Groups as automorphism groups of small graphs and the number of rigid graphs of a given size

In a recent question of mine I asked whether every infinite group is (isomorphic to) the automorphism group of a graph. The finite case was done by Frucht in 1939.

The first answer to this question pointed out two papers answering my original question, one by Sabidussi and one by de Groot.

Reading the 3-page paper by Sabidussi I thought "Wow, these graphs are huge": Sabidussi realizes a group of size $\kappa$ as the automorphism group of a graph of size $\aleph_\kappa$.

Indeed, de Groot in his paper notes that every countable group is the automorphism group of a countable graph, every group of size $\leq 2^{\aleph_0}$ is the automorphism group of a graph of size $\leq 2^{\aleph_0}$, and every group of size $\kappa$ is the the automorphism group of a graph of size $\leq 2^{\kappa}$.

But in general, he doesn't know how large a graph is needed to realize a given group.

Has this issue been resolved? Is there a reason why for a given infinite group $G$ there shouldn't be a graph of size $|G|$ whose automorphism group is isomorphic to $G$?

As I said in my original question, by Frucht's construction (and the constructions of de Groot and Sabidussi) this is related to the question whether there are $\kappa$ many non-isomorphic rigid graphs of size $\kappa$, where a graph is rigid if the identity is the only automorphism.
Is this known? I would guess that there are $2^\kappa$ pairwise non-isomorphic rigid graphs of infinite size $\kappa$, but maybe I am wrong.

• what do you mean by a rigid graph? Commented Sep 1, 2010 at 14:40
• A rigid graph is a graph whose only automorphism is the identity. I added this to the question. Commented Sep 1, 2010 at 14:49
• In case somebody stumbles upon this, I will add a link to the older question: Realizing groups as automorphism groups of graphs. (The accepted answer contains working links to the two papers.) Commented May 18, 2022 at 13:26

It is well-known that every infinite group $G$ can be realized as the automorphism group of a graph of size $|G|$. It is also well-known that for each infinite cardinal $\kappa$, there are $2^{\kappa}$ nonisomorphic rigid graphs of size $\kappa$. For example, both results are easily extracted from Section 4.2 of the following unpublished book: