**0**

votes

**0**answers

15 views

### Possible lower bound in quantum many body system with non-local terms

I am asking a question related to Lieb-Robinson bound and nonlocality.
As we know from Lieb-Robinson theorem (see e.g. http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.5137): Suppose a Hamiltonian system is local, i.e. ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

87 views

### A tensor product for triangulated categories?

Many triangulated categories which show up in mathematics, such as derived categories of various sorts, arise as the homotopy category of a stable $\infty$-category.
Stable $\infty$-categories give ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

52 views

### A specific class of $(0,1)$-matrices

Let $T_n$ be the class of $(0,1)$-matrices of order n with no row sum equal to a column sum. Is there any name or research about this kind of matrix?
For any $A\in T_n$, let $S_A$ be the sum of all ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

55 views

+50

### Why a cone/parabolic set for the nontangential maximal function?

Suppose $f\in L^p(\mathbb{R}^d)$. Then the Dirichlet BVP for the Laplace equation $\Delta u = 0$ in the upper-half plane $\mathbb{R}^d\times\mathbb{R}_{>0}$ with boundary value $f$ can be solved by ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

124 views

### What can we say about the boundary of the level set of a Sobolev function?

I'm a beginner of the area of free boundary problem. Let me first give some background:
$\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is an open connected set, and locally $\partial \Omega$ is a Lipschitz graph.
...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

54 views

### Skolemization for induction hypothesis

As part of my investigation for a logical system that is limited to $\Pi_2$ sentences I try to prove that FOL + PA is a conservative extension over that system.
Some four and half years ago (I only ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

495 views

### A question of Erdős

In the following paper (pages 122-23), Erdős asks if there is a constant $c > 0$ such that every subset $A$ of plane of area more than $c$ contains the vertices of a triangle of unit area.
Is this ...

**10**

votes

**2**answers

593 views

### Upper density of the set of $n$'s such that $p(n)$ is prime, where $p$ is polynomial

The starting point for this question is the following (false) statement
$\forall n\in \mathbb{N} (n^2 + n + 41 \text{ is prime}).$
Given a polynomial function $p:\mathbb{N} \to ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

349 views

### Possibility of Disconnected Subgraphs of a $k$ Connected $r$ regular Graph under a given condition

Context: Given a adjacency matrix A of a $r$-regular graph $G$ (not complete graph $K_{r+1}$) . $G$ is $k$ connected.
The matrix A can be divided into 4 sub-matrices based on adjacency of vertex $x ...

**12**

votes

**2**answers

413 views

### Number of nonzero terms in polynomial expansion (lower bounds)

Let $f(x) = a_1x^{z_1} + a_2x^{z_2} + \cdots + a_kx^{z_k}$ be a polynomial with coefficients $(a_1, \ldots, a_k) \in \mathbb{F}_q^*$ and $z_i$ are distinct positive integers. If I need to compute the ...

**14**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Euler characteristic of a curve

Is it a complete coincidence that the Euler characteristic of a curve is exactly twice the Euler characteristic of its structure sheaf?

**0**

votes

**0**answers

70 views

### Showing that a sequence of random variables with increasing expected value converges to a Poisson random variable

Consider a sequence $\{X_n\}_{n \geq 1}$ of nonnegative, integer-valued random variables. For any random variable $Y$ and $k \geq 1$, let $(Y)_k = Y(Y-1)(Y-2)\dots(Y-k+1)$ be the $k^\mathrm{th}$ ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

110 views

### Is any blow-up of smooth subvarieties always an extremal contraction?

Let $X$ be a smooth complex projective variety and $Z$ be a smooth subvariety of $X$.
Take the blow-up $\pi: Y \to X$ of $X$ along $Z$.
Then I want to know whether $\pi$ is the contraction of an ...

**32**

votes

**2**answers

878 views

### When to postpone a proof?

One possible practice in writing mathematics is to prove every theorem and lemma right after stating it.
A long, technical proof — and sometimes even a short one — can interrupt the flow ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

93 views

### section of reduced structure map

Let $R$ be a commutative ring whose characteristic is either prime or $0$, such that $R/N$ is an integral domain, where $N$ is the nilradical, and $p: R \rightarrow R/N$ the canonical map. Is there a ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

285 views

### Field of definition of dominant morphisms

Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and $k_0$ a sub-field. Let $X,Y$ be two projective varieties defined over $k_0$. Suppose that that there exists a dominant morphism $f$ between $X_k=X\otimes ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

27 views

### Modularity in a graph - definition of the random component

This question concerns the definition of modularity in a graph.
Consider a simple, undirected, unweighted graph $G$ with vertices in set $V$ and edges in set $E$ . Between any two vertices there is ...

