I thought of this question the other day and have not been able to get any traction on references or results along its lines, so I finally caved and decided to ask it here. I am no expert on Galois Theory or the Inverse Galois Problem (IGP), but have more interest in the representation theory side of this.

Motivating Question:For each finite group $G$ and each transitive permutation representation $\pi_G$, is there a polynomial $\mathfrak{p}$ whose Galois group over $\mathbb{Q}$ is precisely $G$ and for which the action of $G$ on the roots of $\mathfrak{p}$ is given by $\pi_G$?

This could be thought of as the Strong IGP over $\mathbb{Q}$ since the usual IGP could be true and yet this stronger form could be false.

For example, consider the symmetric group $S_3$. It has 3 nontrivial transitive permutation representations, of degrees 2,3, and 6.

$\bullet$ Its degree 2 transitive permutation representation is realized by the action of $S_3$ (really its quotient $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$ in this case) on the roots of any irreducible quadratic.

$\bullet$ Its degree 3 transitive permutation representation is realized by the action of $S_3$ on the roots of any irreducible cubic with two complex roots.

$\bullet$ Its degree 6 transitive permutation representation is realized by the action of $S_3$ on the polynomial $X^6+3$.

Since the ordinary inverse Galois Problem is still not resolved over $\mathbb{Q}$, the strong form is not either. With that in mind, I have some questions:

Question 1:Is there a standard name used in the literature for the strong version of the IGP described above? Is the strong form studied at all, or are folks who care about the IGP content to just find $some$ polynomial realizing a given $G$?

Assuming that the answer to Q1 is affirmative:

Question 2:Are there any groups (whether or not they are currently known to be Galois groups over $\mathbb{Q}$) which have some transitive permutation representation known $not$ to be realizable over $\mathbb{Q}$?

Since most groups have multiple transitive permutation representations, an example of what Q2 seeks could be known without the status of IGP being known.

Question 3:Same as Question 2, but for an arbitrary ground field. For example, are counterexamples of the type sought in Q2 known over $\mathbb{C}(t)$ (where the IGP is already known to be true)? Conversely, is there some ground field (perhaps $\mathbb{C}(t)$ itself) for which an affirmative answer to the Strong IGP is known?

Any relevant references would also be appreciated.