# Questions tagged [universal-algebra]

The study of algebraic structures and properties applying to large classes of such structures. For example, ideas from group theory and ring theory are extended and considered for structures with other signatures (systems of basic or fundamental operations).

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### Does "finitely presented" mean "always finitely presented"? (Answered: Yes!)

Precisely, if an R-module M has a finite presentation, and Rk → M is some unrelated surjection (k finite), is the kernel necessarily also finitely generated? Basically I want to believe I can ...
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### Identities of commutators

Let $G$ be a group and set $[x,y]:= x^{-1}y^{-1}xy$ as usual and consider it as a binary operation. Question: Is there a description of the identities that the operation $[.,.]$ satisfies for all ...
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### Counterexamples in universal algebra

Universal algebra - roughly - is the study, construed broadly, of classes of algebraic structures (in a given language) defined by equations. Of course, it is really much more than that, but that's ...
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### Do convolution and multiplication satisfy any nontrivial algebraic identities?

For (suitable) real- or complex-valued functions $f$ and $g$ on a (suitable) abelian group $G$, we have two bilinear operations: multiplication - $$(f\cdot g)(x) = f(x)g(x),$$ and convolution - (f*...
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### Why are so few operations with arity bigger than 2?

In usual algebraic structures, like groups, rings, monoids, etc, or in algebras coming from logics like Boolean algebras, Heyting algebras and the like the operations are usually of arity 0 (constants)...
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### Do non-associative objects have a natural notion of representation?

A magma is a set $M$ equipped with a binary operation $* : M \times M \to M$. In abstract algebra we typically begin by studying a special type of magma: groups. Groups satisfy certain additional ...
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### How dangerous are set-size assumptions?

Many students' first introduction to the difference between classes and sets is in category theory, where we learn that some categories (such as the category of all sets) are class-sized but not set-...
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### Lawvere theories versus classical universal algebra

A Lawvere theory is a small category with finite products such that every object is isomorphic to a finite product of copies of a distinguished object x. A model of the theory in a category with ...
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### A preprint of Sela concerning the work of Kharlampovich-Miyasnikov

Yesterday, Z. Sela published a preprint in arXiv which claims that the solution of Olga Kharlampovich and Alexi Miyasnikov for the Tarski problem on decidablity of the first order theories of free ...
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### Are there axioms satisfied in commutative rings and distributive lattices but not satisfied in commutative semirings?

Consider the language of rigs (also called semirings): it has constants $0$ and $1$ and binary operations $+$ and $\times$. The theory of commutative rigs is generated by the usual axioms: $+$ is ...
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### Given a lattice L with n elements, are there finite groups H < G such that L $\cong$ the lattice of subgroups between H and G?

If there is no restriction on $n$, this is a famous open problem. I'm wondering if any recent work has been done for small $n>6$. I believe the question is answered (positively) for $n=6$ by ...
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### Varieties where every algebra is free

I'd like to know more about varieties (in the sense of universal algebra) where every algebra is free. Another way to state the condition is that the comparison functor from the Kleisli category to ...
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I've begun to interest in algebraic theories and their categorical models: in particular monads, generalized multicategories and operads, lawvere theories and their generalization. Is there any ...
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### Why does abelianization preserve finite products, really?

The abelianization functor $(-)^{ab} : \mathrm{Grp} \to \mathrm{Ab}$ is left adjoint to the inclusion of abelian groups into groups. As such, it preserves all colimits, but it doesn't generally ...
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### Complete Boolean algebra not isomorphic to a $\sigma$-algebra

Does there exist a complete Boolean algebra that is not isomorphic to any $\sigma$-algebra? If so, what is an easy or canonical example or construction?
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### Representation theorem for modular lattices?

Birkhoff's representation theorem implies that every distributive lattice embeds into the lattice of subsets of a set. Is there also some representation theorem for modular lattices? For example, I ...
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### Constructive proof of existence of free algebras for infinitary equational theories

Is it constructively true that all (not necessarily finitary) equational theories $T = (\Sigma, E)$ have an initial model? The usual proof for finitary equational theories I know constructs first ...
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This question (as the title obviously suggests) is similar to, or a continuation of, this question that was asked years ago on MO by a different user. The present question, though, is different from ...
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### Why is every variety of bands determined by a single identity?

A band is a semigroup where every element is idempotent: $a a = a$. A collection of bands is a variety if it is closed under taking subobjects (subsemigroups), quotient objects (images of ...
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### What is a module over a Boolean ring?

Recall that a (unital) Boolean ring is a (unital) commutative ring $A$ where every element is idempotent; it follows that $A$ is of characteristic 2. There is an equivalence of categories between ...
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### Formally undecidable problems on finitely presented quandles

In the literature, one sometimes sees the claim that finitely presented quandles (in particular, knot quandles) are "hard to deal with". Hence, a great deal of effort has gone into studying finite ...
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### Are norms intrinsically $\mathbb{R}$-valued?

Another way of phrasing this: are there any viable definitions of something which is norm-like but whose range is in a linearly ordered rig (for example) rather than $\mathbb{R}$? I have searched a ...
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### Contexts and notations for composing asymmetric simplices

Imagine the elements of a group-like structure as puzzle pieces with essential two sides, an IN-side and an OUT-side. You can compose two such pieces in two obvious ways: Now consider triangular ...
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### Free division rings?

Does it make sense to talk about, say, the free division ring on 2 generators? If so, does the free division ring on countably many generators embed into the free division ring on two generators?
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### $fgf = f$, $gfg = g$, $fg$ not necessarily identity, what is this called?

A very simple question, I just totally forgot how it was called, and Google is not helping. There's a pair of functions $f:X\to Y$, $g:Y\to X$. $fgf = f$, $gfg = g$, but $fg$ and $gf$ don't need to ...
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### The groupoid of algebraic expressions and proofs

Fix a set of variables $V$, and suppose we're given a presentation of a monosorted algebraic theory, with variable symbols taken from $V$. For the sake of example, suppose the presentation consists of ...
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### IBN for algebraic theories

Let us say that a finitary algebraic theory $\tau$ has IBN (invariant basis number) if the free functor $F : \mathsf{Set} \to \mathsf{Mod}(\tau)$ reflects the isomorphism relation: If $S,T$ are sets ...
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### What are the invariant Pseudo-differential operators on a Lie group?

It is well-known that (left) $G$-invariant differential operators on a Lie group $G$, has an algebraic description, i.e. universal enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of the group. On the other ...