# All Questions

**1**

vote

**0**answers

30 views

### Reflexive subspaces of dual spaces

If $X$ is a Banach space, is it true that $X^{*}$ must contain an infinite dimensional reflexive subspace? I know of Gowers' example of a Banach space not containing $c_0$, $l_1$, or reflexive, but I ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

35 views

### Finding the right σ-algebra. Question on uncertainty related to the secretary problem

Assume a number of iid. items is presented and the task was to stop under the objective of picking the best item.
In this setting it is relevant what is the distribution of the values of the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

73 views

### The average number of a class of reduced, primitive, positive definite binary quadratic forms

Let $f(x,y) = ax^2 + 2bxy + cy^2 \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ be a positive definite binary quadratic form with even discriminant. We say that $f$ is primitive if $\gcd(a,2b,c) = 1$ and it is reduced if $0 ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

10 views

### Differential inequalities for a strictly diagonal dominant system of linear ODEs

Let $A$ be a real $d\times d$ matrix. The diagonal elements are strictly negative ($a_{ii}<0$) and the off-diagonal elements are non-negative ($a_{ij}\geq 0$ for $i\neq j$). $A$ is strictly column ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

19 views

### how can we extend this result [duplicate]

Let $T_{a},a\in C$ be a closed operator defined on $D$ subspace of $L^{2}(R)$ onto $L^{2}(R)$ $(T_{a}: D\rightarrow L^{2}(R) )$ with
$D$ contains a Schawrz space $S$
...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

36 views

### A generalization of negative binomial distribution

Assume we have a set of n balls. For each step, we uniformly pick one ball and label it if it is not labeled. Or otherwise move on to next step. I am wondering what is the distribution of number of ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

41 views

### Converge of measures [on hold]

Good night, we have the following:
Let $(X,d)$ is a general metric space, $\mathcal{M}(Y)$ is the set of finite Borel measures on $Y$ and $C_B(Y)$ denotes the Banach space of bounded continuous ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

787 views

### The homotopy category is not complete nor cocomplete

I understand that the homotopy category of (pointed) topological spaces and continuous maps is not complete. Nor is it cocomplete. In particular it neither has all pullbacks nor all pushouts.
What ...

**70**

votes

**21**answers

17k views

### Examples of math hoaxes/interesting jokes published on April Fool's day?

What are examples of math hoaxes/interesting jokes published on April Fool's day?
For a start P=NP.

**4**

votes

**3**answers

91 views

### Birationally transforming a quartic elliptic curve

Consider the elliptic curve
$$y^2=ax^4+cx^2+dx+f$$
I am aware that there are algorithmic methods for birationally transforming a nondegenerate cubic curve into the Weierstrass canonical form ...

**212**

votes

**7**answers

108k views

### Philosophy behind Mochizuki's work on the ABC conjecture

Mochizuki has recently announced a proof of the ABC conjecture. It is far too early to judge its correctness, but it builds on many years of work by him. Can someone briefly explain the philosophy ...

**116**

votes

**16**answers

16k views

### When should a supervisor be a co-author?

What are people's views on this? To be specific: suppose a PhD student has produced a piece of original mathematical research. Suppose that student's supervisor suggested the problem, and gave a few ...

**27**

votes

**22**answers

18k views

### What are the worst notations, in your opinion ? [closed]

With which notation do you feel uncomfortable ?

**33**

votes

**7**answers

4k views

### Companion to theoretical physics for working mathematicians

In the Princeton Companion to Mathematics one reads that even pure mathematicians should know some theoretical physics and applied mathematics. What are some well-organized comprehensive companions to ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

130 views

### geometric interpretation of derivation between two algebras

Given a smooth manifold $M,$ it is well known that any derivation of the algebra of smooth functions $C^{\infty}(M)$ can be seen (or it is associated to) a smooth vector field on $M.$ I am looking for ...

**8**

votes

**4**answers

709 views

### A learning roadmap to the Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) for the complex analyst

I would like some good references to learn about the Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE), for a complex analyst with no background in probability.
A quick google search gave a lot of references on SLE ...

**15**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Applications of set theory in physics

In the introduction of the paper "Links between physics and set theory", the following quote of Eris Chric is stated:
"Set theory perhaps is too important to be left just to ...

**36**

votes

**9**answers

4k views

### What proportion of chess positions that one can set up on the board, using a legal collection of pieces, can actually arise in a legal chess game?

