136
votes
31answers
17k views

What should be learned in a first serious schemes course?

I've just finished teaching a year-long "foundations of algebraic geometry" class. It was my third time teaching it, and my notes are gradually converging. I've enjoyed it for a number of reasons ...
6
votes
4answers
445 views

SO$(4)$ (& SO$(n)$) characterization?

I believe it is the case that any finite subgroup of SO$(3)$ (the $3 \times 3$ orthogonal matrices of determinant $1$) is either a cyclic group $C_n$, or a dihedral group $D_n$, or one of the groups ...
5
votes
1answer
265 views

Dominated convergence to characteristic function

Let $\phi_m(x):=\chi_{[0,1]} * \chi_{[0,1]} *...* \chi_{[0,1]}$ be the m -times convolution (so $m+1$ characteristic functions are involved). Then the Fourier transform of this function is given by ...
25
votes
1answer
1k views

Is there an arbitrarily long arithmetic progression whose members are palindromes?

I suspect there isn't for some simple reason, but I could not find anything on it and if the opposite would hold in a more general sense, then that would solve this question.
144
votes
14answers
10k views

What elementary problems can you solve with schemes?

I'm a graduate student who's been learning about schemes this year from the usual sources (e.g. Hartshorne, Eisenbud-Harris, Ravi Vakil's notes). I'm looking for some examples of elementary ...
70
votes
16answers
10k views

Are there examples of non-orientable manifolds in nature?

Whilst browsing through Marcel Berger's book "A Panoramic View of Riemannian Geometry" and thinking about the Klein bottle, I came across the sentence: "The unorientable surfaces are never discussed ...
56
votes
26answers
7k views

Sexy vacuity …

I included this footnote in a paper in which I mentioned that the number of partitions of the empty set is 1 (every member of any partition is a non-empty set, and of course every member of the empty ...
47
votes
13answers
9k views

How has modern algebraic geometry affected other areas of math?

I have a friend who is very biased against algebraic geometry altogether. He says it's because it's about polynomials and he hates polynomials. I try to tell him about modern algebraic geometry, ...
6
votes
0answers
358 views

Prerequisites for reading Gregory Perelman's work

What are the prerequisites for understanding the work of Perelman concerning the Poincaré conjecture? I am referring to the last three papers here.
12
votes
2answers
331 views

ODE properties true in finite dimension but not in Banach spaces of infinite dimension

Some properties of Ordinary Differential Equations - ODE are true in finite dimension spaces but not in Banach spaces of infinite dimension. The first one I know is the Peano existence theorem. I ...
86
votes
10answers
10k views

Are there any very hard unknots?

Some years ago I took a long piece of string, tied it into a loop, and tried to twist it up into a tangle that I would find hard to untangle. No matter what I did, I could never cause the later me any ...
17
votes
7answers
2k views

Recreational mathematics: where to search?

I am not sure I can strictly define recreational mathematics. But we all feel what it is about: puzzles, problems you can ask your mathematical friends, problems that will bother them for a couple of ...
20
votes
2answers
911 views

What do you do if you believe a problem is undecidable?

While the title of this question is subjective, I hope to make what I'm looking for quite concrete. The first, and main question is this: If you believe that a problem you are working on is formally ...
84
votes
12answers
17k views

What is an integrable system

What is an integrable system, and what is the significance of such systems? (Maybe it is easier to explain what a non-integrable system is.) In particular, is there a dichotomy between "integrable" ...
32
votes
14answers
7k views

Examples of using physical intuition to solve math problems

For the purposes of this question let a "physical intuition" be an intuition that is derived from your everyday experience of physical reality. Your intuitions about how the spin of a ball affects ...
5
votes
1answer
107 views

Submersion theorem for smooth tame Frechet manifolds

If $M$ and $N$ are Banach manifolds, $f:M\rightarrow N$ is a smooth map, and $q\in N$ is a regular value, so $f$ is a submersion on $f^{-1}(q)$, it is well known that the level set $f^{-1}(q)$ is a ...
7
votes
0answers
157 views

A “universally non Hypercomplete” $\infty$-topos?

