# All Questions

**14**

votes

**9**answers

7k views

### Direct proof of irrationality?

There are plenty of simple proofs out there that $\sqrt{2}$ is irrational. But does there exist a proof which is not a proof by contradiction? I.e. which is not of the form:
Suppose $a/b=\sqrt{2}$ ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

578 views

### Applications of modular forms outside Number Theory? [closed]

Are there applications of modular forms to areas other than Number Theory (and Galois Theory) such as Combinatorics, Algebraic Topology, Algebraic Geometry, Theoretical Physics,...?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

104 views

### Poisson kernel, $E^{(x, y)}\text{exp}\{i\theta X_t - \theta Y_t\} = e^{i\theta x - \theta y}$

Let $d = 2$, and consider the domain $D = \mathbb{H}$, the upper half-plane. Let $W_t = (X_t, Y_t)$. How do I see that for any $\theta \in \mathbb{R}$ and any $t \ge 0$, we have$$E^{(x, ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

289 views

### Derivatives of theta functions at zero

Let $L$ be a line bundle over complex elliptic curve, $\deg L = k>0$. Theta functions
$$
\theta_s(z;\tau)_k=\sum_{r\in \mathbb{Z}} e^{\pi i [(\frac{s}{k} + r)^2 k \tau + 2kz(\frac{s}{k}+r)]}, ...

**9**

votes

**3**answers

701 views

### Minimum of Milnor number for the curve singularities of fixed multiplicity

An element $F\in \mathbb{C}[[x,y]]$ defines a germ of plane curve.
We assume $F(0,0)=0$.
The multiplicity $mult$ of the germ is defined to be a minimal number $i$
such that $F\in m^i$ where $m=(x,y)$ ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

917 views

### Unprovable statements S where the only way to prove S is to assume S

Motivation: Incompleteness (and various independence statements) is about unprovable statements. One natural way to make an unprovable statement provable is to assume it as a new axiom. But this feels ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

32 views

### Error in the paper “Oscillating-Decaying Solutions, Runge Approximation and its Applications to Inverse Problems”?

I am going to use simpler notation then the paper. The potential problem is not very technical.
Theorem 4.2. in the paper states the following:
a) If $t < t_0$, then $I(t,\tau) \to 0$ as $\tau ...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

682 views

### estimate the error term in CLT

Let $X_m = \frac{1}{\sqrt{m}}\sum_{k=1}^m Z_k$ where $Z_k$ are iid equally likely on $\{\pm 1\}$. Then $X_m$ convergens to $X \sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$ in distribution by CLT.
Let $f$ be a smooth ...

**107**

votes

**28**answers

29k views

### Cool problems to impress students with group theory [closed]

Since this forum is densely populated with algebraists, I think I'll ask it here.
I'm teaching intermediate level algebra this semester and I'd like to entertain my students with some clever ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

78 views

### For a given $n$, under what condition(s) there exists (at least) two different $c$ and $c′$ such that $X_n^c=X_n^{c'}$

Let $X_n^c=\{\cos\left((4k-c)\frac{\pi}{2n}+\frac{\pi}{4}\right): k=0, 1, \dots, n-1\}$ where $c\in\{0, 1, \ldots, \lfloor\frac{n}{2}\rfloor\}$ and $n$ is any positive integer greater than 3. I want ...

**20**

votes

**6**answers

902 views

### Under what conditions $\|x-y\|=n\iff\|f(x)-f(y)\|=n.$ for $n\in\mathbf{N}$ implies isometry?

Let $X, Y$ be normed space and $f:X\to Y$ be a mapping. Assume that for all $n\in\mathbf{N}$, $$\|x-y\|=n\iff\|f(x)-f(y)\|=n.$$
Under what conditions this map will be an isometry?
Thanks

**15**

votes

**1**answer

578 views

### Must an algebraic variety with trivial tangent bundle be an abelian variety?

Suppose $X$ is a proper algebraic variety with trivial tangent bundle $T_X$ (not only canonical bundle $K_X$), is it true that $X$ is an abelian variety?
(For the complex manifold case this is not ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

402 views

### Can every algebraic variety of dimension $n$ be covered by $n+1$ affine opens?

Suppose $X$ is a complete algebraic variety of dimension $n$. Must there exist an affine covering with $n+1$ pieces?
(For a projective variety in $\mathbf{P}^m$, we can always project it to some ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

581 views

### Maximum number of vectors in a hypercube satisfying given conditions

$\mathcal{C}$ is a collection of binary vectors of length $n$, i.e. $\mathcal{C}\subseteq\{0,1\}^n$. For arbitrary $x,y,z\in\mathcal{C}$ and $x\neq z$, $y\neq z$, there always holds that the Euclidean ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

54 views

### What is the correct term for “co-covering” designs

An (n, k, l) covering design is a family of k-subsets of an n-element set such that every l-subset is contained in at least one of them. Now, what is the correct term for a family of k-subsets such ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

319 views

### Algebraic proof without using comparison theorem for étale cohomology

Let $X$ be some smooth scheme over $\mathbf C$ equipped with an action of $\mu_n$ (the group of $n$th roots of unity).
The étale cohomology groups of X are therefore equipped with an action of ...

