# All Questions

106,315
questions

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

262 views

### Change of basis with Multilinear fucntion [closed]

Take a multi-linear function(or functional) M that takes m arguments V1…Vm, each with a dimension n. Consider only the case where m=n. Let there be a change of basis performed on the arguments(V1...Vm)...

**75**

votes

**7**answers

6k views

### When does Cantor-Bernstein hold?

The Cantor-Bernstein theorem in the category of sets (A injects in B, B injects in A => A, B equivalent) holds in other categories such as vector spaces, compact metric spaces, Noetherian topological ...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

770 views

### What m minimizes E(|m-X|^3) for a random variable X?

Let X be a random variable. Then E(|m-X|^1) is minimized when (as a function of m) when m is the median of X, and E(|m-X|^2) is minimized when m is the mean of x.
A couple weeks ago in a technical ...

**18**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Splitting Pythagorean triples

Can one partition the set of positive integers into finitely many Pythagorean-triple-free subsets? If so, what is the smallest number of such subsets? Taking a wild guess, I would
be least surprised ...

**35**

votes

**12**answers

17k views

### Why is it so cool to square numbers (in terms of finding the standard deviation)?

When we want to find the standard deviation of $\{1,2,2,3,5\}$ we do
$$\sigma = \sqrt{ {1 \over 5-1} \left( (1-2.6)^2 + (2-2.6)^2 + (2-2.6)^2 + (3-2.6)^2 + (5 - 2.6)^2 \right) } \approx 1.52$$.
Why ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### What is the size of the category of finite dimensional F_q vector spaces?

The size of a finite skeletal category C in the sense of Leinster is defined as follows: Label the objects of C by integers 1,2,...,n and let aij be the number of morphisms from i to j (for i and j ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

603 views

### decidability of group homomorphism existence

Fix a finitely-presented group $G$ with distinguished non-identity element $g$. For any finitely-presented group $H$ with element $h$, is it decidable whether there is a homomorphism $h: G \...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Decomposing a 1-d signal into arbitary basis functions

Hi all,
The short-time fourier transform decomposes a signal window into a sin/cosine series.
How would one approximate a signal in the same way, but using a set of arbitrary basis functions instead ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

900 views

### Explicit Direct Summands in the Decomposition Theorem

Let f:X→Y be a semismall resolution of singularities. Then the pushforward of the constant sheaf on X is a semisimple perverse sheaf on Y. Under these conditions, I know how to calculate the ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### “Fermat's last theorem” and anabelian geometry?

Do I remember a remark in "Sketch of a program" or "Letter to Faltings" correctly, that acc. to Grothendieck anabelian geometry should not only enable finiteness proofs, but a proof of FLT too? If yes,...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

339 views

### Limit of sequence involving gamma functions

Let G be the gamma function, and b be a constant in (-2,inf). Let
H(n, i) = G(i+1+b) * G(n-i+1+b) / [G(i+1) * G(n-i+1)]
for integers n > i > 0. Let
S(n) = \sum_{i=1}^{i=n-1} H(n, i).
Let x_ n = H(...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

7k views

### Latex Template for a Popular Math Journal [closed]

Can anyone offer a Latex template for a popular mathematics journal? It is easy to prepare a template for a technical journal with simple page layout but what I am looking for is something like the ...

**14**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### Intro to automatic theorem proving / logical foundations?

Is there any web-based course or materials about logic / automatic theorem proving? (I checked MIT's OpenCourseWare and I only found a vaguely related AI course)

**9**

votes

**4**answers

520 views

### What is the right way to think about / represent general tilings?

For periodic/symmetric tilings, it seems somewhat "obvious" to me that it just comes down to working out the right group of symmetries for each of the relevant shapes/tiles, but its not clear to me if ...

**22**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Motivation/interpretation for Quillen's Q-construction?

This question has been on my mind for a while. As I understand it, the Q-construction was the first definition for higher algebraic K-theory. Some details can be found here.
http://en.wikipedia.org/...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

707 views

### Example where you *need* non-DVRs in the valuative criteria

The valuative criterion for separatedness (resp. properness) says that a morphism of schemes (resp. a quasi-compact morphism of schemes) f:X→Y is separated (resp. proper) if and only if it ...