My question is : Is there a classifying $\infty$-topos for $\infty$-connected objects ? Does this $\infty$-topos has a nice description (as an $\infty$-category ) ? What I mean by $\infty$-connected ...
25
votes
3answers
2k views

Intuition behind the ricci flow

I hope you don't shoot me for this question. I try to understand among other things the Ricci flow. However I have no idea of the intuition behind the definition. So my questions is: What is the ...
59
votes
26answers
5k views

What would you want on a Lie theory cheat poster?

For some long time now I've thought about making a poster-sized "cheat sheet" with all the data about Lie groups and their representations that I occasionally need to reference. It's a moving target, ...
26
votes
2answers
710 views

A more natural proof of Dold-Kan?

The Dold-Kan correspondence gives an equivalence of categories between $SAb$, the category of simplicial abelian groups, and $Ch_{\geq 0}$, the category of non-negatively graded chain complexes of ...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Is the Manickam-Miklós-Singhi Conjecture solved? [closed]

This arXiv paper is claimed to contain a proof for the MMS conjecture. But it seems that this manuscript is not yet peer reviewed by other mathematicians. I personally tried to follow the paper, but ...
64
votes
12answers
20k views

What are the big problems in probability theory?

Most branches of mathematics have big, sexy famous open problems. Number theory has the Riemann hypothesis and the Langlands program, among many others. Geometry had the Poincaré conjecture for a long ...
15
votes
2answers
471 views

Ultraweak topology on B(X): Is the map X\otimes X* -> B(X)* isometric?

Let $X$ be a Banach space. Consider the map $$ \alpha\colon X\hat{\otimes} X^* \to B(X)^*, $$ defined one simple tensors as $$ \alpha(\xi\otimes\eta)(a) = \eta(a(\xi)).\quad (\xi\in X, \eta\in X^*, ...
28
votes
4answers
2k views

Why the Dold-Thom theorem?

Dold-Thom Theorem: $$\pi_i(SP(X))\cong\tilde{H}_i(X)$$ It's pretty miraculous, no? I've seen its proof, where you show that the composition of the functors on the left-side satisfies the axioms of a ...
39
votes
9answers
11k views

What is the exterior derivative intuitively?

Hi, actually I have several related questions, not worth opening different threads: What is the of the exterior derivative intuitively? What is its geometric meaning? A possible answer I know is, ...
6
votes
1answer
267 views

Non-negativity of invariant polynomials

Certifying the non-negativity of a symmetric polynomial is much easier than certifying the non-negativity of an arbitrary polynomial function: for instance, in (1) is proved that the complexity of ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

(co)homology of symmetric groups

Let $S_n=\{\text{bijections }[n]\to[n]\}$ be the n-th symmetric group. Its (co)homology will be understood with trivial action. What are the $\mathbb{Z}$-modules $H_k(S_n;\mathbb{Z})$? Using GAP, we ...
15
votes
1answer
856 views

Applications of $p$-adic Hodge theory

I am trying to learn $p$-adic Hodge theory. I found some materials explaining main theorems (or aspects) of the theory. However, I could not find references which explaining how to use the theory. ...
35
votes
11answers
8k views

Standard model of particle physics for mathematicians

If a mathematician who doesn't know much about the physicist's jargon and conventions had the curiosity to learn how the so called Standard Model (of particle physics, including SUSY) works, where ...
4
votes
2answers
348 views

Yang–Baxter explanation

What are the most simple examples which can explain the meaning of Yang–Baxter equation? Is there any way to explain this mysterious object to a person who is not a professional in quantum groups? ...
11
votes
1answer
237 views

How many Fréchet manifolds are there?

Clearly the title needs clarifying. Allow me to let "how many" to mean a set larger than a skeleton of the category of Fréchet manifolds and smooth maps, if this category is indeed essentially small. ...
40
votes
1answer
3k views

Are the primes normally distributed? Or is this the Riemann hypothesis?

Forgive my very naive question. I know next to nothing about number theory, but I'm curious about the state of the art on the distribution of primes. Let $\mathrm{Li}(x)$ be the offset logarithmic ...
2
votes
2answers
146 views

Question on the number of equilibria

Let $f: C \to C$ be a smooth function and $C$ be a compact set, subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$. We assume that all the fixed points are hyperbolic. Is it true that the number of fixed points is finite or ...
53
votes
7answers
17k views

Is Mac Lane still the best place to learn category theory?

