# All Questions

**13**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Any more generalization of Fermat's Little Theorem? [closed]

Fermat's Little Theorem: If $p$ is a prime and $\gcd(a,p)=1$ then $a^{p-1} \equiv1\pmod p$.
Over the years, Fermat's Little Theorem have been generalized in several ways. I am aware of four different ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

387 views

### Model for the (infinity,1)-category of (homotopy-)limit preserving functors

I've got a simplicial model category $M.$ I'd like to get my hands on the (infinity,1) category of homotopy limit preserving functors from M to Spaces in order to compare it to another simplicial ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

51 views

### Functor of order $n$ in Mumford's abelian variety

Let $T$ be a contravariant functor on the category of complete varieties into the Category $\underline{\mathrm{Ab}}$ of abelian groups. Let $X_0,\ldots,X_n$ be any system of complete varieties, ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

25 views

### Relating the R-Transform in Free Probability to noncommutative group representations

In traditional (commutative) probability theory, sums of random variables correspond to convolution of distribution functions, which plays well with the Fourier Transform.
In free (noncommutative) ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

593 views

### simplicial spaces without degeneracies

Suppose I have a simplicial space $X_{\bullet}$ without degeneracies (sometimes called semi-simplicial space or incomplete simplicial space). There still is a geometric realization $\lVert X \rVert$ ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

165 views

### Closure of the graph of a function

Let $X_1, X_2$ be non-empty sets and let $R\subseteq X_1\times X_2$ such that for all $x\in X_1$ there is $y\in X_2$ such that $(x,y)\in R$.
Are there topologies $\tau_i$ on $X_i$ for $i=1,2$ and a ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

258 views

### Can there be a tree of height $\omega_2$ having all levels countable, with no cofinal branch?

For many years I had the idea that if a well-founded tree is both very tall and very narrow, then it must have a cofinal branch. For example, it is a fun exercise to show that any $\omega_1$-tree ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

312 views

### 3 possible tensors in 2-categories?

let $\mathcal{A}$ be a 2-category, consider:
$$ \mathcal{A}(W \otimes_i A, X) \simeq_i \mathcal{C}at(W, \mathcal{A}(A, X))
\;\;\; i = 1, \: 2, \: 3. $$
where $W$ is a category, and $A$, ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

124 views

### Groups with many vanishing elements

It is well-known that every non-linear character $\chi$ of a finite group $G$ vanishes on some elements of $G\setminus Z(\chi)$. The question is
What can be said about a finite group $G$ for which ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

16 views

### A simple question on conditional expectation [migrated]

Let $x$ and $y$ two i.i.d having an uniform distribution over $[0,1]$. Then what is the conditional expectation, $\mathbb{E}[x / y\ |\ x < y]$.
It seems to me, this should be:
$\int_{\{x < ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### Number of Nice Matrices

Let's call a nice matrix a square matrix of size $n$ with elements from $\{1,...,n\}$ such that every row and every column contains all the number $1,...,n$,
What is the number of nice matrices ?
a ...

**-2**

votes

**1**answer

107 views

### configuration space and iterated loop space

Let the topological monoid $M$ be the configuration space $C(\mathbb{R}^n;X)=C_n(X)$ as in the book The geometry of iterated loop spaces, Theorem 5.2. I want to prove that the map $\alpha_n$ in ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

94 views

### Certain principal bundle structure on $\mathbb{R}^{n} \setminus \{0\}$

I ask this question in MSE and I received no answer, so I repeat it here:
Is there a right action of $\mathbb{H}^{2}$ on some $\mathbb{R}^{n}\setminus \{0\}$ such that this action gives us a ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

69 views

### Equivalence of Definitions of Quasiconformal Surfaces?

I have been reading John H. Hubbard's book Teichmüller Theory vol. 1 and I am a little bit concerned with his definition of Quasiconformal Surface.
Definition: A Quasiconformal surface $S$ is a ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

39 views

### characterization of the equivalence between two probability measures

Let $X=(X_1,...,X_n)$ be a canonical process defined on the Euclidean space $R^n$, i.e. $X(x)=x$ for all $x\in R^n$ and $\mathbb F=\{\mathcal{F}_k\}_{1\le k\le n}$ be its natural filtration, i.e. ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

91 views

### Do representations of the universal enveloping algebra $\mathrm{U}\mathfrak{su}_2$ retain the Hopf algebra structure?

A Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ generates its universal enveloping algebra $\mathrm{U}\mathfrak{g}$, which has the structure of a Hopf algebra. Modules of $\mathrm{U}\mathfrak{g}$ are exactly the of ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

199 views

### Lie Algebra, counterexample [closed]

I am trying to find an example of an algebra over a field of characteristic p (prime) which satisfies anti-symmetry and Jacobi identity but is not a lie algebra. i.e., [x,x] is not zero.
Can one ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

170 views

### Can every genus $2$ curve be written as ramified cover of elliptic curve?

Suppose $C$ is a curve of genus $2$, does $C$ admit a surjective morphism onto some elliptic curve $E$?

**9**

votes

**1**answer

275 views

### $L^1$ norm of exponential sum of $n^2 x$

What is the asymptotic order of
$$
\int_0^1 \left| \sum_{n=1}^N e^{2 \pi i n^2 x} \right| ~dx
$$
as $N \to \infty$. This should be known, but I cannot find it in the literature.

**5**

votes

**2**answers

120 views

### Differentiability of polytope shadow areas

Let $P$ be an opaque convex polyhedron containing the origin in $\mathbb{R}^3$,
and let $S$ be an origin-centered sphere strictly containing $P$: $S \supset P$.
For a point $x$ on $S$, let $\sigma(x)$ ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

13 views

### Methods for finding harmonic conjugate function

What are the methods for finding the harmonic conjugate function of u(x, y), other than cauchy riemman equations?

**8**

votes

**0**answers

131 views

### Subspaces and quotients in Banach space theory

In Banach space theory (closed) subspaces and quotient seem to play a symmetric role. However, since the behavior of subspaces is more intuitive, subspaces appear more frequently. E.g., the theory of ...

**14**

votes

**1**answer

241 views

### Geometric Mean of $L(1,\chi)$ for quadratic Dirichlet characters

Let $S = \{D_1, D_2, D_3, \ldots \}$ be the set of all prime discriminants
(or positive prime discriminants) of quadratic number fields. For such a
discriminant let $\chi_j(n) = (\frac{D_j}n)$ be ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

101 views

### Formal Power series decomposition

Let $G$ be a linear algebraic group over $\mathbb C$ (say $SL_r$) consider a formal power series $$g(t)\in G(\mathbb C((t)))$$
My question is: Is it possible to decompose $g$ as $$g=ha$$ with $h\in ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

234 views

### On Thompson conjecture

Let $N(G)$ be the set of conjugacy class sizes of finite group $G$. Let $G$ be a finite group for which $N(G)=N(A_n)$, where $A_n$ is the alternating group of degree $n$.
Let $p$ and $q$ be distinct ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

40 views

### Signs and value of higher order terms in the Taylor expansion of a strongly convex function

Say that I have a function $f: S \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^+$ such that:
$S \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is a closed convex set such as $S=[-10,10]^n$
$f$ is continuous and infinitely differentiable at all ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

14 views

### Dense subsets in tensor products of Banach spaces [migrated]

Assume $B_1$ and $B_2$ are Banach spaces of univariate functions. Moreover, assume that the sets $D_1 \subset B_1$ and $D_2 \subset B_2$ are dense with respect to the respective norms ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

53 views

### solvability of linear elliptic pde on a torus

Consider a linear non-divergent form elliptic PDE on a flat torus $\mathbf{T}^n$, $$a_{ij}\partial_{ij}u+b_i\partial_iu=f$$
where all the coefficients and $f$ are smooth. What is the condition that ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

92 views

### Framed singular knots

I've recently run across what one might (and I suspect people probably do) call framed singular knots, or maybe singular ribbon knots. Regardless of the name, what I mean is the following: Let $D$ be ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

180 views

### Is the Jordan decomposition of a self-adjoint functional constructive?

Let $A$ be an abstract C*-algebra, and let $\varphi\colon A \rightarrow \mathbb C$ be a bounded linear function. Assuming the axiom of choice, there exist unique positive bounded linear functions ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

264 views

### Saturation of null ideal

In ZFC, can we find more than continuum many non null sets of reals whose pairwise intersections are null?

**3**

votes

**1**answer

146 views

### Blow-up as polar coordinates?

While doing some explicit calculations involving a blow-up of the plane in a point, I realised what I was doing was basically writing things in polar coordinates. Somewhat astonished that I hadn't ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

156 views

### What are some examples of non-commutative $\mathbb{Q}$-monoids and/or $\mathbb{R}$-monoids?

Definition 0. Let $R$ denote a commutative semiring with $0$ and $1$. By an $R$-monoid, I mean a monoid $M$ equipped with an action $R \times M \rightarrow M$ denoted $r,m \mapsto m^r$, satisfying the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

