# Questions tagged [ultrapowers]

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72
questions

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### Ultraproducts of Banach spaces versus model theoretic ultraproduct

Reading about ultraproducts in model theory and in Banach spaces leads to two distinct definitions. E.g., for an ultrapower given by an ultrafilter $\mu$ on $\mathbb{N}$, both notions of ultrapower ...

2
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0
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### An ultrafilter on $\omega_1$ with a nice Fubini product with an ultrafilter on $\omega$

Fix an ultrafilter $U$ on $\omega$ (that is, $U$ is an ultrafilter on the Boolean algebra of all subsets of $\omega$).
Let $(f_\alpha \mid \alpha < \omega_1)$ be an increasing sequence in $\mathbb{...

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0
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### The embedding of a Banach lattice in an ultrapower

Given a Banach space $X$ and a non-trivial ultrafilter $\mathcal{U}$ on a set $I$, the ultrapower $X_\mathcal{U}$ is defined as the quotient of $\ell_\infty(I,X)$ by the closed subspace $N_\mathcal{U}(...

4
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### ultrapower(ultrapower)=ultrapower

Is there a nonprincipal ultrafilter $\omega$ on $\mathbb N$ such that for any metric space $M$ there is an isometry
$$(M^\omega)^\omega\to M^\omega?$$
(In other words, the $\omega$-power of $\omega$-...

14
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2
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### Are there interesting examples of theorems proved using ‘height’ extensions?

It's well known that forcing is more than a tool for proving independence: We can prove theorems and formulate axioms in theories like $\mathsf{ZFC}$ by moving to forcing extensions (e.g. $\mathfrak{p}...

4
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1
answer

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### The locale of morphisms vs a morphism to an ultrapower?

I'm fixing some type of structure $\Sigma$ (possibly multi-sorted, with functions symbols and relation symbols, though assuming it single sorted with only relation symbols wouldn't change anything). ...

0
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0
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### Is $(\omega+1)^\omega/{\cal U}$ "unique"?

If ${\cal U}_i$ free ultrafilters on $\omega$ for $i = 1,2$ , are the ultrapowers $(\omega+1)^\omega/{\cal U}_i$ necessarily isomorphic as lattices for $i = 1,2$?

16
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### Non-rigid ultrapowers in $\mathsf{ZFC}$?

Originally asked and bountied at MSE:
Question: Can $\mathsf{ZFC}$ prove that for every countably infinite structure $\mathcal{A}$ in a countable language there is an ultrafilter $\mathcal{U}$ on $\...

4
votes

1
answer

298
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### On a completeness property of hyperreals

Let $\mathbb{R}_*=\mathbb{R}^\omega/\mathcal U$ for some ultrafilter $\cal U$. In the definitions of this question and assuming ZFC + CH there are only three types of cuts in $\mathbb{R}_*$: $(\omega,\...

6
votes

1
answer

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### What is the Galois group of one ultrapower over another ultrapower?

Let $F$ be a field, let $E$ be a field extension of $F$, and let $U$ be an ultrafilter. Then my question is, what is the relationship between the Galois groups $Gal(\Pi_U E/\Pi_U F)$ and $Gal(E/F)$?
...

12
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1
answer

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### Maximal ideals of ultraproducts of full matrix algebras

Let $\mathscr U$ be a non-principal ultrafilter over the natural numbers. Let $M_{\mathscr U}$ be the ultraproduct of all full matrix algebras $M_n$ along $\mathscr U$. This is a C*-algebra that is ...

2
votes

1
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230
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### Unbounded $\omega_1$-sequence in $^*\mathbb{N}$

Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a non-principal ultrafilter on $\omega$. Let $^*\mathbb{N}$ = $\mathbb{N}^\omega/\mathcal{F}$ be an ultrapower. Let $\{n_\alpha\}_{\alpha\in\omega_1}$ be a strictly increasing ...

12
votes

1
answer

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### When do two ultrafilters yield isomorphic ultrapowers?

Fix a cardinal $\lambda$$\newcommand{\cU}{\mathcal U}\newcommand{\cV}{\mathcal V}$. Consider the equivalence relation on $\beta\lambda$ given by $\cU\sim \cV$ when for all first-order structures $M$ ...

6
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0
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### Isomorphism of hyperreal fields viewed as extensions of the field of reals

I asked this question on Mathematics Stackexchange but got no answer.
Question. Does $ZFC$ prove that there are non-principal ultrafilters $\mathcal U$ and $\mathcal V$ over $\mathbb N$ such that the ...

8
votes

2
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### Stationary correctness of ultrapowers by low order measures

Suppose $U$ is a normal ultrafilter on $\kappa$ of Mitchell order zero, and let $j_U : V \to M$ be the associated embedding. Does there exist a nonstationary $X \subseteq \kappa^+$ such that $X \in M$...

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### Influence of cardinal characteristics on nonstandard analysis?

