# All Questions

38,500
questions with no upvoted or accepted answers

**171**

votes

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10k views

### Why polynomials with coefficients $0,1$ like to have only factors with $0,1$ coefficients?

Conjecture. Let $P(x),Q(x) \in \mathbb{R}[x]$ be two monic polynomials with non-negative coefficients. If $R(x)=P(x)Q(x)$ is $0,1$ polynomial (coefficients only from $\{0,1\}$), then $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$ ...

**134**

votes

**0**answers

11k views

### Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture

(1) In "Esquisse d'un programme", Grothendieck conjectures
Grothendieck-Teichmuller conjecture: the morphism
$$
G_{\mathbb{Q}} \longrightarrow Aut(\widehat{T})
$$
is an isomorphism.
Here $G_{\...

**82**

votes

**0**answers

14k views

### Hironaka's proof of resolution of singularities in positive characteristics

Recent publication of Hironaka seems to provoke extended discussions, like Atiyah's proof of almost complex structure of $S^6$ earlier...
Unlike Atiyah's paper, Hironaka's paper does not have a ...

**72**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### The exponent of Ш of $y^2 = x^3 + px$, where $p$ is a Fermat prime

For $d$ a non-zero integer, let $E_d$ be the elliptic curve
$$
E_d : y^2 = x^3+dx.
$$
When we let $d$ be $p = 2^{2^k}+1$, for $k \in \{1,2,3,4\}$, sage tells us that, conditionally on BSD,
$$
\# Ш(E_p)...

**70**

votes

**0**answers

4k views

### 2, 3, and 4 (a possible fixed point result ?)

The question below is related to the classical Browder-Goehde-Kirk fixed point theorem.
Let $K$ be the closed unit ball of $\ell^{2}$, and let $T:K\rightarrow K$
be a mapping such that $\Vert Tx-Ty\...

**62**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Constructing non-torsion rational points (over Q) on elliptic curves of rank > 1

Consider an elliptic curve $E$ defined over $\mathbb Q$. Assume that the rank of $E(\mathbb Q)$ is $\geq2$. (Assume the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture if needed, so that analytic rank $=$ algebraic ...

**59**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Are there periodicity phenomena in manifold topology with odd period?

The study of $n$-manifolds has some well-known periodicities in $n$ with period a power of $2$:
$n \bmod 2$ is important. Poincaré duality implies that odd-dimensional compact oriented manifolds ...

**58**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Which finite abelian groups aren't homotopy groups of spheres?

Someone asked me if all finite abelian groups arise as homotopy groups of spheres. I strongly doubted it, and I bet ten bucks that $\mathbb{Z}_5$ is not $\pi_k(S^n)$ for any $n,k$. But I don't know ...

**58**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### (Approximately) bijective proof of $\zeta(2)=\pi^2/6$ ?

Given $A,B\in {\Bbb Z}^2$, write $A \leftrightarrows B$ if the
interior of the line segment AB misses
${\Bbb Z}^2$.
For $r>0$, define
$S_r:=\{ \{A, B\} | A,B\in {\Bbb Z}^2,||A||<r,||B||<r, |...

**54**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Grothendieck's Period Conjecture and the missing p-adic Hodge Theories

Singular cohomology and algebraic de Rham cohomology are both functors from the category of smooth projective algebraic varieties over $\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$-vectors spaces. They come with the ...

**54**

votes

**1**answer

5k views

### Why "open immersion" rather than "open embedding"?

When topologists speak of an "immersion", they are quite deliberately describing something that is not necessarily an "embedding." But I cannot think of any use of the word "embedding" in algebraic ...

**52**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Uniformization over finite fields?

The following is a question I've been asking people on and off for a few years, mostly out of idle curiosity, though I think it's pretty interesting. Since I've made more or less no progress, I ...

**51**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### What did Gelfand mean by suggesting to study "Heredity Principle" structures instead of categories?

Israel Gelfand wrote in his remarkable talk "Mathematics as an adequate language (a few remarks)", given at "The Unity of Mathematics" Conference in honor of his 90th birthday, the ...

**50**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### On the first sequence without triple in arithmetic progression

In this Numberphile video (from 3:36 to 7:41), Neil Sloane explains an amazing sequence:
It is the lexicographically first among the sequences of positive integers without triple in arithmetic ...

**50**

votes

**0**answers

11k views

### Atiyah's paper on complex structures on $S^6$

M. Atiyah has posted a preprint on arXiv on the non-existence of complex structure on the sphere $S^6$.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.09366
It relies on the topological $K$-theory $KR$ and in ...

**49**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### What is the current status of derived differential geometry?

I hope you will excuse this naive and general question. I've read from many places (e.g. Dominic Joyce's website, John Pardon's thesis, etc.) that the/a "right" foundations for many ...

