It can be seen here that the only numbers for which $n^{m+1}\equiv n \bmod m$ is true are 1, 2, 6, 42, and 1806. Through experimentation, it has been found that $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^{m}{n^m}\equiv 1 \bmod m$ is true for those numbers, and (as yet unproven) no others. Why is this true?

If there is a simple relation between $n^{m+1} \bmod{m}$ and $n^m \bmod{m}$, that would probably make this problem make more sense. It is obvious that $n^m \equiv 1 \bmod{\frac{m}{d}}$ (dividing out $n$ from both sides gives this result) for all $n$ on the interval $[1,m]$ where $d$ is a divisor of $m$. As a result of this, $n^m \bmod{m}$ takes on only values of the form $1+k \frac{m}{d} \bmod m$ where $k = -1, 0, 1$. How can it be shown that the sum of those values is equivalent to $1 \bmod{m}$?

I have a proof somewhat in the works here, but it's not anywhere near complete (it doesn't even relate the 5 integers to the actual problem). Am I missing something in going from the first relation to the second?