**49**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Are there refuted analogues of the Riemann hypothesis?

The classical Riemann Hypothesis has famous analogues for function fields and finite fields which have been proved. It has by now very many analogues, many of them still open. Are there important ...

**15**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### (co)homology of symmetric groups

Let $S_n=\{\text{bijections }[n]\to[n]\}$ be the n-th symmetric group. Its (co)homology will be understood with trivial action. What are the $\mathbb{Z}$-modules $H_k(S_n;\mathbb{Z})$? Using GAP, we ...

**18**

votes

**3**answers

946 views

### Is the sequence of partition numbers log-concave?

Let $p(n)$ denote the number of partitions of a positive integer $n$. It seems to me that we have for all $n>25$
$$
p(n)^2>p(n-1)p(n+1).
$$
In other words, the sequence $(p(n))_{n\in ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

264 views

### Decomposition of symmetric homogeneous polynomials

Can every symmetric polynomial of degree $r$ in $d$ variables that has no constant term be written as a sum of the $r$th powers of linear polynomials in $d$ variables and a homogeneous polynomial of ...

**40**

votes

**15**answers

5k views

### What does the generating function $x/(1 - e^{-x})$ count?

Let $x$ be a formal (or small, since the function is analytic) variable, and consider the power series
$$ A(x) = \frac{x}{1 - e^{-x}} = \sum_{m=0}^\infty \left( -\sum_{n=1}^\infty ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

107 views

### Cramer-Rao type bound for absolute estimation error

Let $\{X_1, X_2, \ldots, X_n\}$ be independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables sampled from a common distribution with density $f_{\theta}(x)$, where $\theta$ is an unknown ...

**61**

votes

**16**answers

18k views

### What is the definition of “canonical”?

I just received a referee report criticizing that I would too often use the word "canonical". I have a certain understanding of what "canonical" should stand for, but the report shows me that other ...

**43**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Is there an accepted definition of $(\infty,\infty)$ category?

For probably twenty years, category theorists have known of some objects in the Platonic universe called "(weak) $\infty$-categories", in which there are $k$-morphisms for all $k\in \mathbb N$, with ...

**30**

votes

**14**answers

4k views

### Fantastic properties of Z/2Z

Recently I gave a lecture to master's students about some nice properties of the group with two elements $\mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$. Typically, I wanted to present simple, natural situations where the ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

104 views

### A $k \times n$ matrix with a lot of invertible $k \times k$ submatrices over $\mathbb{F}_2$

In the appendix of the paper by Tolhuizen (
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=841182) there is a very fast and easy probabilistic proof that for $k=cn$ where $c \in [0,1]$ is fixed, ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

51 views

### Complement of a finite union of convex sets

Question. Let $V_1,\ldots,V_n$ be open, bounded and convex subsets of $\mathbb R^2$. Show that $F=\mathbb R^2\smallsetminus\bigcup_{i=1}^n V_i$ possesses only finitely many connected components.
I ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

154 views

### Expansion in strongly regular graphs

Have you seen the following statement proven anywhere?
Let $G$ be a strongly regular graph with parameters $(n,k,\lambda,\mu)$ with $\lambda,\mu>0$. Then there is no set $A$ of at least $n/4$ ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

215 views

### Why do Kashiwara and Schapira require a base ring of finite global dimension?

In the book "Sheaves on Manifolds" by Kashiwara and Schapira, they work always with sheaves of $R$-modules, where $R$ is a ring of finite global dimension.
Why do they do this, what care ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

315 views

### A hypergeometric puzzle

$$
143\,\sqrt {3}\;{\mbox{$_2$F$_1$}\left(\frac{1}{2},\frac{1}{2};\,1;\,{\frac {3087}{8000}}\right)}=
40\,\sqrt {5}\;
{\mbox{$_2$F$_1$}\left(\frac{1}{3},\frac{2}{3};\,1;\,{\frac ...