**49**

votes

**0**answers

895 views

### Class function counting solutions of equation in finite group: when is it a virtual character?

Let $w=w(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ be a word in a free group of rank $n$. Let $G$ be a finite group. Then we may define a class function $f=f_w$ of $G$ by
$$ f_w(g) = |\{ (x_1,\dots, x_n)\in G^n\mid w(x_1,\dots,...

**47**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Set-theoretic reformulation of the invariant subspace problem

The invariant subspace problem (ISP) for Hilbert spaces asks whether every bounded linear operator $A$ on $l^2$ (with complex scalars) must have a closed invariant subspace other than $\{0\}$ and $l^2$...

**47**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Alternating colors on a line: infinitely often or converge?

Suppose we have intervals of alternating color on $\mathbb{R}$ (say, red / blue / red / blue / …). All intervals have independent length, with all red intervals distributed as $\mathbb{P}_{R}$, all ...

**46**

votes

**0**answers

17k views

### What is the current understanding regarding complex structures on the 6-sphere?

In October 2016, Atiyah famously posted a preprint to the arXiv, "The Non-Existent Complex 6-Sphere" containing a very brief proof $S^6$ admits no complex structure, which I immediately read and ...

**46**

votes

**0**answers

5k views

### Cochains on Eilenberg-MacLane Spaces

Let $p$ be a prime number, let $k$ be a commutative ring in which $p=0$, and let
$X = K( {\mathbb Z}/p {\mathbb Z}, n)$ be an Eilenberg-MacLane space.
Let $F$ be the free $E_{\infty}$-algebra over $k$ ...

**46**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Does every triangle-free graph with maximum degree at most 6 have a 5-colouring?

A very specific case of Reed's Conjecture
Reed's $\omega$,$\Delta$, $\chi$ conjecture proposes that every graph has $\chi \leq \lceil \tfrac 12(\Delta+1+\omega)\rceil$. Here $\chi$ is the chromatic ...

**44**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### How many algebraic closures can a field have?

Assuming the axiom of choice given a field $F$, there is an algebraic extension $\overline F$ of $F$ which is algebraically closed. Moreover, if $K$ is a different algebraic extension of $F$ which is ...

**44**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### A three-line proof of global class field theory?

There is an idea (I think originally due to Tate) that class field theory is fundamentally a consequence of Pontrjagin duality and Hilbert Theorem 90. I'm curious whether this can phrased using modern ...

**44**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### What is the "real" meaning of the $\hat A$ class (or the Todd class)?

In the Atiyah-Singer index theorem as well as in the Grothendieck-Riemann-Roch theorem, one encounters either the $\hat A$-class or the Todd class, depending on the context. I want to focus on the ...

**44**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Enriched Categories: Ideals/Submodules and algebraic geometry

While working through Atiyah/MacDonald for my final exams I realized the following:
The category(poset) of ideals $I(A)$ of a commutative ring A is a closed symmetric monoidal category if endowed ...

**43**

votes

**0**answers

783 views

### Extending a line-arrangement so that the bounded components of its complement are triangles

Given a finite collection of lines $L_1,\dots,L_m$ in ${\bf{R}}^2$, let $R_1,\dots,R_n$ be the connected components of ${\bf{R}}^2 \setminus (L_1 \cup \dots \cup L_m)$, and say that $\{L_1,\dots,L_m\}...

**42**

votes

**0**answers

3k views

### Can you solve the listed smallest open Diophantine equations?

In 2018, Zidane asked What is the smallest unsolved diophantine equation? The suggested way to measure size is substitute 2 instead of all variables, absolute values instead of all coefficients, and ...

**42**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Concerning the various proofs from the axiom of choice that R^3 admits of surprising geometrical decompositions into circles, skew lines and so on: can we prove in any instance that there are no Borel such decompositions? Or that AC is required?

This question follows up on a comment I made on Joseph O'Rourke's
recent question, one of several questions here on mathoverflow
concerning surprising geometric partitions of space using the axiom
of ...

**41**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### What does the theta divisor of a number field know about its arithmetic?

This question is about a remark made by van der Geer and Schoof in their beautiful article "Effectivity of Arakelov divisors and the theta divisor of a number field" (from '98) (link).
Let me first ...

**39**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Thomason's "open letter" to the mathematical community

In the 1989, Bob Thomason left his CNRS position in Orsay and moved to Paris VII. It was during this period that he composed his "Open Letter" to the mathematical community. The letter ...

**39**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Mikhalkin's tropical schemes versus Durov's tropical schemes

In Mikhalkin's unfinished draft book on tropical geometry, (available here) (page 26) he defines a notion of tropical schemes. It seems to me that this definition is not just a wholesale adaptation of ...

