# Questions tagged [ultrapowers]

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61
questions

**6**

votes

**1**answer

484 views

### What is the Galois group of one ultrapower over another ultrapower?

Let $F$ be a field, let $E$ be a field extension of $F$, and let $U$ be an ultrafilter. Then my question is, what is the relationship between the Galois groups $Gal(\Pi_U E/\Pi_U F)$ and $Gal(E/F)$?
...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

294 views

### Maximal ideals of ultraproducts of full matrix algebras

Let $\mathscr U$ be a non-principal ultrafilter over the natural numbers. Let $M_{\mathscr U}$ be the ultraproduct of all full matrix algebras $M_n$ along $\mathscr U$. This is a C*-algebra that is ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

180 views

### Unbounded $\omega_1$-sequence in $^*\mathbb{N}$

Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a non-principal ultrafilter on $\omega$. Let $^*\mathbb{N}$ = $\mathbb{N}^\omega/\mathcal{F}$ be an ultrapower. Let $\{n_\alpha\}_{\alpha\in\omega_1}$ be a strictly increasing ...

**13**

votes

**1**answer

535 views

### When do two ultrafilters yield isomorphic ultrapowers?

Fix a cardinal $\lambda$$\newcommand{\cU}{\mathcal U}\newcommand{\cV}{\mathcal V}$. Consider the equivalence relation on $\beta\lambda$ given by $\cU\sim \cV$ when for all first-order structures $M$ ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

128 views

### Isomorphism of hyperreal fields viewed as extensions of the field of reals

I asked this question on Mathematics Stackexchange but got no answer.
Question. Does $ZFC$ prove that there are non-principal ultrafilters $\mathcal U$ and $\mathcal V$ over $\mathbb N$ such that the ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

250 views

### Stationary correctness of ultrapowers by low order measures

Suppose $U$ is a normal ultrafilter on $\kappa$ of Mitchell order zero, and let $j_U : V \to M$ be the associated embedding. Does there exist a nonstationary $X \subseteq \kappa^+$ such that $X \in M$...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

193 views

### Influence of cardinal characteristics on nonstandard analysis?

As I understand, nonstandard analysis usually proceeds by taking a ultrapower of the universe by some nonprincipal ultrafilter on $\mathbb N$. There are continuum many “integers” of this model, but ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

195 views

### Iterated ultrapowers vs limit ultrapowers

Does anyone know an example of a limit ultrapower of a structure that is not isomorphic to an iterated ultrapower of that structure? I scoured Chang-Keisler but without any luck.
Here are some ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

365 views

### Ultrapower of an ultrapower of von Neumann algebras

Let $M$ be a $\mathrm{II}_1$ factor, fix a ultrafilter $\omega$, we know the ultrapower $M^{\omega}$, is again $\mathrm{II}_1$ factor. The question is that what is the ultrapower of $M^{\omega}$, i.e.,...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

157 views

### Why is $\widetilde{W}$ closed?

We consider $(x _{n})$ a sequence of almost fixed points for $T$ in $C _{0}$. Since $C _{0}$ is weakly compact, we can assume that $(x _{n})$ is weak compact. Also, since the problem of the fixed ...

**16**

votes

**1**answer

602 views

### Is there a pair of non-isomorphic structures each of which is isomorphic to an ultrapower of the other?

Does there exist a pair of non-isomorphic structures $\mathfrak{A}$ and $\mathfrak{B}$ as well as sets $I$ and $J$ and ultrafilters $\mathcal{U}$ on $I$ and $\mathcal{F}$ on $J$ such that $\mathfrak{A}...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

181 views

### If $j:V\prec M$ has critical point $κ$ and for any $X\in M$ with $|X|=μ$, $|X|^M=μ$, what properties does $κ$ have?

More specifically, if $j:V\prec M$ has critical point $κ$ and for any $X\in M$ with $|X|=μ$, $|X|^M=μ$, does $κ$ necessarily have some form of $μ$-compactness? Is it related to strong compactness in ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