**2**

votes

**2**answers

122 views

### Legendrian knot in 3-sphere

We are given a Legendrian knot, fixed up to Legendrian isotopy, in $(S^3,\xi)$ ($\xi$ is the standard contact structure). Does it necessarily bound a symplectic surface in $(B^4,\omega)$ (again ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

610 views

### Is there a topological Chevalley-Shephard-Todd Theorem?

Is the following true:
For a representation of a finite group $G$ on $\mathbb{C}^n$, the quotient $\mathbb{C}^n/G$ is a topological manifold if and only if $G$ is generated by pseudo-reflections.
( ...

**4**

votes

**0**answers

54 views

### Dimension reduction for low-order moments of Rademacher-weighted sums of vectors

Let $x_1,\dots,x_n$ be vectors in a Euclidean space $H$. Let $\varepsilon_1,\dots,\varepsilon_n$ be independent Rademacher random variables (r.v.'s), so that $P(\varepsilon_i=\pm1)=1/2$ for all $i$.
...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

426 views

### Intuition behind Kronecker's congruence?

The modular polynomial is defined by$$\Phi_n(X, \tau) = \prod_{\tau} (X - j(\tau)),$$where $j$ is the elliptic modular function and $\tau$ is running through classes of imaginary quadratic integers of ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

246 views

### Hilbert 16th problem, distribution of Limit cycles

Edit: Can one help for translation of the link in Russian(comment by Dimitry Todorov)(Or at least a summary of it)?
It seems that the second part of the Hilbert 16th problem is solved or is going to ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

25 views

### Time-stepping numerical scheme for the advection dispersion equation

I am facing a simple (at first glance) problem. I need to implement a numerical scheme for the solution of the first order wave propagation equation with chromatic dispersion included. My original ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

221 views

### Incidence geometry and matrices

Supposing I have a $0/1$ or $\pm1$ matrix $A$ of size $m\times n$, is there a minimum $d$ (that works for every $m\times n$ $A$) such that there exists $m$ lines $r_1,\dots,r_m$, $n$ lines ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

196 views

### Fundamental lemma: why is the transfer factor a power of q

Let $k$ be a finite field of sufficiently large characteristic, $F = k((t))$ and $\mathfrak{o} = k[[t]]$. Let $G$ be a reductive algebraic group defined over $\mathfrak{o}$. Roughly stated, for sake ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

403 views

### Easiest way to see that $\zeta_{\mathbb{Z}[i]}(s) = \zeta(s) L(s, \chi)$?

As the question suggests, what is the easiest way to see that$$\zeta_{\mathbb{Z}[i]}(s) = \zeta(s)L(s, \chi)?$$Here, $\chi$ is the homomorphism $(\mathbb{Z}/4\mathbb{Z})^\times \to \mathbb{C}^\times$ ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

189 views

### Determinant of block tridiagonal matrices

Is there a formula to compute the determinant of block tridiagonal matrices, when the determinants of the involved matrices are known? In particular, I am interested in the case
$A = \begin{pmatrix} ...

**11**

votes

**2**answers

459 views

### Is there a “free abelian group of rank 1” in the category of affine group schemes?

Let's fix an algebraically closed field $k$.
The group $\mathbb Z$, as a discrete group scheme, is not affine since it's not quasi-compact. Is there an affine algebraic scheme over $k$ whose ...

**184**

votes

**97**answers

31k views

### Not especially famous, long-open problems which anyone can understand

Question: I'm asking for a big list of not especially famous, long open problems that anyone can understand. Community wiki, so one problem per answer, please.
Motivation: I plan to use this list ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

478 views

### Minimum value of $|p(1)|^2+|p(2)|^2 +…+ |p(n+3)|^2$ over all monic polynomials $p$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Determine the smallest possible value of $|p(1)|^2+|p(2)|^2 +...+ |p(n+3)|^2$ over all monic polynomials $p$ of degree $n$.
This question was proposed (problem ...

**6**

votes

**3**answers

466 views

### Homological vs. cohomological dimension of a group/space

I have several related questions regarding homological vs. cohomological dimension of a space/group (this is not a duplicate of this).
The standard definition of the cohomological dimension $cd(X)$ ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

402 views

### On combinatorial and cellular model categories and infinity categories

I am looking for a counterexample. Let me first give the set-up. When you work with model categories, it is extremely common to assume they are cofibrantly generated. For me, this means the definition ...