**3**

votes

**4**answers

801 views

### Non-separable Banach space

The vector space $C_b(\mathbb R)$ of bounded continuous functions on $\mathbb R$ is non-separable: it is possible to produce a direct proof of this fact, mimicking the standard proof for the ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

61 views

### notation for vector product in the space

The notation for vector (a.k.a. cross) product in $\mathbb{R}^3$ I usually see is $\times$.
However, some places use $\wedge$ instead, which IMHO creates a lot of confusion, as $\wedge$ usually is ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

89 views

### Solutions of an nonlinear evolution problem

We consider the following continuous-time nonlinear evolution problem
\begin{equation}
\begin{cases} \dot{y}(t)=Ay(t)+F(y(t),u(t)),\quad t\geq0\\y(0)=f\in\mathcal{X}\end{cases}
\end{equation}
where ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

391 views

### Continuous extensions reals and to p-adic numbers

Assume $f\colon \mathbb Q\to \mathbb Q$ is a function which admits continuous extensions
$f_0\colon\mathbb R\to \mathbb R$ and
$f_p\colon \mathbb Q_p\to \mathbb Q_p$ for each prime $p$.
Is ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

432 views

### RO(G) grading of Mackey functors

If G is a finite group, I understand that the category of RO(G)-graded spectra, when rationalized, becomes Quillen equivalent to the category of Mackey functors valued in chain complexes of rational ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

8k views

### Research statement in PhD applications--how much is too much?

I intend, in the somewhat near future, to engage preparing my graduate school applications for next year. I have worked hard to secure a solid application as far as coursework, grades, ...

**11**

votes

**5**answers

973 views

### Is $x^p-x+1$ always irreducible in $F_p[x]$?

It seems that for any prime number $p$ and for any non-zero element $a$ in the finite field $\mathbb F_p$, the polynomial $x^p-x+a$ is irreducible over $\mathbb F_p$. (It is of course obvious that ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

115 views

### Defining Global Choice in terms of strong limit cardinals over $ZF$

In his answer to user33038's mathoverflow question "What axioms are stronger than the Axiom of choice?", Prof. Hamkins writes:
"What's more, the axiom of choice is equivalent over $ZF$ to the ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

449 views

+100

### Small quotients of smooth numbers

Assume that $N=2^k$, and let $\{n_1, \dots, n_N\}$ denote the set of square-free positive integers which are generated by the first $k$ primes, sorted in increasing order. Question: what is a good ...

**98**

votes

**67**answers

32k views

### Math puzzles for dinner [closed]

You're hanging out with a bunch of other mathematicians - you go out to dinner, you're on the train, you're at a department tea, et cetera. Someone says something like "A group of 100 people at a ...

**17**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### A ring such that all projectives are stably free but not all projectives are free?

This question is motivated by this recent question. Suppose $R$ is commutative, Noetherian ring and $M$ a finitely generated $R$-module. Let $FD(M)$ and $PD(M)$ be the shortest length of free and ...

**16**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Heuristic argument for the prime number theorem?

Here is a bad heuristic argument for the prime number theorem. Let n be a positive integer and assume that PNT holds up to n. Then n itself is prime if and only if for each prime p<n the event p|n ...

**40**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Topple height of randomly stacked bricks

What is the expected height of a stack of unit-length bricks, each one
stacked on the previous with a uniformly random shift within $\pm \delta$?
The stack topples if the center of gravity of the top ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

524 views

### Determining conjugacy class of a subgroup from intersection with conjugacy classes

Is a subgroup of a finite group uniquely determined, up to conjugation, by the subset of conjugacy classes of the larger group that it intersects?

**10**

votes

**10**answers

4k views

### Is PA consistent? do we know it?

1) (By Goedel's) One can not prove, in PA, a formula that can be interpreted to express the consistency of PA. (Hopefully I said it right. Specialists correct me, please).
2) There are proofs ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

422 views

### Aysmptotic comparison of L^2 sections versus generating sections

Let $s_1,\ldots, s_k$ be linearly independent global holomorphic sections of a holomorphic line bundle $E$ over a compact algebraic manifold $X$, with volume form $\Omega$.
For $m$ large, let ...

**35**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Has decidability got something to do with primes?

Note: I have modified the question to make it clearer and more relevant. That makes some of references to the old version no longer hold. I hope the victims won't be furious over this.
Motivation:
...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

435 views

### What is the geometric fixed points of an (equivariant) Eilenberg Maclane Spectrum?

The following was posted to math.stackexchange to no avail: http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/908756/an-exercise-in-homology-computation-what-is-the-geometric-fixed-points-of-an-e
The question ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### The fibers of M_{g,n} \to M_g and the Fulton-MacPherson compactification

Let $g \geq 2$, and consider the moduli space $\bar M_{g,n}$ of stable n-pointed curves of genus g. There is a natural forgetful map to $\bar M_g$, which forgets the markings and contracts any ...

**48**

votes

**11**answers

13k views

### Most striking applications of category theory?

What are the most striking applications of category theory? I'm trying to motivate deeper study of category theory and I have only come across the following significant examples:
Joyals ...