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As noted in the other answers, not every $$L_{\omega_1,\omega}$$ formula is expressible as a type. Nevertheless, there is some sense in which $$L_{\omega_1,\omega}$$ is equivalent to omitting types:

Theorem: For every $$L_{\omega_1,\omega}$$ sentence $$\phi$$, there exists a countable first-order theory $$T$$ and a countable set of types $$\{p_n:n<\omega\}$$ such that any model $$A$$ satisfies $$\phi$$ if and only if $$A$$ can be expanded into a model of $$T$$ which omits every $$p_n$$.

One can construct $$T$$ and the $$p_n$$ as follows: introduce a new relation symbol $$R_\psi(x_1,\dots,x_n)$$ for every subformula $$\psi(x_1,\dots,x_n)$$ of $$\phi$$. If $$\psi$$ is atomic or constructed by the usual first-order operations from other subformulas, include in $$T$$ a corresponding axiom: for example,

$$R_{\exists x_{n+1}\,\chi(x_1,\dots,x_{n+1})}(x_1,\dots,x_n)\leftrightarrow\exists x_{n+1}\,R_{\chi(x_1,\dots,x_{n+1})}(x_1,\dots,x_{n+1}).$$

The only problem is to deal with countable conjunctions and disjunctions. If for instance $$\psi(\vec x)=\bigwedge_{n<\omega}\psi_n(\vec x)$$, we include in $$T$$ the axioms $$R_\psi(\vec x)\to R_{\psi_n}(\vec x)$$ for all $$n$$, and we include the type

$$p_\psi(\vec x)=\{R_{\psi_n}(\vec x):n<\omega\}\cup\{\neg R_\psi(\vec x)\}$$

as one of the $$p_n$$'s. Notice that $$A$$ omits $$p$$ iff it validates the implication

$$\bigwedge_{n<\omega}R_{\psi_n}(\vec x)\to R_\psi(\vec x).$$

The rest of the proof is easy.

If we work only with infinite models, a single type $$p$$ is sufficient instead of countably many. This can be seen as follows. Introduce a new predicate $$N(x)$$ and constants $$\{c_n:n<\omega\}$$, and consider the type $$p(x)=\{N(x)\}\cup\{x\ne c_n:n<\omega\}.$$ Then for each $$\psi(\vec x)=\bigwedge_{n<\omega}\psi_n(\vec x)$$ introduce a new predicate $$S_\psi(u,\vec x)$$ together with the axioms

$$\begin{gather*} R_{\psi_n}(\vec x)\to S_\psi(c_n,\vec x),\\ \forall u\,(N(u)\to S_\psi(u,\vec x))\to R_\psi(\vec x), \end{gather*}$$

which will serve together with $$p$$ as a replacement for $$p_\psi$$.

This result has various interesting consequences: for example, Hanf numbers of $$L_{\omega_1,\omega}$$ and of FO with omitting types are the same. (The Hanf number of a logic $$L$$ is the smallest cardinal $$\kappa$$ such that for every $$L$$-sentence $$\phi$$, if $$\phi$$ has a model of size at least $$\kappa$$, then it has models of arbitrarily large cardinality. The axiom of replacement implies that every logic whose formulas do not form a proper class has a Hanf number.) As a matter of fact, both Hanf numbers equal $$\beth_{\omega_1}$$, but this beautiful result of Morley has a considerably more difficult proof.