For a student embarking on a study of algebraic topology, requiring a knowledge of basic category theory, with a long-term view toward higher/stable/derived category theory, ... Is Mac Lane still ...
20
votes
3answers
1k views

What's a noncommutative set?

This issue is for logicians and operator algebraists (but also for anyone who is interested). Let's start by short reminders on von Neumann algebra (for more details, see [J], [T], [W]): Let $H$ ...
41
votes
23answers
23k views

Taking lecture notes in lectures

Do you find it a good idea to take lecture notes (even detailed lecture notes) in mathematical lectures? Related question: Digital Pen for Math: Your Experiences?
1
vote
2answers
211 views

Mathematical statistical qm book-recommendation

I feel that there are quite a few good and rigorous books on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics, but I am currently looking for a book that covers mathematical statistical quantum ...
20
votes
1answer
543 views

How to make the Capelli's identity less mysterious?

The formulation of the Capelli's identity is very elementary; it has important applications in invariant theory and representation theory, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capelli%27s_identity To ...
0
votes
0answers
86 views

Random Cluster Model only for bond percolation?

Can someone please tell me which of the following statements I make are true of the current state of the art: The Random Cluster Model is a generalization of bond percolation (with possibly ...
27
votes
7answers
1k views

Concise model of modern fiat money and its non-conservation

A confession: I have never really understood the basic model of fiat money and central banking, by which a central bank controls the money supply. By the standards of someone trained in mathematics, ...
4
votes
1answer
417 views

weak convergence of the solutions to stochastic heat equation

$W(t,x)=\sum_ic_ie_i(x)B^i_t$ is a Brownian motion in $L^2(R^d)$, where $\{e_i\}$ is the standard orthogonal basis and $\sum_ic_i^2<\infty$. $$\partial_t u(t,x)=\Delta u(t,x)+u(t,x)\dot{W}(t,x)$$ ...
7
votes
7answers
906 views

Almost-converses to the AM-GM inequality

Let us consider the Arithmetic Mean -- Geometric Mean inequality for nonnegative real numbers: $$ GM := (a_1 a_2 \ldots a_n)^{1/n} \le \frac{1}{n} \left( a_1 + a_2 + \ldots + a_n \right) =: AM. $$ ...
5
votes
1answer
908 views

Riemann hypothesis and Kakeya needle problem

The question may be a bit vague. I noticed an analogy that both Riemann hypothesis and Kakeya needle problem has been proved in finite fields. Can somebody shed light on why finite field analogues are ...
59
votes
3answers
11k views

Slick proof?: A vector space has the same dimension as its dual if and only if it is finite dimensional

A very important theorem in linear algebra that is rarely taught is: A vector space has the same dimension as its dual if and only if it is finite dimensional. I have seen a total of one proof ...
7
votes
3answers
671 views

Is it consistent with ZFC (or ZF) that every definable family of sets has at least one definable member?

I consider definability to mean one of either cases: Definability without parameters (in the language of set theory), or Definability from ordinals and a real (in the same language). So my ...
23
votes
7answers
2k views

Intuition for failure of Implicit Function theorem on Frechet Manifolds

When dealing with moduli spaces of, say connections or metrics, I am using the notions of Frechet spaces/manifolds/groups. I have become familiar with Banach manifolds (I think), but Frechet manifolds ...
1
vote
1answer
192 views

Polynomial convex coefficients

Assume we have an arbitrary high order polynomial $$f(L)=1-L\theta_1-L^2\theta_2-L^3\theta_3-...-L^N\theta_N$$ and we know all roots of this polynomial site outside the unit circle. It is obvious that ...
18
votes
5answers
4k views

What mathematical treatment is there on the renormalization group flow in a space of Lagrangians?

What mathematical treatment is there on the renormalization group flow in a space of Lagrangians?
22
votes
8answers
2k views

Between mu- and primitive recursion

It is well known that primitive recursion is not powerful enough to express all functions, Ackermann function being probably the best known example. Now, in the logic courses (that I have had look ...
378
votes
1answer
28k views

Polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$?

Is there any polynomial $f(x,y)\in{\mathbb Q}[x,y]{}\ $ such that $f:\mathbb{Q}\times\mathbb{Q} \rightarrow\mathbb{Q}$ is a bijection?

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