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For a monic polynomial with integer coefficients $f$ where $\partial f = 2$, we have $$ \textrm{inf}(f(x)) > 0 \implies \textrm{inf}(f(x)) \geq \frac{3}{4} . $$ Could we generalize this (for common $\partial f$)?

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No. If $p,q$ satisfy Pell's equation $p^2-2q^2=1$, then minimum of $f(x)=(x^2-2)^2+(qx-p)^2$ is at most $f(p/q)=1/q^4$.

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