3
votes
1answer
373 views

Use of infinitude of primes in the Green-Tao theorem [on hold]

In a video I watched last night on nuking mathematical mosquitos, Matt Parker gave the following proof of the infinitude of primes: suppose there are finitely many primes. The Green-Tao theorem says ...
-2
votes
0answers
38 views

Finding topological properties under a metric on set of composition operators of L2 [on hold]

We define a new metric on all composition operators in $L^2$: $$ d‎‎_R (‎A‎,B)=‎ \sqrt{‎\Vert ‎P‎_{R(A)}‎‎- ‎‎‎‎‎‎P‎‎_{R(B)} \Vert^2+‎\Vert A‎‎-‎B\Vert^2 }‎. $$ Now we would li‎‎‎‎‎ke to find ...
4
votes
1answer
211 views

Can we always attain another prime via inserting digits between the digits of a fixed prime?

The sequence OEIS A080437 is For n > 10, let m = n-th prime. If m is a k-digit prime then a(n) = smallest prime obtained by inserting digits between every pair of digits of m. I don't see why ...
10
votes
2answers
413 views

Blinking graphs

For any simple graph $G$, assign its nodes a weight/bit of $0$ or $1$. Call this a bit assignment for $G$. Now, generate a new bit assignment as follows: Each node $x$'s bit is replaced by $1$ if the ...
3
votes
2answers
149 views

Definition of the differential of the Cone of a morphism of complexes [on hold]

Let $(F^\bullet,d_F)$ and $(G^\bullet,d_G)$ be two complexes in an abelian category $\mathbf{A}$. The complex cone $Cone(\varphi)^\bullet$ of a morphism of complexes $\varphi:F^\bullet \to G^\bullet$ ...
2
votes
0answers
86 views

For which fields are the 1-dimensional algebraic groups known?

Given an algebraically closed field, or even a perfect one, a connected 1-dimensional algebraic group $G$ over the field $K$ is isomorphic to either $\mathbf G_a$ or $\mathbf G_m$. For which fields ...
5
votes
1answer
192 views

How does pseudoconvexity restrict the topology?

A domain of holomorphy in $\mathbb{C}^n$ has vanishing de rham cohomology in real dimensions greater than $n$ - half of it's cohomology is missing. Are there any other restrictions? If I give you a ...
53
votes
8answers
7k views

Why is Lebesgue integration taught using positive and negative parts of functions?

Background: When I first took measure theory/integration, I was bothered by the idea that the integral of a real-valued function w.r.t. a measure was defined first for nonnegative functions and only ...
21
votes
3answers
805 views

Is the Rado graph a Cayley graph? If so, what is the group like? (And other questions…)

The countable random graph, also known as the Rado graph, is characterized as the unique countable graph in which every two disjoint finite sets $A$ and $B$ of vertices admit a vertex $p$ connected to ...
2
votes
2answers
509 views

Can we compute every definable number with knowledge of the halting problem?

Suppose we knew the answer to the halting problem, and the halting problem for this new system with the old halting problem solved. And so on. Would this allow us to compute every definable number?
1
vote
0answers
47 views

On the sum of digits of primes in binary form [duplicate]

Let $s_2(m)$ be the sum of digits of $m$ in binary form. I would like to ask the following question: Is it true that for every $n\in \mathbb{N}$ there is at least one prime $p$ which has ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Extra-Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras

My question is about Kac-Moody (KM) algebras of finite rank with symmetrized Cartan matrices $B = C A$ ($A$ is Cartan matrix) of signatures $(-,-,+,...,+)$, $(-,-,-,+,...,+)$, etc. i.e. with ...
2
votes
3answers
133 views

Surgery of $S^3$

I have been troubled by this seemingly simple question recently. How do we easily visualize the statement: Surgery of $S^3$ over a trivial unknot gives $S^1 \times S^2$? All I can think of for ...
6
votes
1answer
188 views

Does “$|{\cal P}_2(X)| = |X|$ for $X$ infinite” imply ${\sf (AC)}$?

This comes from a comment made by user bof in this thread. Let $X$ be a set, define ${\cal P}_2(X) = \big\{\{a, b\}: a\neq b\in X\big\}$. Consider the statement ${\sf (S)}$ If $X$ is an ...
2
votes
1answer
197 views

Moduli of stable bundles - analytic approach

Consider a compact Riemann surface $X$ of genus $\ge 2$, and consider the set $M$ of stable holomorphic vector bundles of rank $n$ and degree $d$ on $X$, up to isomorphism. At that point, one states ...
4
votes
0answers
135 views

Dynamical Mordell-Lang on Kahler manifolds?

Suppose that $X$ is a smooth projective variety over $\mathbb C$ and $\phi : X \to X$ is an endomorphism. Let $p \in V$ be a point and $V \subset X$ a subvariety. The dynamical Mordell-lang ...
48
votes
3answers
3k views

What are the implications of the new quasi-polynomial time solution for the Graph Isomorphism problem?

