I'm assuming that $a$ is nonzero, in which case, this curve of degree $4$ is a rational curve: Just set $x=r\cos\theta$ and $y=r\sin\theta$, then you get $\sin\theta = b-ar$, so setting
$$
\cos\theta = \frac{1-t^2}{1+t^2}\qquad\qquad{\text{and}}\qquad\qquad
\sin\theta = \frac{2t}{1+t^2} = b - a r,
$$
you can now solve for r as a function of $t$ and thence get $x$ and $y$ as rational expressions in $t$. The $t$-range corresponding to your given $r$-range is $0\le t\le 1$.

It turns out that this is a limaçon, as the equation $r = (b-\sin\theta)/a$ is the classical equation for a limaçon in polar coordinates.

When $a=0$, the curve is a line (segment).