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The category $\mathbf{Rack}$ of racks is Barr-exact since it is a variety of universal algebras, but it is not protomodular. Indeed, the category of sets is equivalent to the category of racks satisfying the identity $a\triangleleft b =a$, so it is a full epireflective subcategory of $\mathbf{Rack}$. In particular, there is an inclusion functor $\mathbf{Set}\...

2

First of all, let us see what is an algebra for this monad. One can show that the kernel of $(0,1):X\amalg G\to G$ is generated by the conjugates of elements $X$ by elements of $G$; so an action $\xi$ is in some sense a way to interpret conjugation by $G$ in $X$. To be more precise, we can define for all $g\in G$ and $x\in X$ $g\ast x=\xi (gxg^{-1})$; then ...

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