Anytime a one-dimensional central extension appears in the physics literature, immediately they assume that in any irreducible representation the central charge will be a multiple of the identity, implicitly (and sometimes explicitly) using Schur's Lemma (for Lie algebras). However, the version of the Schur's Lemma which tells us this is only valid for finite-dimensional modules, and physicists are usually interested in representing Hilbert spaces which in general can have infinite dimension.

Is it somehow still justified to say that the central charge is a multiple of the identity even for infinite-dimensional irreducible representations?

The two examples I have in mind are the Virasoro algebra as one dimensional central extension of the Witt algebra and the universal central extension of a loop algebra, both appearing in CFT texts, and in both cases they use Schur's Lemma as described.