Many chess positions that one may easily set up on a chess board
are impossible to achieve in a game of legal moves. For example,
among the impossible situations would be:
A position in which both ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

186 views

### Comparing cardinalities of the spectrum of two masas in $B(H)$

If I imagine that (the self-adjoint part of) a C*-algebra $A$ represents the algebra of observables of some quantum system, then certain perspectives on algebraic quantum theory would ask me to ...

**16**

votes

**11**answers

8k views

### Different ways of proving that two sets are equal

I'm not sure if this is a soft question, or should be community wiki.
I was explaining to a student how to prove that two sets were equal using what I called the 'oldest trick in the book': to show ...

**7**

votes

**0**answers

408 views

### Use of derivators to the theory of motives?

This is a rather imprecise question but i think this could become a interesting pool of ideas and comments.
The theory of motives has evolved to a complex field of research the moment Voevodsky (and ...

**50**

votes

**5**answers

5k views

### Decidability of chess on an infinite board

The recent question Do there exist chess positions that require exponentially many moves to reach? of Tim Chow reminds me of a problem I have been interested in. Is chess with finitely many men on an ...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

846 views

### On the pathwise uniqueness of solutions of SDEs(Stochastic Differential Equations)

Suppose that $(\Omega,\mathscr{F},P)$ is a complete probability space equipped a filtration $\{\mathscr{F}_t\}$ satisfying the usual conditions. $B_t$ is a 1-dimentional Brownian motion with respect ...

**14**

votes

**18**answers

10k views

### Good books on theory of distributions

Hi all.
I'm looking for english books with a good coverage of distribution theory.
I'm a fan of Folland's Real analysis, but it only gives elementary notions on distributions.
Thanks in advance.

**22**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### How is tropicalization like taking the classical limit?

There is a folk — I can't call it a theorem — "fact" that the mathematical relationship between Complex and Tropical geometry is analogous to the physical relationship between Quantum and ...

**16**

votes

**9**answers

10k views

### What is the best algorithm to find the smallest nonzero Eigenvalue of a symmetric matrix?

see title.
An algorithm is 'good' if it is able to distinguish between zero Eigenvalues and nonzero Eigenvalues.

**12**

votes

**0**answers

452 views

### Generalization of Witten's computation of the volume of moduli space

Let $\Sigma$ be a Riemann surface, and let $X:=\operatorname{Hom}(\pi_1(\Sigma),\operatorname{SU}(2))/\operatorname{SU}(2)$ be the $\operatorname{SU}(2)$ character variety of $\pi_1(\Sigma)$.
There ...

**19**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Half Cantor-Bernstein Without Choice

I had a discussion with one of my teachers the other day, which boiled to the following question:
Assume ZF. Let $A,B$ be sets such that there exist $f\colon A\to B$ which is injective and ...

**15**

votes

**5**answers

3k views

### Factors of p-1 when p is prime.

Hi,
I have no idea where to look for, so I'm hoping you can give me some pointers.
I'm interested by numbers of form $p-1$ when $p$ is a prime number. Do they have a name, so that I can google them?
...

**27**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Are there non-reflexive vector spaces isomorphic to their bi-dual?

Let $V$ be an infinite dimensional topological vector space and consider the natural application $\iota\colon V\to V^{**}$. The space $V$ is said to be reflexive if $\iota$ is an isomorphism.
Are ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

780 views

### Relation between the eigenspace of a covariance matrix and eigenspace of correlation matrix

I was discussing applying Principal Component Analysis to a covariance matrix versus applying PCA to the corresponding correlation matrix with a collegue. This led me to think about the following ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

239 views

### A generalisation of Sperner families (union-free families)

I am interested in a family of sets $C$ with the following property:
if you take any $k$ distinct subsets $S_1, S_2, \dotsc, S_k \in C$, then $S_1$ is not a subset of $S_2 \cup S_3 \cup \dotso \cup ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

440 views

### Unique way to partition into two parts of equal weight

A special case says it all ... Let $ w_1 < w_2 < \ldots < w_{12} $ be an increasing sequence of $12$ integers ("weights") such that the total weight $W=\sum_{k=1}^{12}w_k$ is even.
Say that ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

285 views

### Motivic fundamental group of the moduli space of curves?

Suppose I have a smooth projective family of varieties of varieties over $\mathcal M_g$ - i.e. a universal functor, commuting with deformations, from curves to smooth projective varieties. Can I ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

75 views

### maximal sets of vertices that avoids a clique

I am looking for some known algorithm that finds, for a given graph, all the maximal sets of vertices that avoid a clique of some given size $k$. I'd prefer one written in MATLAB, but other languages ...