**47**

votes

**3**answers

4k views

### Is this differential identity known?

Recently I discovered the differential identity
$$ \frac{d^{k+1}}{dx^{k+1}} (1+x^2)^{k/2} = \frac{(1 \times 3 \times \dots \times k)^2}{(1+x^2)^{(k+2)/2}}$$
valid for any odd natural number $k$; for ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

179 views

### Lifting torsors in characteristic $p$ to characteristic zero

Let $R$ be a local integral domain with residue field $k$ such that $R$ is of characteristic zero and $k$ is of characteristic $p>0$. Let $G$ be a smooth finite type affine group scheme with ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

292 views

### Time averages and differentiability

Let $\varphi_t : M \rightarrow M$ be a smooth flow on a smooth manifold $M$. We may assume (although I'm not sure if this is important) that the flow preserves a smooth volume form on $M$. Given a ...

**12**

votes

**1**answer

426 views

### Which nice/deep elaborations on the (operators <-> sheaves) / (endomorphisms <-> objects) theme are there?

A linear operator $T:V\to V$ on a (say) vector space over a field $k$ is just a $k[T]$-module, and may be viewed as the sheaf $\mathscr F_T$ over $\mathbb A^1_k$, with fibre over $\lambda\in k$ equal ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

430 views

### Origin of group theory problem (bound on number of Sylow subgroups)

This problem (prove that the number of Sylow subgroups of a finite group $G$ is bounded by $\frac{2}{3}|G|$) posted on MSE proved rather difficult to solve. The OP has been silent about where the ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

35 views

### some sort of 'saturation' of module quotients

Let $R$ be a local Noetherian ring over a field, with the maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$. (e.g. $R=k[[x_1,\dots,x_{p>1}]]$) Given two $R$-modules, $N\subset M$, of the same (finite, non-zero) rank. ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

238 views

### Is there a tropical geometric proof for counting genus g curves in any n dimensional projective space?

Consider the following question: Let $X$ be a compact complex manifold
and $\beta \in H_2(X, \mathbb{Z})$ a fixed homology class. Let
$\mu_1, \mu_2, \ldots, \mu_k$ denote certain generic ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

399 views

### $\pi_8(S^5)=\pi_8(SO(6))=\mathbb{Z}/24$?

I am currently thinking about a physics model related to framed bordism $\Omega_3^{fr}=Z/24=\pi^s_3$, and the first stable example is $\pi_8(S^5)$, so I was curious about the generator, and happened ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

57 views

### Convergence to equilibrium via gradient descent

J. B. Rosen proved that in concave games of n players (which assumes that Cartesian product of strategy profiles is convex) if the game satisfies the condition of diagonally strictly concave then ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

307 views

### Infinitesimal deformations of a fibration

Let $f:X\rightarrow Y$ be a morphism of normal projective varieties over an algebraically closed field with connected fibers.
Assume that both $Y$ and the general fiber of $f$ admit a non-trivial ...

**165**

votes

**109**answers

44k views

### What are some examples of colorful language in serious mathematics papers? [closed]

The popular MO question "Famous mathematical quotes" has turned
up many examples of witty, insightful, and humorous writing by
mathematicians. Yet, with a few exceptions such as Weyl's "angel of
...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

149 views

### Question on paper of Stewart and Top about ranks of elliptic curves over Q(t)

I'm reading "On Ranks of Twists of Elliptic Curves and Power-Free Values of Binary Forms" by Stewart and Top, and struggling to understand the argument on pg 962 which shows that the rank of a ...

**20**

votes

**6**answers

1k views

### Residual finiteness: why do we care?

Residually finite groups have been studied for a long time. However, I am struggling to work out why we care, or perhaps, why they continue to be of interest. Let me explain.
Magnus, in his 1968 ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

897 views

### How to prove that this equation has only one solution?

I can't find a way to prove that the following equation has only one solution :
$$
X = \frac{2^Q - 1}{2^{P+Q} - 3^P}
$$
with $X,P,Q$ integers $> 0$.
One trivial solution is $X = 1, P = 1, Q = ...

**5**

votes

**0**answers

74 views

### Quantitative approximation of invariant measures by periodic ones

It is well known that many strongly chaotic dynamical systems have the property that periodic measures are (weak-star) dense in the space of all invariant probability measures. Is there some knowledge ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

77 views

### Asymptotic expansion of a sequence given by an integral with reciprocal Gamma function

I would like to know the asymptotic expansion of the sequence of positive numbers given by
$$I_{n}:=-\int_{0}^{1}\frac{n^{x-1}}{\Gamma(x-1)}dx,$$
for $n\rightarrow\infty$.
One can easily derive an ...

**7**

votes

**2**answers

859 views

### Boundedness of solutions of a difference equation

Is there someone who can show me how I can prove this conjecture? Or at least show me how to do the first implication ?
Conjecture: Assume $\alpha,\beta, \lambda \in [0,\infty)$. Then every ...

**201**

votes

**66**answers

97k views

### Proofs without words

Can you give examples of proofs without words? In particular, can you give examples of proofs without words for non-trivial results?
(One could ask if this is of interest to mathematicians, and I ...