**8**

votes

**1**answer

537 views

### Do all combinatorially distinct fundamental polygons correspond to surfaces?

The topology of a closed surface can be constructed
by identifying edges of a fundamental polygon of an
even number $2n$ of edges.
Labeling the edges and using $\pm 1$ exponents to indicate
direction,
...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

391 views

### K-theory of the h-cobordism category

I was reading through Kervaire and Milnor's "Groups of Homotopy Spheres", in which the authors begin to compute the groups $\Theta_n$ of h-cobordism classes of homotopy $n$-spheres (with group ...

**73**

votes

**14**answers

7k views

### Why do we care about L^p spaces besides p = 1, p = 2, and p = infinity?

I was helping a student study for a functional analysis exam and the question came up as to when, in practice, one needs to consider the Banach space $L^p$ for some value of $p$ other than the obvious ...

**23**

votes

**1**answer

760 views

### From the perspective of bordism categories, where does the ring structure on Thom spectra come from?

To fix ideas, let's consider the Thom spectrum of framed bordism $M$, the spectrum whose homotopy groups are the framed bordism groups. $M$ has a ring spectrum structure inducing the product of ...

**33**

votes

**2**answers

1k views

### Where are the second- (and third-)generation proofs of the classification of finite simple groups up to?

According the the Wikipedia page, the second generation proof is up to at least nine volumes: six by Gorenstein, Lyons and Solomon dated 1994-2005, two covering the quasithin business by Aschbacher ...

**42**

votes

**10**answers

5k views

### Possibility of an Elementary Differential Geometry Course

I have to admit I'm not sure if this is an appropriate question. It's related to research in math education, but not directly to math.
I've found that in talking to professional physicists and ...

**25**

votes

**10**answers

4k views

### Value of “of course” in the mathematical literature

I've been thinking about the value of writing "of course" in mathematical papers (or its variants such as "obviously" etc.). In particular, my current train of thought is, if something is obvious, ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

299 views

### Isomorphisms between spaces of test functions and sequence spaces

I am in the process of writing some self-contained notes on probability theory in spaces of distributions, for the purposes of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Perhaps the simplest ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

214 views

### Graded-irreducible ideals are irreducible?

One knows that graded ideals in polynomial rings over a field are primary iff they are graded-primary. What about the irreducible ideals?
Let $I$ be a graded ideal in a polynomial ring over a ...

**24**

votes

**7**answers

2k views

### Applications of Frobenius theorem and conjecture

A theorem of Frobenius states that if $n$ divides the order of a finite group $G$, then the number of solutions to $x^n = 1$ in $G$ is a multiple of $n$. Frobenius conjectured that if the number of ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

522 views

### pullback of theta divisor

Let $C$ be a smooth curve and $J$ its Jacobian. Let $p$ be a point on $C$ and $j: C \to J$ be the map $x \mapsto x-p$. Let $\theta$ be the Theta divisor on $J$, i.e. the locus $\{ x_1 + \cdots + ...

**92**

votes

**3**answers

9k views

### Convergence of $\sum(n^3\sin^2n)^{-1}$

I saw a while ago in a book by Clifford Pickover, that whether $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{n^3\sin^2 n}$ converges is open.
I would think that the question of its convergence is really ...

**14**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### Bijection between irreducible representations and conjugacy classes of finite groups

Is there some natural bijection between irreducible representations and conjugacy classes of finite groups (as in case of $S_n$)?

**7**

votes

**1**answer

162 views

### Do coherent toposes descend along open surjection?

Let $f:\mathcal{L} \rightarrow \mathcal{S}$ be a geometric morphism between two toposes. Let $g:\mathcal{T}\rightarrow \mathcal{S}$ be an open surjection (of toposes) and assume that the map ...

**21**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### undecidable sentences of first-order arithmetic whose truth values are unknown

Godel's undecidable sentences in first-order arithmetic were guaranteed to be true, by construction. But are there examples of specific sentences known to be undecidable in first-order arithmetic ...

**38**

votes

**10**answers

7k views

### Definition of “simplicial complex”

When I think of a "simplicial complex", I think of the geometric realization of a simplicial set (a simplicial object in the category of sets). I'll refer to this as "the first definition".
However, ...