**52**

votes

**9**answers

5k views

### Is every finite group a group of “symmetries”?

I was trying to explain finite groups to a non-mathematician, and was falling back on the "they're like symmetries of polyhedra" line. Which made me realize that I didn't know if this was actually ...

**7**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### For which hypersurfaces in projective space does the complement admit an algebraic group structure?

For example, if $H$ is a hyperplane, then $\mathbb{P}^n - H = \mathbb{A}^n$, which is a vector space.
If $n = m^2 - 1$, then we can regard $\mathbb{A}^{n+1}$ as the space of $m \times m$ matrices and ...

**10**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Applications and Natural Occurrences of Prime Numbers

I'm fascinated by prime numbers, and over the years, I've found multiple applications and natural occurrences for them. But can anyone suggest some alternatives that aren't in my list?
Applications ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### algebraic K-theory and tensor products

Algebraic K-theory defines a functor K taking commutative rings to E_\infty ring spectra. I'm interested in which pushouts (tensor/smash products) K preserves. For example, if R is a regular ...

**14**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### What is lambda calculus related to?

So I'm not much of a math guy but I've really enjoyed programming in Lisp and have become interested in the ideas of lambda calculus which it is based.
I was wondering if anyone had a suggestion ...

**9**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Rational maps with all critical points fixed

What can be said about rational self-maps of $\mathbb P^1$
for which all critical points are also fixed points ?
If all but one of the fixed points are critical, there is
a characterization in http://...

**36**

votes

**10**answers

17k views

### Algorithm for finding the volume of a convex polytope

It's easy to find the area of a convex polygon by division into triangles, but what is the optimal way of finding the volume of higher-dimensional convex bodies? I tried a few methods for dividing ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Does Ribet's level lowering theorem hold for prime powers?

I often use the following theorem (that one can state more generally) in my research.
Let E/Q be an elliptic curve of conductor N corresponding to a modular form f(E), l a prime of good or ...

**13**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### What is the Hilbert class field of a cyclotomic field?

In the answers to Qiaochu's post on defining representations of finite groups over the algebraic integers, it came out that which fields a representation of a finite group is defined over might depend ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

900 views

### Looking for cubic, bipartite graphs with girth at least six and no cycles of length 8.

Aside from the Desargues graph, are there nice (at least vertex-transitive), small (say, less than 60 vertices), cubic, bipartite graphs with girth at least 6 and no 8-cycles? (or, even better, no ...

**9**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Fourier transform of exp(-||x||_p): more general question

David Corfield asked the following questions yesterday: Is the
n-dimensional Fourier transform of exp(-||x||) always non-negative,
where ||.|| is the Euclidean norm on R^n? What is its support?
I ...

**36**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Analogue to covering space for higher homotopy groups?

The connection between the fundamental group and covering spaces is quite fundamental. Is there any analogue for higher homotopy groups? It doesn't make sense to me that one could make a branched ...

**85**

votes

**12**answers

25k views

### Where are mathematics jobs advertised if not on mathjobs (e.g. in Europe and elsewhere)?

My impression is that in the US, there is a canonical place for finding math jobs, namely mathjobs.org. For those of us who live and apply for jobs elsewhere, life is more complicated, and searching ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

370 views

### Legendrian homotopy of curves in a contact structure?

I'm aware of the great body of work on Legendrian knot theory in contact geometry, but suppose I'm curious just about homotopy and not isotopy. How does one understand the space of Legendrian loops ...

**16**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### How Does One Find the “Loneliest Person on the Planet”?

I'm looking for the algorithm that efficiently locates the "Loneliest Person on the Planet", where "loneliest" is defined as:
Maximum minimum distance to another person -- that is, the person for ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

746 views

### Operator Valued Weights

One of the basic tools in subfactors is the conditional expectation. If $N\subset M$ is a $II_1$-subfactor (or an inclusion of finite factors), then there is a unique trace-preserving conditional ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

488 views

### a general theory of configurations?

Once I found by accident an article by MacPherson: "Classical projective geometry and modular varieties", in "Algebraic analysis, geometry, and number theory" (Baltimore, MD, 1988), whose introduction ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

2k views

### Friedberg, Insel, and Spence Linear Algebra example

In the chapter 6.4 on normal and self-adjoint operators, there is an example of an infinite dimensional inner product space H that has a normal operator but that has no eigenvectors.
The space is the ...