As I understand, nonstandard analysis usually proceeds by taking a ultrapower of the universe by some nonprincipal ultrafilter on $\mathbb N$. There are continuum many “integers” of this model, but ...

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0
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### Iterated ultrapowers vs limit ultrapowers

Does anyone know an example of a limit ultrapower of a structure that is not isomorphic to an iterated ultrapower of that structure? I scoured Chang-Keisler but without any luck.
Here are some ...

2
votes

1
answer

460
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### Ultrapower of an ultrapower of von Neumann algebras

Let $M$ be a $\mathrm{II}_1$ factor, fix a ultrafilter $\omega$, we know the ultrapower $M^{\omega}$, is again $\mathrm{II}_1$ factor. The question is that what is the ultrapower of $M^{\omega}$, i.e.,...

1
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0
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### Why is $\widetilde{W}$ closed?

We consider $(x _{n})$ a sequence of almost fixed points for $T$ in $C _{0}$. Since $C _{0}$ is weakly compact, we can assume that $(x _{n})$ is weak compact. Also, since the problem of the fixed ...

16
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1
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### Is there a pair of non-isomorphic structures each of which is isomorphic to an ultrapower of the other?

Does there exist a pair of non-isomorphic structures $\mathfrak{A}$ and $\mathfrak{B}$ as well as sets $I$ and $J$ and ultrafilters $\mathcal{U}$ on $I$ and $\mathcal{F}$ on $J$ such that $\mathfrak{A}...

4
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1
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### If $j:V\prec M$ has critical point $κ$ and for any $X\in M$ with $|X|=μ$, $|X|^M=μ$, what properties does $κ$ have?

More specifically, if $j:V\prec M$ has critical point $κ$ and for any $X\in M$ with $|X|=μ$, $|X|^M=μ$, does $κ$ necessarily have some form of $μ$-compactness? Is it related to strong compactness in ...

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1
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238
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### Model theory of Banach algebras

Let us consider the (metric) theory of Banach algebras. I have a sentence encoding the (possible) openness of multiplication in a given Banach algebra:
$$(\forall x) (\forall y) (\forall \varepsilon &...

2
votes

1
answer

94
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### A Question about an irreducible ultra-power II,

Let $E$ be an irreducible Banach $A$-module, for a Banach algebra $A$. One can easily show that for an ultra filter $\mathcal U$, $(E)_\mathcal U$ is a Banach $(A)_\mathcal U$-module. Is it possible ...

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### A question about an irreducible ultra-power

Let $A$ be a Banach algebra and $E$ be an irreducible Banach $A$-module. Is there a countably incomplete ultra filter $\mathcal U$ on $\mathbb N$, the set of natural numbers, such that the ultra power ...

1
vote

1
answer

235
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### About reflexivity of ultrapower

It is obvious that for a Banach space $E$, $E$ is reflexive iff $\ell^2(E)$ is reflexive. Let $\mathcal U$ be an ultrafilter. Is the reflexivity of $(E)_\mathcal U$ equivalent to refelxivity of $(\ell^...

0
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1
answer

207
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### What strengthenings of measurability do the Mostowski collapses of ultrapowers possess?

What strengthenings of measurability does the Mostowski collapse of the ultrapowers possess?
Ok, I already posted this question, but a couple of notational errors and assumptions were made in the ...

3
votes

1
answer

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### A question on ultraproducts of $L_{p}(\mu)$-spaces

Let $I$ be a set, $\mathcal{U}$ be an ultrafilter on $I$ and $1\leq p<\infty$. Let $X_{i}=L_{p}(\mu_{i})(i\in I)$, where $\mu_{i}$ is a probability measure for each $i\in I$. Relying on standard ...

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### What is the Turing degree associated with an ultrafilter $U$?

I asked Turing degree of a turing machine with access to an (arbitrary) nonstandard integer, not thinking about the possiblity that this could depend on the model used. The question was not formulated ...

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votes

1
answer

407
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### On ultraproducts of topological spaces

Intuitively, I understand the construction of the hyperreals by ultraproducts as a process of turning the limit operation into an algebraic object. More precisely, to check the existence of the limit $...

4
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1
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### Biduals of Banach algebras

For a Banach algebra $A$ the bidual $A^{**}$ may be given two natural products called the Arens products. By local reflexivity, there is an ultrafilter $U$ so that $A^{**}$ embeds into the ultrapower $...

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### Ultrapowers of $c_0(\ell_1)$ and $\ell_1(c_0)$

I would like to know if there exist an explicit decription of ultrapowers of $c_0(\ell_1)$ and $\ell_1(c_0)$. The best option would be -- "they are complemented subspaces of $C(K, L_1(\mu))$ and $L_1(\...

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### Banach spaces complemented in their ultrapowers

By the principle of local reflexivity, the second dual $X^{**}$ of a Banach space $X$ is complemented in some ultrapower $X^U$ of $X$. Even when $X$ is separable, the index set of $U$ cannot be ...