**137**

votes

**3**answers

7k views

### A Game on Noetherian Rings

A friend suggested the following combinatorial game. At any time, the state of the game is a (commutative) Noetherian ring $\neq 0$. On a player's turn, that player chooses a nonzero non-unit element ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

422 views

### Existence of $n$-connected topological groups with $m$-dimensional action extending that of $GL(m)$ on $\mathbb{R}^m$

I'll first state the question as concisely as I can and then provide some motivation.
Consider two positive integers $m$ and $n$ such that $m < n+2$. Does there exist a topological group $G$ ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

240 views

### Different notions of convergence of complex subvarieties

Let $X$ be a smooth complex algebraic variety (or, better, complex analytic manifold). Let $\{C_i\}$ be a sequence of compact algebraic subvarieties (resp. analytic reduced subspaces) which converges ...

**30**

votes

**7**answers

3k views

### formal power series convergence

I have spent some time using gp-pari. There is, of course, a formal power series solution to
$ f(f(x)) = \sin x.$ It is displayed, below, identified by the symbol $g$ because I am not entirely sure ...

**16**

votes

**8**answers

8k views

### Does the exponential function have a square root?

(asked by Nathaniel Hellerstein on the Q&A board at JMM)
Is there a "half-exponential" function h(x) such that h(h(x))=ex? Is it unique? Is it analytic?
Related question: Is there an invertible ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

874 views

### Progressively measurable vs adapted

I often see in stochastic calculus books the terms 'adapted process' and 'progressively measurable process'. I know there is a small difference between them (every progressively measurable process is ...

**34**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Is the Mendeleev table explained in quantum mechanics?

Does anybody know if there exists a mathematical explanation of Mendeleev table in quantum mechanics? In some textbooks (for example in "F.A.Berezin, M.A.Shubin. The Schrödinger Equation") the authors ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Compact open topology on $\mathrm{Homeo}(X)$

Let $X$ and $Y$ be topological spaces. Define the compact open topology on the set $\mathrm{M}(X,Y)$ of continuous maps from $X$ to $Y$ via the subbase $[K,O]$ of all maps $f:X\rightarrow Y$ s.t. ...

**24**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What manifolds are bounded by RP^odd?

Real projective spaces $\mathbb{R}P^n$ have $\mathbb{Z}/2$ cohomology rings $\mathbb{Z}/2[x]/(x^{n+1})$ and total Stiefel-Whitney class $(1+x)^{n+1}$ which is $1$ when $n$ is odd, so it follows that ...

**52**

votes

**6**answers

5k views

### Existence of a zero-sum subset

Some time ago I heard this question and tried playing around with it. I've never succeeded to making actual progress. Here it goes:
Given a finite (nonempty) set of real numbers, $S=\{a_1,a_2,\dots, ...

**15**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Why does the (S2) property of a ring correspond to the Hartogs phenomenon?

Hartogs Theorem says every function whose undefined locus is of codim 2 can be extend to the whole domain. I saw people saying this corresponds to the (S2) property of a ring. But I can't see why this ...

**38**

votes

**7**answers

6k views

### Is there a slick proof of the classification of finitely generated abelian groups?

One the proofs that I've never felt very happy with is the classification of finitely generated abelian groups (which says an abelian group is basically uniquely the sum of cyclic groups of orders ...

**24**

votes

**6**answers

3k views

### Is there a preferable convention for defining the wedge product?

There are different conventions for defininig the wedge product $\wedge$.
In Kobayashi-Nomizu, there is $\alpha\wedge\beta:=Alt(\alpha\otimes\beta)$,
in Spivak, we find ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

436 views

### A question on generalized Einstein metrics on four-dimensional manifolds

I am thinking of a possible generalization of Einstein metrics (or a possible characterization of Einstein metrics) on four-dimensional manifolds,
\begin{equation*}
...

**7**

votes

**6**answers

4k views

### Examples of naturally occurring Quadratic forms or quadrics.

I am always fascinated when a quadratic form (or a quadric) arises naturally. I have
some elementary examples, but most of all, I want to learn more examples. I hope this question isn't considered too ...

**37**

votes

**2**answers

3k views

### Alternating sum of square roots of binomial coefficients

Let
$$ c_n = \sum_{r=0}^n (-1)^r \sqrt{\binom{n}{r}}. $$
It is clear that $c_n = 0$ if $n$ is odd. Remarkably, it appears that despite the huge positive and negative contributions in the sum ...

**18**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Fairest way to choose gifts

Suppose that a parent brings home from a trip $2n$ gifts of roughly
equal value for his/her two children. The children get to choose one
at a time which gifts they want. What is the fairest way to do ...

**0**

votes

**2**answers

843 views

### Standard model of ZFC

Is ZFC+Con(ZFC) powerful enough to show there isn't any standard model of ZFC? What you think about it?