**114**

votes

**83**answers

26k views

### Examples of great mathematical writing

This question is basically from Ravi Vakil's web page, but modified for Math Overflow.
How do I write mathematics well? Learning by example is more helpful than being told what to do, so let's try to ...

**31**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### What is a foliation and why should I care?

The title says everything but while it is a little bit provocative let me elaborate a bit about my question. First time when I met the foliation it was just an isolated example in the differential ...

**16**

votes

**5**answers

1k views

### Homological algebra and calculus (as in Newton)

This question reminded me of a possibly stupid idea that I had a while back.
On page 2 of this paper, while discussing Euclid's axioms of plane geometry and spatial geometry, Manin makes an extremely ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

50 views

### Psi-classes on moduli spaces of weighted curves

Let $\overline{\mathcal{M}}_{g,A[n]}$ be the stack of weighted genus $g$ curves with weights $A[n]=(a_1,...,a_n)$, and let $\pi:\mathcal{C}\rightarrow \overline{\mathcal{M}}_{g,A[n]}$ be the universal ...

**9**

votes

**1**answer

579 views

### Why do we denote (co)ends with integral notation (beyond Fubini's Theorem)?

I know that (co)ends (i.e. universal wedges) follow Fubini-like relation, i.e.
$$ \int_{\langle c,d\rangle} F(c,d,c,d) \cong \int_c\int_d F(c,c,d,d) \cong \int_d\int_c F(c,c,d,d) $$
where we regard ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

96 views

### Weak* continuity of positive parts

I'm a little embarrassed to be asking this, but surely there is a simple argument that I didn't see?
Let $(f_\lambda)$ be a net in $l^\infty$ which converges weak* to $f \in l^\infty$. We do not ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

164 views

### When is a mapping the proximity operator of some convex function?

Is there a characterization of mappings $p : \mathbb R^n \rightarrow \mathbb R^n$ which are proximity operators (in the sense of Moreau) of l.s.c (extended) real-valued functions ?
That is, given $p : ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

54 views

### Horizontal distribution of a totally geodesic foliation

Let $\mathbb{M}$ be a $n+m$ dimensional manifold. Consider on $\mathbb{M}$ a rank $n$ sub-bundle $\mathcal{H}$ of the tangent bundle. We assume that $\mathcal{H}$ is endowed with a fiber wise inner ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

43 views

### How to retrieve eigenvectors from shifted QR algorithm?

I understand that the key to retrieve eigenvectors in the non-shifted QR algorithm is to accumulate the transformations at each steps in the following way:
$Q = \Pi_i Q_i$
Can we accumulate the ...

**13**

votes

**2**answers

436 views

+50

### Integral cohomology of $G/N(T)$

Let $G$ be a compact connected simple Lie group, $T$ a maximal torus, $N(T)$ the normalizer of $T$, and $W=N(T)/T$ the Weyl group. It is well-known that $H^*(G/T,\mathbb{Q})$ is the regular ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

106 views

### Are induced Riemannian metrics weakly continuous?

Let $\Omega \subseteq \mathbb{R}^d$ a nice bounded domain.
Let $F_n:\Omega \to \mathbb{R}^D$ be a sequence of smooth embeddings* in $W^{1,p}(\Omega,\mathbb{R}^D)$. Assume $F_n \rightharpoonup F$ in ...

**4**

votes

**3**answers

175 views

### Relation between diametral path and regularity of a graph

Let $G(V,E)$ be a graph. A path whose length is equal to the diameter of a graph is called a diametral path. In a cycle graph every vertex has $2$ diametral paths. Now I need to prove that this:
...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

71 views

### Integer Gelfand-Kirillov dimension

Let $R$ be a (noncommutative) Noetherian affine $K$-algebra. The Gelfand-Kirillov dimension is known to be an integer for many classes of affine Noetherian algebras. I wonder, if this is true for any ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

336 views

### The number of subgroups of ${\frak S}_n$

Because of my interest in this question, I listed the subgroups of ${\frak S}_n$ for $1\le n\le4$. I found that the number of subgroups are, respectively, $1,2,6,24$. It might be a coincidence, or it ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

106 views

### Weak* continuity of positive parts, again

Bill Johnson pointed out to me yesterday that the map $$f \mapsto f^+ = \max(f,0)$$ is not weak* continuous on $l^\infty$. Nonetheless, I think I can prove that if $V$ is a linear subspace of ...