One possibly useful way of describing these groups is by their universal properties. The first group has the property that homomorphisms from it to any other pro-algebraic group $H$ are in bijection with $H(K) / H(k)$, and the second group has the property that homomomorphisms from it to $H$ are in bijection with homorphisms from $G$ to $H(K)$. So the second one is the reverse of the universal property of the Weil restriction.

We can check these properties easily using Tanaka-Krien duality. Homomorphisms from $G$ to $H$ up to conjugacy are the same as homomorphisms from the category of $H$-reps to the category of $G$-reps, and actual homomorphisms are those plus an isomorphism of fiber functors. Any functor from the category of $H$-reps to the category of pairs of $k$-vector spaces inside the same $K$-space must send an $H$-rep to a pair of vector spaces where the second differs from the first by an element of $H(K)$. This is well-defined up to automorphisms of the second space, which are $H(k)$. A similar argument works for the second one.

Assume $K$ is a Galois extension of $k$ of degree $d$. We can use this unversal property to compute the groups. Let's see what happens when we pull the groups back to $K$. Pullback is adjoint to Weil restriction. So the universal functor now sends $H$ to $\operatorname{Res}_{K/k} H (K) / \operatorname{Res}_{K/k} H (k) = H(K)^d / H(K) = H(K)^{d-1}$. So this functor is equivalent to the free group on $d$ generators. So the group is the free pro-algebraic group on $d-1$ generators, or the pro-algebraic envelope of the free group on $d-1$ generators.

How do we descend this from $K$ to $k$? We need a natural $\operatorname{Gal}(K/k)$ action. From our construction, it is more natural to identify our free group with the subgroup of the free group on $d$ generators that alternates element-inverse-element-inverse, which is free on the $d-1$ generators $x_2x_1^{-1}, x_3x_1^{-1}, \dots, x_d x_1^{-1}$. The $d$ generators correspond to the automorphisms of $K$, so $\operatorname{Gal}(K/k)$ acts on them naturally by left multiplication.

The second one is the same thing except with the pro-algebraic envelope of the free product of all the Galois conjugate copies of $G$.