One general method is to consider an infinite presentation of the group, and then show that every finite subset of the set of relations defines a group with clearly different property. for example, the lamplighter group has the presentation $\langle \ldots a_{-n}, \ldots, a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n,\ldots,t \mid a_0^2=1, [a_i,a_j]=1, ta_it^{-1}=a_{i+1}\rangle$. Every finite subpresentation defines a group that has as a quotient one of the following groups $H_n=\langle a_{-n}, \ldots, a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n,t \mid a_0^2=1, [a_i,a_j]=1, ta_it^{-1}=a_{i+1}\rangle$ for some $n$. The group $H_n$ is an HNN extension of a finite Abelian group $\langle a_{-n},\ldots, a_n\rangle$ with the free letter $t$. Hence $H_n$ is a virtually free group, in particular, $H_n$ contains a non-Abelian free subgroup. Therefore every finite subpresentation defines a group containing a free non-Abelian subgroup, while the Lamplighter group is solvable and thus cannot contain a free non-Abelian subgroup. Similarly lacunary hyperbolic but not hyperbolic groups given by presentations satisfying small cancelation conditions or their generalizations are infinitely presented since every finite subpresentation of their presentation defines a hyperbolic group.

I need to add a very nice characterisation of finitely presented metabelian groups: Robert Bieri and Ralph Strebel. “Valuations and finitely presented metabelian groups”. In: Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 3.3 (1980), pp. 439-464.