**39**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Minimal volume of 4-manifolds

This question came up in a talk of Dieter Kotschick yesterday. The minimal volume of a manifold is the infimum of volumes of Riemannian metrics on the manifold with sectional curvatures bounded in ...

**38**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Is there anything to the obvious analogy between Joyal's combinatorial species and Goodwillie calculus?

Combinatorial species and calculus of functors both take the viewpoint that many interesting functors can be expanded in a kind of Taylor series. Many operations familiar from actual calculus can be ...

**38**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Homotopy type of TOP(4)/PL(4)

It is known (e.g. the Kirby-Siebenmann book) that $\mathrm{TOP}(n)/\mathrm{PL}(n)\simeq K({\mathbb Z}/2,3)$ for $n>4$. I believe it is also known (Freedman-Quinn) that $\mathrm{TOP}(4)/\mathrm{PL}(...

**37**

votes

**0**answers

651 views

### A kaleidoscopic coloring of the plane

Problem. Is there a partition $\mathbb R^2=A\sqcup B$ of the Euclidean plane into two Lebesgue measurable sets such that for any disk $D$ of the unit radius we get $\lambda(A\cap D)=\lambda(B\cap D)=\...

**37**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Computer calculations in A_infinity categories?

Is there a good computer program for doing calculations in A-infinity categories?
Explicit calculations in A-infinity categories are an important, useful, yet very tedious task. One has to keep track ...

**36**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Are we better in computing integrals than mathematicians of 19th century?

When I started to learn mathematics, I was fascinating by legendary «Демидович»: problems in mathematical analysis. Fifteen years later, when I open chapters about integrals, I see a long list of ...

**36**

votes

**0**answers

793 views

### Are there infinite versions of sporadic groups?

The classification of finite simple groups states roughly that every non-abelian finite simple group is either alternating, a group of Lie type, or a sporadic group.
For each of the groups of Lie ...

**36**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### What is the three-dimensional hyperbolic volume of a four-manifold?

Every smooth closed orientable 4-manifold may be constructed via a handle decomposition. Before asking a couple of questions, I recall some well-known facts about handle-decompositions of 4-manifolds.
...

**36**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Functor that maps to both $KO^n$ and $KO^{-n}$

(my question is also meaningful for complex K-theory, but since Kn(X) is always isomorphic to K-n(X), it's less interesting)
I start by recalling the analytic definition of KO-theory:
The following ...

**36**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Why are there so few quaternionic representations of simple groups?

Having spent many hours looking through the Atlas of Finite Simple Groups while in Grad school, I recall being rather intrigued by the fact that among the sporadic groups, only one (McLaughlin as I ...

**36**

votes

**1**answer

5k views

### A generalisation of the equation $n = ab + ac + bc$

In a result I am currently studying (completely unrelated to number theory), I had to examine the solvability of the equation $n = ab+ac+bc$ where $n,a,b,c$ are positive integers $0 < a < b < ...

**35**

votes

**0**answers

685 views

### Chern character of a Representation

Let $G$ be a finite group. Under the identification of the representation ring $R_{\mathbb{C}}(G)$ with the equivariant K-theory $KU^0_G(\ast)$ of the point, followed by Atiyah-Segal completion-...

**35**

votes

**0**answers

4k views

### Homology of $\mathrm{PGL}_2(F)$

Update: As mentioned below, the answer to the original question is a strong No. However, the case of $\pi_4$ remains, and actually I think that this one would follow from Suslin's conjecture on ...

**35**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### 3-colorings of the unit distance graph of $\Bbb R^3$

Let $\Gamma$ be the unit distance graph of $\Bbb R^3$: points $(x,y)$ form an edge if $|x,y|=1$.
Let $(A,B,C,D)$ be a unit side rhombus in the plane, with a transcendental diagonal, e.g. $A = (\alpha,...

**35**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Two-convexity ⇒ Lefschetz?

Assume that
$\Omega$ is an open simply connected set in $\mathbb R^n$
(two-convexity) if 3 faces of a 3-simplex belong to $\Omega$ then whole simplex in $\Omega$.
Is it true that any component of ...

**34**

votes

**0**answers

1k views

### Grothendieck's "List of classes of structures"

In Lawvere's article Comments on the Development of Topos Theory, the author writes:
Similarly, Grothendieck and others unerringly recognized which kinds of mathematical structures are 'preserved ...

**34**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Correspondence between eigenvalue distributions of random unitary and random orthogonal matrices

In the course of a physics problem (arXiv:1206.6687), I stumbled on a curious correspondence between the eigenvalue distributions of the matrix product $U\bar{U}$, with $U$ a random unitary matrix and ...

**33**

votes

**0**answers

2k views

### Sofa in a snaky 3D corridor

What is the largest volume object that can pass though a
$1 \times 1 \times L$ "snaky" corridor, where $L$ is large
enough to be irrelvant, say $L > 6$.
...