This week, news came out that Laszlo Babai has found a quasi-polynomial time algorithm to solve the Graph Isomorphism problem (that is: $O(\exp(polylog(n)))$). He is giving a series of talks this ...
2
votes
0answers
58 views

Detecting Negative Cycles in Undirected Graphs

I recently faced the problem of quickly detecting negative cycles in undirected, weighted graphs. Resorting to the Bellman-Ford Algorithm, as commonly suggested, turned out to be very inefficient and ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

Example distance metric that is not conditionally negative definite

Theorem 4.1 of this paper says that there exist distance matrices that are not conditionally negative definite (CND). How do I construct an example of a distance matrix that is not CND? Do you know an ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Inapproximability of Combinatorial Optimization Problems

I've been reading the "Inapproximability of Combinatorial Optimization Problems" by Luca Trevisan (see: link). On pages 3-4 it mentions that a polynomial time algorithm for 3SAT would exist if there ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

About $c(A)$ in $c(A)|A|\leq |A^{-1}A|$

Let $G$ be a finite group, $\emptyset\neq A\subseteq G$, $A^{-1}:=\{ a^{-1}:a\in A\}$, and put $$c(A):=\max\{t\in \mathbb{Z}: t|A|\leq |A^{-1}A|\}$$ It is clear that $1\leq c(A)\leq ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

Converging to moments obeying Carleman's condition

I believe that the following is true, and I'd like to make sure that it is and to have a reference. Suppose that $\mu_N$ are a sequence of measures on $\mathbb{R}$. Let $m_{N,k}$ be the $k$-th ...
9
votes
3answers
228 views

Random links and $3$-manifolds

In Jeffrey Weeks book "The Shape of Space" he explaines at the end of Chapter 18 (on page 255) the following about the geometrization conjecture: A non-trivial connected sum $M_1\# M_2$ admits a ...
-1
votes
0answers
119 views

The eigenvalue of operator $-\Delta$

Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ be open bounded, smooth boundary. We know the eigenfunction of Laplacian operator $-\Delta$ is an orthonormal basis of $L^2$. Let $\{\omega_n\}$ denote the ...
24
votes
9answers
5k views

What are the reasons for considering rings without identity?

I think a major reason is because Lie algebras don't have an identity, but I'm not really sure.
29
votes
2answers
3k views

Everywhere differentiable function that is nowhere monotonic

It is well known that there are functions $f \colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that are everywhere continuous but nowhere monotonic (i.e. the restriction of $f$ to any non-trivial interval $[a,b]$ is ...
39
votes
4answers
10k views

Non-Borel sets without axiom of choice

This is a simple doubt of mine about the basics of measure theory, which should be easy for the logicians to answer. The example I know of non Borel sets would be a Hamel basis, which needs axiom of ...
84
votes
4answers
3k views

What do the stable homotopy groups of spheres say about the combinatorics of finite sets?

The Barratt-Priddy-Quillen(-Segal) theorem says that the following spaces are homotopy equivalent in an (essentially) canonical way: $\Omega^\infty S^\infty:=\varinjlim~ \Omega^nS^n$ ...
69
votes
5answers
6k views

What do epimorphisms of (commutative) rings look like?

(Background: In any category, an epimorphism is a morphism $f:X\to Y$ which is "surjective" in the following sense: for any two morphisms $g,h:Y\to Z$, if $g\circ f=h\circ f$, then $g=h$. Roughly, ...
6
votes
1answer
364 views

Itô's article “A measure-theoretic approach to Malliavin calculus”

Apart from citations all over the internet, the following paper appears to be off-the-grid. K. Itô, A measure-theoretic approach to Malliavin calculus, in 'New Trends in Stochastic Analysis', Proc. ...
7
votes
1answer
340 views

Is the fundamental group of $II_{1}$ factors invariant under a relation?

In order to define the equivalence relation, let's first recall the Tomita-Takesaki modular theory and conditional expectation for von Neumann algebras. Let $H$ be a separable Hilbert space and ...
3
votes
1answer
158 views

Braid wiring diagrams and matroids

recently I started reading some articles about the presentation of the fundamental group of lines arrangements in $\mathbb{C}^{2}$ via Wiring diagrams. I also found some relation with matroid theory. ...
3
votes
1answer
155 views

A decreasing sequence involving the divisor function?

Define $N_k \geq 6$ to be the $k-th$ primorial number and let $\sigma(n)$ be the divisor function. It seems that $u_k = \dfrac{\sigma(N_k)}{N_k \log\log N_k}$ is a decreasing function ? By ...
21
votes
8answers
2k views

Is there a compact group of countably infinite cardinality?

