Questions tagged [universal-algebra]

The study of algebraic structures and properties applying to large classes of such structures. For example, ideas from group theory and ring theory are extended and considered for structures with other signatures (systems of basic or fundamental operations).

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32
votes
7answers
3k views

Do non-associative objects have a natural notion of representation?

A magma is a set $M$ equipped with a binary operation $* : M \times M \to M$. In abstract algebra we typically begin by studying a special type of magma: groups. Groups satisfy certain additional ...
2
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1answer
183 views

Terminology for a monoid $(H, \cdot)$ s.t. $ax=a$ or $xa =a$ only if $x$ is a unit

Let $(H, \cdot)$ be a (multiplicative) monoid. Is there any consolidated name for the following Property $\text{(P)}$, or for the class of monoids for which it is satisfied? $$\text{(P) If }\,xy = x\...
22
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0answers
958 views

Given a lattice L with n elements, are there finite groups H < G such that L $\cong$ the lattice of subgroups between H and G?

If there is no restriction on $n$, this is a famous open problem. I'm wondering if any recent work has been done for small $n>6$. I believe the question is answered (positively) for $n=6$ by ...
5
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5answers
1k views

Defining 'free monoid' without Nat?

Is there a definition of what is a 'free monoid' which does not pre-suppose that the natural numbers has already been defined? The definitions that I have been able to track down all use the natural ...
7
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0answers
324 views

Adjunction algebra - is there anything similar to this in algebra?

I call adjunction algebra a universal algebra with one binary operation denoted as the punctuation sign (;) "semicolon" (but I will be using only one space after it, not on both sides - to avoid going ...
4
votes
3answers
338 views

Relatively free algebras in a variety generated by a single algebra

Suppose $A$ is an algebra of signature $\mathcal{L}$ and $V=Var(A)$ is the variety generated by $A$. I want to know is it possible to classify relatively free elements of $V$? As a special case, for a ...
21
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4answers
1k views

Varieties where every algebra is free

I'd like to know more about varieties (in the sense of universal algebra) where every algebra is free. Another way to state the condition is that the comparison functor from the Kleisli category to ...
3
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0answers
331 views

Is there any research of universal algebras axiomatized by non-Horn clauses?

A Horn clause in the language of a universal algebra is a disjunction of equations and of at most one inequality ("equation" and "inequality" are the terms used by A.Horn in his paper "On sencences ...
2
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4answers
502 views

relatively free groups in $Var(S_3)$

Suppose $S_3$ is the symmetric group of order 6. Which elements of the variety $Var(S_3)$ are relatively free? This question is related to my previous question Relatively free algebras in a variety ...
18
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4answers
1k views

Representation theorem for modular lattices?

Birkhoff's representation theorem implies that every distributive lattice embeds into the lattice of subsets of a set. Is there also some representation theorem for modular lattices? For example, I ...
6
votes
2answers
387 views

Heyting algebras originating from directed graphs

The category RefGph of reflexive directed graphs is the functor category $\hat{∆}_1=\mbox{Fun}(∆^◦_1,$Set), where $∆_1$ is the simplex category truncated at level 1. Hence the poset Sub(X) of ...
2
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4answers
802 views

Examples of algebras satisfying (a+b)(c+d)=ac+bd

Is there a known example of an algebra $(A, +, \cdot)$ with two binary commutative (see P.S below) and idempotent operations $+$ and $\cdot$ satisfying the identity $(a+b)(c+d)=ac+bd$? Actually I ...
1
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0answers
118 views

Basic questions about varieties of uniformly partially permutative algebras

Define the Fibonacci terms $t_{n}(x,y)$ for all $n\geq 1$ by letting $t_{1}(x,y)=y,t_{2}(x,y)=x,t_{n+2}(x,y)=t_{n+1}(x,y)*t_{n}(x,y)$. We say that an algebra $(X,*)$ is $N$-uniformly partially ...
-1
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2answers
643 views

Weirdos but algebraic

Weirdos generalize Abelian groups as well as an algebra of arithmetic mean of reals (or geometric mean of positive reals). But first, I'll define eccentrics. (I will not ask about eccentrics here ...
58
votes
5answers
8k views

Does "finitely presented" mean "always finitely presented"? (Answered: Yes!)