184 views

### Product of $\tau(k)$

How do we show that
$$\prod\limits_{k=1}^{n} \tau(k) = 2^{n (\log \log n + C) +
\phi(n)},$$
where $\tau(k)$ is the number of divisors of $k$, the constant $C$ is given by
$$C = \gamma + \sum_{\nu ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

169 views

### What's the most simple proof of Kostant's version of Borel-Weil-Bott for Lie Algebra cohomology?

Besides Kostant's original proof (in http://www.math.tamu.edu/~jml/kostant61.pdf) of the above mentioned theorem (using the Lie Algebra Laplacian), there are a few other approaches:
...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

176 views

### The stack of group algebraic spaces

The fibred category $\mathcal A$ of algebraic spaces over a scheme $S$ is a stack (over the category of affine schemes with the etale topology). This is proved in Laumon and Moret-Bailly's book (see ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

71 views

### Gauss-Bonnet formula for 2-dimensional Alexandrov spaces

EDIT: Let $S$ be a closed orientable 2-dimensional surface equipped with a metric with curvature $\geq \kappa$ in the sense of Alexandrov.
Questions 1. Can one define a measure $K$ on $S$ (thought ...

**0**

votes

**3**answers

74 views

### smash product of pointed spaces preserve weak equivalences

Consider the category of pointed simplicial sets with usual notion of weak equivalence. The question is does the functor
$$Y \mapsto X\wedge Y$$ preserve weak equivalences? or at the very least does ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

419 views

### Existence of polynomials of degree $\geq 2$ which represent infinitely many prime numbers

To my knowledge it is open so far whether the polynomial $x^2+1 \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ takes
infinitely many prime numbers as values. Is it known so far whether there is at all any
polynomial $P \in ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

347 views

### Sumsets and dilates: does $|A+\lambda A|<|A+A|$ ever hold?

The following problem is somehow hidden in this recently asked question, but I believe that it deserves to be asked explicitly.
Is it true that for any finite set $A$ of real numbers, and any real ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

196 views

### Tensor products over operads and bar constructions

Let $O$ be an operad in spaces, $A$ an $O$-algebra and $R$ an right $O$-module. One can define $R \otimes_O A$ as the coequalizer of the two maps $ROA$ to $RA$. One can also define $B(R,O,A)$ (as in ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

60 views

### The following ODE global existence theorem reference?

There is an ODE existence theorem of the form:
Let $f:[a,b]\times \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$ be a Caratheodory function.
Suppose that there is a constant $c$ such that if $y$ is a ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### Marcel Berger's “Sur les groupes d'holonomie homogènes de variétés à connexion affine et des variétés riemanniennes.”

I would appreciate any reference that contains either a translation or proof of the main theorem in this paper. Thank you in advanced.

**0**

votes

**1**answer

33 views

### Convergence of generalized expectation under total variation norm

Consider the space of sub-distributions (i.e. positive measures of variation norm lower than 1) over a discrete subset $S$ of $\mathbb{R}$ (this set is measured by its powerset).
Let $(\mu_n)_n$ be a ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

244 views

### When is $f(x^d)$ irreducible?

Let $f(x)$ be an irreducible polynomial of degree $n$ over a finite field $\mathbb F_p$. What can we say about $f(x^d)$? When is it irreducible ?

**1**

vote

**1**answer

112 views

### Maximal minimum for a sum of two (or more) cosines

Please prove (or disprove, and give the correct answer):
$$2 =\mathrm{argmax}_{r\geq 1}\min_{x\in \mathbb{R}}\left[\cos\left(x\right)+\cos\left(rx\right)\right]
$$
In other words, find $r \geq 1$, ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

84 views

### Equivalence relations that are both not treeable and amenable

Hyperfinite equivalence relations are treeable. For the case of uncountable relations, I was wondering if there is a reference to (or simple proof of) the following statement: Let $E$ be a (possibly ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

53 views

### Convex hulls have longer boundaries

Let $C$ be a rectifiable simple closed curve in $\mathbb{R}^2$ and let $D$ be the boundary of the convex hull of the region bounded by $C$. What is the most efficient way to prove that $D$ is ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

331 views

### Origin of group theory problem (bound on number of Sylow subgroups)

This problem (prove that the number of Sylow subgroups of a finite group $G$ is bounded by $\frac{2}{3}|G|$) posted on MSE proved rather difficult to solve. The OP has been silent about where the ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

133 views

### Sobolev type embedding

Consider a compact manifold $M$ and a point $q \in M$. Let us say that
that the following inequality holds:
$$
\Vert \varphi u\Vert_{L^p} \leq C\Vert \varphi u\Vert_{H^1},$$ where $\varphi \in ...