**0**

votes

**2**answers

982 views

### Existence of solution to quasilinear parabolic PDEs

Hello.
I want to prove the existence of a weak solution to:
Find $u:S^1 \times [0,T) \to \mathbb{R}$ such that
$$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t} = u^{n_1}\frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2} + u^{n_2}$$
...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

960 views

### Easier reference for material like Diaconis's “Group representations in probability and statistics”

I'm teaching a class on the representation theory of finite groups at the advanced undergrad level. One of the things I'd like to talk about, or possibly have a student do any independent project on ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

608 views

### Normal subgroups of finite index in free groups

Hi all,
This is a question about the groups $H_{n,s}$ introduced by Völklein in his book "Groups as Galois groups", §7.1, and defined as follows: let $N$ be the intersection of all normal subgroups ...

**7**

votes

**12**answers

3k views

### Graphs with fractal properties?

For the purposes of a research project, I am wondering if there are any resources on graphs with fractal properties, by which I mean self-similarity in particular. For instance, imagine a graph where ...

**10**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Elements of infinite order in a profinite group

Say G is a profinite group with elements of arbitrarily large order. Do elements of infinite order exist (A) if we assume G is abelian? (B) in general?
A start for (A): we can ask the same question ...

**13**

votes

**7**answers

5k views

### Nash embedding theorem for 2D manifolds

The Nash embedding theorem tells us that every smooth Riemannian m-manifold can be embedded in $R^n$ for, say, $n = m^2 + 5m + 3$. What can we say in the special case of 2-manifolds? For example, can ...

**31**

votes

**4**answers

5k views

### What is Chern-Simons theory?

What is Chern-Simons theory? I have read the wikipedia entry, but it's pretty physics-y and I wasn't really able to get any sense for what Chern-Simons theory really is in terms of mathematics.
...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

773 views

### Are Thom spectra MU, MSO and K-theory spectra KU, KO modules over some truncations of the sphere spectrum?

The Thom spectrum MO is a module over the ring spectrum π≤0S=HZ, where S is the sphere spectrum.
In particular, MO is equivalent to the Eilenberg-MacLane spectrum Hπ*(MO).
On the other hand, MU and ...

**10**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Teichmuller theory and moduli of Riemann surfaces

This is a sequel to my earlier question asking for references for Teichmuller theory and moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces.
In this connection, I have read Chapter 11 of the book Primer of mapping ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

374 views

### From Lebesgue Integral to Stieltjes Integral, and integration by parts

Let $X$ be a real random variable with c.d.f function $F$.
Let $g$ be an increasing measurable real function and assume that $\mathbb{E}\left[g(X)\right]$ exists (and is finite).
What additional ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

121 views

### contact metric structure on squashed spheres

My goal to write down an explicit (and simplest) contact metric structure on squashed $S_\omega^{2n + 1}$ defined as
\begin{equation}
S_\omega ^{2n + 1} = \left\{ {\left( {{z_i}} \right) \in ...

**17**

votes

**4**answers

3k views

### Intuitive explanation of Burnside's Lemma

Burnside's Lemma states that, given a set $X$ acted on by a group $G$,
$$|X/G|=\frac{1}{|G|}\sum_{g\in G}|X^g|$$
where $|X/G|$ is the number of orbits of the action, and $|X^g|$ is the number of ...

**10**

votes

**5**answers

2k views

### Simple/efficient representation of Stirling numbers of the first kind

Stirling numbers of the second kind can be expressed by means of a simple hypergeometric (considering $n$ fixed) sum
$$S_2(n,k) = \frac{1}{k!}\sum_{j=0}^{k}(-1)^{k-j}{k \choose j} j^n. \qquad (1)$$
...

**-3**

votes

**2**answers

886 views

### Should science authors discourage / boycott the recent push for author IDs [closed]

In recent years, several organizations (publishers, arXiv, universities) started pushing for systems of a reliable author identification, gaining considerable traction with the recent launch of ORCID. ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

495 views

### Relating curvature and torsion of a connection to those of a curve

I'm currently trying to relate two descriptions of the curvature and torsion of a connection and am running into some confusion.
I know that an affine connection $A$ on an $n$-dimensional manifold ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Manifolds with two coordinate charts

What is an early reference for the fact that if a compact, connected $n$-manifold $M$ is covered by two open sets homeomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^n$ then $M$ is homeomorphic to $S^n$?
And is it true that ...