**-3**

votes

**2**answers

620 views

### Cycle Length of the Positive Powers of Two Mod Powers of Ten [closed]

I want to prove that the positive powers of two, mod 10m, cycle with period 4*5m-1. It's simple to prove that the powers of FIVE cycle with this period (2 is a primitive root mod powers of five), but ...

**64**

votes

**12**answers

7k views

### Is there a high-concept explanation for why characteristic 2 is special?

The structure of the multiplicative groups of $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ or of $\mathbb{Z}_p$ is the same for odd primes, but not for $2.$ Quadratic reciprocity has a uniform statement for odd primes, ...

**13**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Why the search for ever larger primes?

I understand why primes are useful numbers and also why the product of large primes are useful such as for application in public key cryptography, but I am wondering why it is useful to continue the ...

**36**

votes

**11**answers

12k views

### Resources for learning practical category theory

I've been doing functional programming, primarily in OCaml, for a couple years now, and have recently ventured into the land of monads. I'm able to work them now, and understand how to use them, but ...

**6**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Integer division: the length of the repetitive sequence after the decimal point

When dividing two integers, there may be an infinite sequence of digits after the decimal point (e.g. in the cases of 1/3, 1/7 etc).
As far as I know, if the two numbers divided are integers, this ...

**22**

votes

**8**answers

2k views

### Points and lines in the plane

Does a positive real number $k\geq1$ exist such that for every finite set $P$ of points in the plane (with the property that no three points of $P$ lie on a common line and $|P|\geq3$), one can choose ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Why is the Euler characteristic of powers of a line bundle a polynomial in the power?

Mumford's book Abelian Varieties asserts that for a line bundle L on a projective variety (if necessary, you can assume it is as nice as possible), the Euler characteristic $\chi(L^k)$ of tensor ...

**169**

votes

**42**answers

53k views

### Most interesting mathematics mistake?

Some mistakes in mathematics made by extremely smart and famous people can eventually lead to interesting developments and theorems, e.g. Poincaré's 3d sphere characterization or the search to prove ...

**12**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Short Introduction to Planar Algebras

Are there any good short expositions of planar algebras out there? I am interested primarily in seeing the main definition and some explicit examples.

**5**

votes

**2**answers

981 views

### Higher vanishing cycles

The generalisation of the vanishing cycle formalism in SGA 7 is apparently since the 1970's an issue, Morava mentioned a connection with Bousfield localization. I find the Morava's remarks un-...

**25**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Etale covers of the affine line

In characteristic p there are nontrivial etale covers of the affine line, such as those obtained by adjoining solutions to x^2 + x + f(t) = 0 for f(t) in k[t]. Using an etale cohomology computation ...

**11**

votes

**0**answers

762 views

### Kato's log motives

What are they and what are their intended uses? Does anyone have notes/slides of this talk?
I am curious about "log motives" because there seems to exist a "log motivic yoga" among experts in ...

**1**

vote

**4**answers

2k views

### Closest grid square to a point in spherical coordinates

I am programming an algorithm where I have broken up the surface of a sphere into grid points (for simplicity I have the grid lines are parallel and perpendicular to the meridians). Given a point A on ...

**39**

votes

**1**answer

16k views

### What is inter-universal geometry?

I wonder what Mochizuki's inter-universal geometry and his generalisation of anabelian geometry is, e.g. why the ABC-conjecture involves nested inclusions of sets as hinted in the slides, or why such ...

**3**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Conjugation in SU(2)

For any two matrices $P,Q \in SU(2)$, with $tr(P)=tr(Q)=0$, does there always exist some $G\in SU(2)$ such that $G P G^{-1} = -P$, and $G Q G^{-1} = -Q\ ?$

**19**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Is any representation of a finite group defined over the algebraic integers?

Apologies in advance if this is obvious.