors on the Jacobian of a genus 2 curve over $\mathbb{F}_q$ under the $n$ map

Let $H$ be a hyperelliptic curve geometrically irreducible of genus 2 over $\mathbb{F}_q$ with a rational point $\infty$ given by the model $y^2=f(x)$, where $f$ is monic of degree 5. Consider the ...
3
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1answer
192 views

The best linear approximation of a random function

Let $\mathcal{F}_n$ be the set of all boolean functions of $n$ variables and let $\xi$ be a random variable with values in the set $\mathcal{F}_n$ with the uniform distribution. We define a new random ...
2
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0answers
59 views

A question related to Boolean functions? [closed]

Let $Z_2=\{0,1\}$, $Z_2^r=Z_2\times Z_2 \times...\times Z_2,$ $S_1\subset Z_2^{n_1}$ and $S_2\subset Z_2^{n_2}$, $S=(S_2,S_1)\subset Z_2^{n_1+n_2}$, I'd like to construct $S_1$ and $S_2$ s.t the ...
2
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1answer
109 views

How to enumerate the extended affine equivalence classes of bent functions of degree 4 in 8 variables?

"There are 536 class of quartic forms Q (header) [in 8 boolean variables] providing bent functions of the form Q+f where f is a cubic functions." Philippe Langevin, 2008. What is the current ...
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0answers
183 views

Textbook on Cryptography [closed]

I am proposing (and will be teaching next year) a new math elective on Cryptography in our curriculum here at Illinois State University. In addition to standard topics including RSA public key and ...
8
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1answer
221 views

Are there any unitary matrices which satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation which are universal for quantum computation?

Let $H$ be a finite dimensional hilbert space. Let $L:H\otimes H\rightarrow H\otimes H$ be a unitary transformation. Then the equation $$(L\otimes I)(I\otimes L)(L\otimes I)=(I\otimes L)(L\otimes I)(I\...
4
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0answers
94 views

Do the normal forms for braid groups really conceal information about better than randomly applying the braid relations?

In braid based cryptography, one typically wants to conceal the way a certain braid $b$ has been obtained. One therefore puts $b$ into some normal form. Since every braid has a unique normal form, the ...
4
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2answers
349 views

Breaking the RSA encryption based on a $(e,N)$ given an integer $w \neq 0$ such that $e^w = 1 \mod(N)$?

In his book 'Forcing with Random Variables and Proof Complexity' Jan Krajíček claims (p.154) that it is possible to break the RSA encryption with public key $(e,N)$ if one has has an integer $w \neq ...
10
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5answers
1k views

Zero knowledge proof of equality

Alice and Bob each secretly chooses an integer between 1 and 10, a and b. They want to know (with high probability) whether or ...
1
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1answer
62 views

Dual lattices up to a q scaling factor

In this paper : https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/501.pdf There is an equality page 10, in the second paragraph considered by the authors as "easy to check". If someone could explain to me why the set at ...
22
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1answer
808 views

Is hyperelliptic cryptography “practical”?

Previosly my impression on this subject was that hyperelliptic cryptography systems (as well as other possible cryptosystems based on abelian varieties of dimension $>1$) have no advantages over ...
1
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1answer
405 views

Finding cyclic subgroups of points on elliptic curves for isogeny based cryptography

Isogeny based cryptography is one of the newest post-quantum cryptography. Hardness of this system is based on finding isogeny between two elliptic curves. Also this is a theorem: Elliptic curves ...
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0answers
47 views

lower bound for solve ECDLP

Let $P$ and $Q$ are two points of NIST elliptic curve $E$ (defined over $F_{2^m}$ with prime $m$) and $k$ is a private key such that $k.P=Q$. Suppose $\ell$ be the number of bits in $k$, and let $k_i$ ...
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1answer
85 views

Reduced echelon form of sparce matrices and constructing hash function

Let $G$ be a $d$-regular graph, and $A$ be the incidence matrix of $G$. Also suppose $B$ is a reduced echelon form of $A$ such that computations are in $\mathbb F_2$. Given matrix $B$, can we find ...
2
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1answer
180 views

Does this modification of the General Number Field Sieve factor integers?

The General Number Field Sieve factors composite $n$ basically this way. Select homogeneous polynomials with integer coefficients $f(x,y),g(x,y)$ s.t. $f(x,1),g(x,1)$ have common root modulo $n$ but ...
3
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1answer
191 views

Equivalence between Diffie Hellman and Discrete Log

For which non-trivial groups, do we know that the Diffie Hellman problem and the Discrete Log are equivalent? Is there any group for which we suspect them to be different? Could there be a finite ...
6
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1answer
240 views

Shortest vector problem over polynomials

In shortest vector problem, given a lattice in $\Bbb Z^n$, we seek the shortest non-zero vector in the lattice. This problem is computationally difficult. Answer in Evidence for integer factorization ...
2
votes
1answer
123 views

Mestre-type algorithm for higher-genus curves?

Is there an analogous algorithm for genus $g>2$ curves that, given a complete set of invariants, outputs a curve with those invariants? (I'm interested in particular in $g=3$.) Any references ...
9
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3answers
440 views

“Most Similar Vector Problem” on an Integer Lattice?

I am currently working on problem that I think could be expressed as an integer lattice problem. Given $u \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and a bounded integer lattice $L = \mathbb{Z}^n \cap [-M,M]^n$ I would like ...
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1answer
94 views

Optimal covering and CSPNG

Consider a function $f: \{0,1\}^n \to \{0,1\}^{cn}$, where $c>1$. A random $f$ with high probability generates optimal covering of $\{0,1\}^{cn}$, i. e.: $\forall x \in \{0,1\}^{cn}$ $\exists y \...
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1answer
165 views

Elliptic Curve Multiplication [closed]

What would happen if I performed Elliptic Curve multiplication on some random point within the FiniteField that wasn't actually on the curve? I assume that I would get a point in return but would that ...
11
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2answers
573 views

“The Two Sheriffs” puzzle -2: threshold for security

I've already asked a question “The Two Sheriffs” puzzle with wrong assumption. Yoav Kallus in his amazing answer using Fano plane showed that the problem has a solution in the case of seven suspects. ...