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### Statements that Could be Forced by Ultrapowers

Ultrapower of a structure is a very flexible mathematical creature in comparison with the ground structure and its ordinary products. Depending on the nature of ground structure and the good ...

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### Ultraproducts and subobjects of projectives

Usually the question whether the class of projective algebras in a given variety is closed under taking subalgebras seems to be quite hard. In varieties with well understood dual geometry (e. g. ...

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0
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### Reduced products of (abelian and triangulated) categories: references?

For a filter $U$ on a set $X$ and for a family of categories $C_x$ indexed by $X$ I would like to consider the (corresponding categorical version of) reduced product of $C_x$ (for $x\in X$) with ...

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### Which compact topological spaces are homeomorphic to their ultrapower?

It is well known that for any compact metric space $(X, d)$, and any ultrafilter $\mu$ there is a map $i_\mu:\prod_\mu (X, d) \to (X_d)$ in the category of metric spaces and Lipschitz maps where $i_\...

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### References for the Keisler Order

Are there any good/modern references on the Keisler order. I have been reading Keisler's original paper, "Ultraproducts which are not Saturated", which introduces the order. However it is somewhat ...

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1
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### Ultraproduct of Forcing Extensions & Forcing Extension of Ultraproduct

Notation:
$M[{\mathbb{P}}:G]$ denotes the forcing extension of $M$ by $\mathbb{P}$-generic filter $G$.
$\prod_{\mathcal{F}}\langle M_i~|~i\in I\rangle$ denotes the ultraproduct of models using the ...

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1
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### K-theory of ultrapowers

It may well be a trivial question but I was wondering if there is any relation between $K$-groups and ultrapowers of $C^*$-algebras. For instance, if $A$ is a $C^*$-algebra does $K_0(A^U)$ depend on ...

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### Ultrapowers and complemented subspaces

Let $Y$ be a closed subspace of a Banach space $X$, and let $\mathcal{U}$ be a nontrivial ultrafilter on the set $\mathbb{N}$ of all integer numbers.
It is not difficult to see that if $Y$ is ...

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1
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### Complemented subspaces of ultrapowers

It's a famous result of Maurey that a Banach space $E$ is finitely representable in $X$ if and only if it is a subspace of some ultrapower of $X$. Is there an analogous result for complemented ...

2
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1
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### How many elementary equivalent models are unifiable by ultrapower?

Definition. A class $\mathcal{C}$ of pairwise elementary equivalent $\mathcal{L}$-structures is unifiable by ultrapower if there is an index set $I$ and an ultrafilter $F$ on it such that $\forall M,N\...

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### Is it ever a good idea to use Keisler-Shelah to show elementary equivalence?

The most useful way I know to show that two structures are elementarily equivalent is Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games. These are quite nice and intuitive, and even when I can't use them to solve my problem ...

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### Ultrapowers of ultrapowers

Suppose that you have some structure $S$, and you want to construct an ultrapower of cardinality $\kappa$ to obtain $S^*_\kappa$. Then, say you want to construct a new ultrapower from $S^*_\kappa$, ...

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### Surreal numbers, ultrapowers of $\Bbb R$, ordinal-valued functions and the slow-growing hierarchy

Philip Ehrlich's paper “The Absolute Arithmetic Continuum and the Unification of All Numbers Great and Small”, The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (1) 2012, pp. 1-45. claims as a theorem that, in NBG, $\...

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1
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### Can we flex the rigid models by enough power?

Definition (1): An $\mathcal{L}$ - structure $\mathcal{M}$ called "rigid" iff there is no non-trivial automorphism on $\mathcal{M}$.
Definition (2): An $\mathcal{...

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1
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### Is there a truth approximation on a cumulative hierarchy?

Note to the following well known theorem:
Theorem (1): If $\kappa$ be a "measurable" cardinal and $\mathcal{F}$ be a "non-principal $\kappa$-complete normal" ...

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### What is known about the krull dimension of an ultrapower ring?

Let $R$ be a ring, $F$ a free ultrafilter on a set $X$ which is not countably complete, and $R_F$ the ultrapower of $R$ with $R \not\cong R_F$. The following two results are from a masters thesis ...

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### Why does CH imply that there is a unique ultrapower of $\mathbb{N}$?

I've read these words: "How many ultra products $∏_Uℕ$ exist up to isomorphism, where $U$ is a non-principal ultrafilter over $ℕ$? If continuum hypothesis(CH) holds, then obviously just one ..."
i ...

4
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1
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### Galois action on ultrapowers

Let $K$ be a char $0$ field with algebraic closure $\bar K$ and absolute Galois group $G$. Let $\mathcal U$ be an ultrafilter on $\mathbb N$ and $F=\bar K^\mathbb N/\mathcal U$ be the ultrapower of $\...