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2

The action $T\colon S\to S$ is compatible with the Clifford-multiplication, hence the decomposition into $\pm1$ eigenspaces is preserved. Moreover, the spin connection is also preserved, and by the definition of the Dirac operator this should solve question 1.


1

For question 2, the original manifold M will be a double cover of the quotient space since it's an involution, and if you have an operator that commutes with the involution on the covering space, it should descend to the quotient space. If there are "nice" fixed points one can get an orbifold or a stratified space, where you can still make sense of ...


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