Apologies for the very simple question, but I can't seem to find a reference one way or the other, and it's been bugging me for a while now. Is there a compact (Hausdorff, or even T1) (topological) ...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Basic questions on the homotopy category

I apologize in advance if this the answer to this question is standard or well-known. I am not in any way an algebraic topologist. $\newcommand{\s}{\mathscr}$Let $\s T$ be the category of topological ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Finding f such that f(f(x))=g(x) given g

Suppose $g(x)$ is a smooth increasing function defined for $x \ge 0$ such that $g(x) \ge x$ for all $x$. Does there exist a function $f$ with similar properties such that $f(f(x))=g(x)$ for all $x \ge ...
6
votes
2answers
566 views

Is assigning the endomorphism object in some sense functorial?

Let $\mathcal V$ be a monoidal category and let $\mathcal C$ be a $\mathcal V$-category. Let's denote the $\mathcal V$-valued hom-functor $[-,-]$. Now for every object $X\in\mathcal C$ we have it's ...
6
votes
1answer
452 views

Repeated Second Eigenvalue of the Adjacency Matrix of a Graph

This question is motivated by a talk I went to earlier today. Suppose we have a $d$-regular graph $G$ with $n$ vertices, with adjacency matrix $A$. Let $$\lambda_1\geq \lambda_2 \geq\dots \geq ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

CLT for sums of an infinite sequence of rv with an asymptotic distribution

Excuse me if the question is ill-posed. I'll do my best to explain the problem.I have a vector $(x^{(n)}_1, x^{(n)}_2, \ldots x^{(n)}_n),$ whose individual components can be shown to be asymptotically ...
7
votes
3answers
264 views
+50

Analytic continuation of the double sum $\sum_{n,m\ge0}x^ny^mt^{nm}$

Define function $f(x,y,t)$ as the analytic continuation of the series $$f(x,y,t)=\sum_{n,m\ge0}x^ny^mt^{nm}$$ This series definitely converges when all the arguments are small enough. I would like to ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

Opposite of an E2-algebra

Suppose $C$ is the monoidal $\infty$-category of modules over an $\mathcal{E}_2$-ring spectrum $A$. Let $C' = C$ as a category, but with opposite monoidal structure to $C$. Is $C'$ the category of ...
7
votes
0answers
95 views

The non-abelian Gauss-Manin connection; non-abelian M_dR; a Grothendieck lemma for cyrstals

I'm interested in understanding the non-abelian Gauss-Manin connection on Carlos Simpson's relative de Rham Moduli space $M_{dR}(X/S,n)$ for a smooth projective morphism of schemes $X/S$. The scheme ...
5
votes
0answers
97 views

Has anyone seen these binary trees (Catalan-type related to the Gegenbauer polynomials and Motzkin paths)?

The OEIS entry A121448 enumerates binary trees with $n$ edges and $k$ vertices with outdegree 1. Has anyone seen these trees? The o.g.f. for this entry, $G(x,t)$, is essentially a discriminant ...
0
votes
0answers
107 views

Additional condition to the Bollobas theorem (Sperner's therorem) in extremal set theory

The Bollobas'1965 theorem is the following: If $A_1,...,A_n$ and $B_1,...,B_n$ are two sequences of subsets of $X=\{1,...,r\}$ such that $A_i\cap B_j = \emptyset$ if and only if $i=j$, then ...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Is it possible to write down the explicit expressions of some extensions of conformal vector fields on spheres?

Let X be a conformal vector field on the standard sphere $S^n$ with standard metric $g_{S^n}$, then there exists a unique conformal vector fields in the unit ball $B_1(0)\subset \mathbb{R}^{n+1}$, ...
3
votes
1answer
308 views

Primary structures in $\mathbb Q$

I'll formulate a topic restricted here to the positive rational numbers $\ \mathbb Q_{_{>0}},\ $, then will pose a question (Q2) plus some related, to which I don't know the answers nor reference. ...
4
votes
2answers
203 views

Lefschetz on étale fundamental group for quasi-projective varieties

If $X$ is a smooth projective variety of dimension at least $3$ over $\mathbb{C}$, Lefschetz's Hyperplane theorem says that for every hyperplane section $H$ $$\pi^1(H)\to\pi^1(X)$$ is an isomorphism, ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Counting growing tree trajectories

I am looking for help: Beginning with a single node ($\circ$), at each discrete time step I can add a node/link pair to any node currently in the tree. Nodes are unlabelled and the tree is ...
9
votes
3answers
482 views

Collection of dense subsets as a “fingerprint” for Hausdorff topologies?

Let $(X,\tau)$ be a Hausdorff space and let ${\cal D}$ denote the collection of dense subsets of $(X,\tau)$. Is it possible that there is another Hausdorff topology $\tau_1 \neq \tau$ on $X$ such that ...
1
vote
2answers
111 views

Four Sphere Fibrations

Does there exist a manifold $M$ and a compact Lie group $H$ such that we have a fibration $H \to S^4 \to M$, where $S^4$ is the four sphere?

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