It is true when $R$ is reduced, without $\mathbb{Z}$-torsion. If your blocks are $(M_{i,j})_{1 \leq i,j \leq n}$ and if
$$N = \sum_{\sigma \in \mathfrak{S}_n} \epsilon(\sigma) M_{1,\sigma(1)} \dots M_{n,\sigma(n)},$$
then $\mathrm{det}(M) = \mathrm{det}(N)$.

Indeed, if $R$ is reduced without $\mathbb{Z}$-torsion then it can be embedded into a product of algebraically closed fields of characteristic $0$ (take algebraic closures of the residue fields at the minimal primes), so that one can assume that $R$ is an algebraically closed field of characteristic $0$. Then by Lie's theorem on can assume that the blocks $(M_{i,j})$ are all upper-triangular. By replacing $R$ with an algebraic closure of $R(T)$, and $M_{1,1}$ by $M_{1,1} + T I_k$ if necessary, one can assume that $M_{1,1}$ is invertible. The proof is by induction on $n$, but I will detail only the case $n=2$. In this case one has
$$
\begin{pmatrix} M_{1,1} & M_{1,2} \\ M_{2,1} & M_{2,2} \end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix} I_k & - M_{1,1}^{-1} M_{1,2} \\ 0 & I_k \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} M_{1,1} & 0 \\ M_{2,1} & M_{2,2} - M_{2,1} M_{1,1}^{-1} M_{1,2} \end{pmatrix},
$$
so that $\mathrm{det}(M) = \mathrm{det}(M_{1,1}) \mathrm{det}(M_{2,2} - M_{2,1} M_{1,1}^{-1} M_{1,2}) $. Since the blocks are upper triangular, the determinants are computed by taking the product of diagonal entries, so that this is equal to $\mathrm{det}(M_{1,1}M_{2,2} - M_{2,1} M_{1,2})$.

The hypothesis "without $\mathbb{Z}$-torsion" is necessary. Indeed, consider $R = F(T)$ where $F$ is a finite field and consider the $R$-vector space $V = R^F = \mathrm{Maps}(F,R)$. Consider the endomorphisms given by
$$
a : f \in V \mapsto (x \mapsto f(x+1)) \\
b : f \in V \mapsto (x \mapsto xf(x)) .
$$
Then $[a,b] = a, [a^{-1},b] = - a^{-1}$, so that the Lie algebra generated by $a,a^{-1},b$ is solvable. Consider the block matrix
$$
\begin{pmatrix} a & Tb \\ b & a^{-1} \end{pmatrix}.
$$
By the computation above, its determinant is
$$\mathrm{det}(\mathrm{id} - aba^{-1}(Tb)) = \mathrm{det}(\mathrm{id} - (b+1)bT)) = \prod_{x \in F} (1 - x(x+1) T).$$
This is a polynomial of degree $|F| - 2$. However,
$$
\mathrm{det}(a a^{-1} - b (Tb)) = \prod_{x \in F} (1 - x^2 T)
$$
has degree $|F| - 1$, hence is not equal to the determinant of our block matrix.