Precisely, if an R-module M has a finite presentation, and Rk → M is some unrelated surjection (k finite), is the kernel necessarily also finitely generated? Basically I want to believe I can ...
35
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19answers
4k views

Counterexamples in universal algebra

Universal algebra - roughly - is the study, construed broadly, of classes of algebraic structures (in a given language) defined by equations. Of course, it is really much more than that, but that's ...
20
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3answers
2k views

Relation between monads, operads and algebraic theories

I've begun to interest in algebraic theories and their categorical models: in particular monads, generalized multicategories and operads, lawvere theories and their generalization. Is there any ...
10
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5answers
4k views

Motivation of filtered colimits

I am trying to move in categorical algebra beyond the basics. A Lawvere theory L is a small category with finite products. (I know that there also is a functor $(skeleton(FinSet))^{op}\to L$, which ...
34
votes
21answers
4k views

Why are so few operations with arity bigger than 2?

In usual algebraic structures, like groups, rings, monoids, etc, or in algebras coming from logics like Boolean algebras, Heyting algebras and the like the operations are usually of arity 0 (constants)...
35
votes
6answers
8k views

Do convolution and multiplication satisfy any nontrivial algebraic identities?

For (suitable) real- or complex-valued functions $f$ and $g$ on a (suitable) abelian group $G$, we have two bilinear operations: multiplication - $$(f\cdot g)(x) = f(x)g(x),$$ and convolution - $$(f*...
13
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2answers
2k views

What is the status of (universal) algebra in type theory?

With the recent interest in homotopy type theory as a foundation for mathematics, it seems natural to develop algebra within the framework of type theory. So far, I can't find much literature ...
19
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2answers
658 views

Do all subtraction-free identities tropicalize?

If you take a subtraction-free rational identity like $(xxx+yyy)/(x+y)+xy=xx+yy$ and replace $\times$,$/$,$+$,$1$ by $+$,$-$,min,$0$, do you always get a valid min,plus,minus identity like min(min($x+...
18
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4answers
2k views

Complete Boolean algebra not isomorphic to a $\sigma$-algebra

Does there exist a complete Boolean algebra that is not isomorphic to any $\sigma$-algebra? If so, what is an easy or canonical example or construction?
11
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3answers
577 views

IBN for algebraic theories

Let us say that a finitary algebraic theory $\tau$ has IBN (invariant basis number) if the free functor $F : \mathsf{Set} \to \mathsf{Mod}(\tau)$ reflects the isomorphism relation: If $S,T$ are sets ...
9
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1answer
570 views

Generalizing detropicalization

Given an identity in max,plus arithmetic, are there ways to turn it into an ordinary algebraic identity it other than by replacing addition by multiplication and replacing max by series-plus or by ...
4
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2answers
526 views

Classification of plethories over $\mathbb{Q}$

Let $k$ be a commutative ring. For every cocommutative bialgebra $A$ over $k$ the symmetric algebra of the underlying $k$-module $S(A)$ carries the structure of a $k$-plethory (Borger, Wieland, 2.5). ...
3
votes
0answers
145 views

Making extensions $L/K$ aware of the Galois group coming from $K/k$

Although inspired by my question on math.SE https://math.stackexchange.com/q/1902190/214353 this is not a crosspost. What happened is that after an answer and some comments I realized more clearly ...
16
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1answer
1k views

So, did Poincaré prove PBW or not?

This seems to be a question whose answer depends on whom you ask. Maybe we can come up with a final answer? It is known that Poincaré, at least, invented something that can be called Poincaré-...
10
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3answers
855 views

What is the smallest variety of algebras containing all fields?

A field is a ring whose nonzero elements form a commutative group under multiplication. A field is also a commutative inverse semigroup with respect to multiplication. The unique multiplicative ...
6
votes
1answer
722 views

The universal algebra of a $\sigma$-algebra

I am searching for the 'dual' algebraic structure of a $\sigma$-algebra. The notion of duality is like in the case of the Boolean algebra and set algebra. If $X$ is a set, the complement and ...
5
votes
0answers
313 views

The graph of algebraic theories

Fix a logic $L$ and consider the category $\mathbf{AlgTh}_L$ with theories of $L$ as objects and theory interpretations as morphisms. For nice enough logics, this category has pushouts (which we will ...
2
votes
0answers
308 views

How slowly can the critical points of the Fibonacci terms grow?

