It is well known that if I have a differentiable manifold (holomorphic manifold) $M$, then I have a functor from the category of vector bundles on $M$ with flat connections to the category of local systems on $M$, given by $$(V,\nabla)\mapsto V^{\nabla}$$ and this functor is an equivalence of categories.

Now if I change the setting a little bit. I assume $X$ is a smooth scheme over a field $k$ of characteristic 0. Do I still have a functor like the above? Or in other words, is it true that for any vector bundle $(V,\nabla)$ on $X$ the sheaf of horizontal sections $V^{\nabla}$ (i.e. the kernel of $\nabla$ as $k$-vector spaces) is still a locally constant sheaf of $k$-vector spaces?

I think it is true, and it should be written somewhere, could you tell me the reference for that?