Define the Fibonacci terms $t_{n}$ for all $n\geq 1$ by letting $t_{1}(x,y)=y,t_{2}(x,y)=x$, and $t_{n+2}(x,y)=t_{n+1}(x,y)*t_{n}(x,y)$ for all $n$. The Fibonacci terms are used in order to ...
10
votes
3answers
409 views

Axiomatizing orientation in the complex plane

Lately I've begun to suspect that a certain ternary relation might play a role in $\bf{C}$ analogous to the role played by the binary relation $>$ in $\bf{R}$, namely, the relation that the ...
9
votes
0answers
304 views

Equational theory in the signature (+,*,0,1) of sedenions and beyond

Consider a Cayley-Dickson algebra $(X,+,∗,0,1)$, that is an algebra generated from the reals by the Cayley-Dickson construction. From complexes to quaternions, we lose commutativity of multiplication, ...
7
votes
1answer
334 views

$U\left(\mathfrak a\right) \otimes_{U\left(\mathfrak a\cap\mathfrak b\right)} U\left(\mathfrak b\right) \cong U\left(\mathfrak a + \mathfrak b\right)$ over a ring containing $\mathbb{Q}$

While the Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt theorem is usually proven (and sometimes even formulated) for free modules only, it is known (see also here) that it holds for arbitrary modules if the ground ring is ...
7
votes
0answers
256 views

Binary Operation on a Cubic Surface

If $P$ and $Q$ are two sufficiently general points on a cubic surface, the line between them intersects the cubic surface at a unique third point, $f(P,Q)$. This gives a binary operation on (generic) ...
5
votes
2answers
860 views

Shape of axioms in algebraic structures

When defining algebraic structures (like monoids, groups, etc...), are there some constraints on the shape of the axioms, for the structure to have good properties that we implicitly use in many ...
4
votes
0answers
219 views

How distributive are the bad Laver tables?

Suppose that $n\in\omega\setminus\{0\}$. Then define $(S_{n},*)$ to be the algebra where $S_{n}=\{1,...,n\}$ and $*$ is the unique operation on $S_{n}$ where $n*x=x$ $x*1=x+1\,\text{mod}\, n$ and if $...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Commutative associative rational binary operations

What are all the nondegenerate rational binary operations that are commutative and associative? (Examples: $(x,y) \mapsto x+y$, $xy+x+y$, $xy/(x+y)$.) Feel free to re-tag if you can think of ...
2
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1answer
2k views
8
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0answers
596 views

The name for a partial order

In a recent paper of mine, my co-authors found that a partial order that we were using was contained in a paper by Kundgen. In it, he called it "right-shifted partial order". I was curious, and found ...
7
votes
0answers
999 views

Undecidability degree of some elementary theories (two equivalence relations, ...)

I have a question about some results in the paper I. A. Lavrov. Effective inseparability of the sets of identically true formulae and finitely refutable formulae for certain theories (in Russian). ...
6
votes
0answers
156 views

Universal identities on cubic surfaces or hypersurfaces

This question is inspired by this previous one. Generally speaking, I ask what algebraic identities are universally valid for the composition law on cubic surfaces (or hypersurfaces); since the law ...
5
votes
0answers
88 views

Permutative Yang-Baxter monoids

Suppose that $f,g:X^{2}\rightarrow X,T:X^{2}\rightarrow X^{2}$ are mappings such that $T(x,y)=(f(x,y),g(x,y))$. An element $1\in X$ is said to be an identity if $T(1,x)=(x,1),T(x,1)=(1,x)$. The ...
4
votes
1answer
347 views

Reversible varieties

We say that a variety $V$ is reversible if for each $n>0$ and $n$-ary fundamental operation $f$, there is some $m\geq n$ and $r$ along with terms $T_{2},\dots,T_{r},S_{1},\dots,S_{m}$ such that $G,...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

Classification of finitely generated chain groups

An ordered pair $\ \mathbf X := (X\ d)\ $ is called a chain group $\ \Leftarrow:\Rightarrow\ X\ $ is an abelian group, $\ d:X\rightarrow X\ $ is an abelian group endomorphism, and $\ d\circ d= 0$. A ...
2
votes
0answers
122 views

Can one optimize the probability that an identity is satisfied until the probability is $1$?

I wonder how well one can obtain algebraic structures that satisfy interesting algebraic identities by simply slowly modifying those algebraic structures until they satisfy the required identities. I ...
2
votes
1answer
271 views

Name for this algebraic structure?

I've found myself looking at a structure $\mathbb{M}$ whose important properties are: $\mathbb{M}$ is a discretely ordered additive monoid. $\mathbb{M}$ has a least element, and this least element is ...