225 views

### Model theory of Banach algebras

Let us consider the (metric) theory of Banach algebras. I have a sentence encoding the (possible) openness of multiplication in a given Banach algebra:
$$(\forall x) (\forall y) (\forall \varepsilon &...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

92 views

### A Question about an irreducible ultra-power II,

Let $E$ be an irreducible Banach $A$-module, for a Banach algebra $A$. One can easily show that for an ultra filter $\mathcal U$, $(E)_\mathcal U$ is a Banach $(A)_\mathcal U$-module. Is it possible ...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

65 views

### A question about an irreducible ultra-power

Let $A$ be a Banach algebra and $E$ be an irreducible Banach $A$-module. Is there a countably incomplete ultra filter $\mathcal U$ on $\mathbb N$, the set of natural numbers, such that the ultra power ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

203 views

### About reflexivity of ultrapower

It is obvious that for a Banach space $E$, $E$ is reflexive iff $\ell^2(E)$ is reflexive. Let $\mathcal U$ be an ultrafilter. Is the reflexivity of $(E)_\mathcal U$ equivalent to refelxivity of $(\ell^...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

202 views

### What strengthenings of measurability do the Mostowski collapses of ultrapowers possess?

What strengthenings of measurability does the Mostowski collapse of the ultrapowers possess?
Ok, I already posted this question, but a couple of notational errors and assumptions were made in the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

182 views

### A question on ultraproducts of $L_{p}(\mu)$-spaces

Let $I$ be a set, $\mathcal{U}$ be an ultrafilter on $I$ and $1\leq p<\infty$. Let $X_{i}=L_{p}(\mu_{i})(i\in I)$, where $\mu_{i}$ is a probability measure for each $i\in I$. Relying on standard ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

295 views

### What is the Turing degree associated with an ultrafilter $U$?

I asked Turing degree of a turing machine with access to an (arbitrary) nonstandard integer, not thinking about the possiblity that this could depend on the model used. The question was not formulated ...

**-1**

votes

**1**answer

306 views

### On ultraproducts of topological spaces

Intuitively, I understand the construction of the hyperreals by ultraproducts as a process of turning the limit operation into an algebraic object. More precisely, to check the existence of the limit $...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

125 views

### Biduals of Banach algebras

For a Banach algebra $A$ the bidual $A^{**}$ may be given two natural products called the Arens products. By local reflexivity, there is an ultrafilter $U$ so that $A^{**}$ embeds into the ultrapower $...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

107 views

### Ultrapowers of $c_0(\ell_1)$ and $\ell_1(c_0)$

I would like to know if there exist an explicit decription of ultrapowers of $c_0(\ell_1)$ and $\ell_1(c_0)$. The best option would be -- "they are complemented subspaces of $C(K, L_1(\mu))$ and $L_1(\...

**5**

votes

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130 views

### Banach spaces complemented in their ultrapowers

By the principle of local reflexivity, the second dual $X^{**}$ of a Banach space $X$ is complemented in some ultrapower $X^U$ of $X$. Even when $X$ is separable, the index set of $U$ cannot be ...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

484 views

### Statements that Could be Forced by Ultrapowers

Ultrapower of a structure is a very flexible mathematical creature in comparison with the ground structure and its ordinary products. Depending on the nature of ground structure and the good ...

**2**

votes

**0**answers

131 views

### Ultraproducts and subobjects of projectives

Usually the question whether the class of projective algebras in a given variety is closed under taking subalgebras seems to be quite hard. In varieties with well understood dual geometry (e. g. ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

70 views

### Reduced products of (abelian and triangulated) categories: references?

For a filter $U$ on a set $X$ and for a family of categories $C_x$ indexed by $X$ I would like to consider the (corresponding categorical version of) reduced product of $C_x$ (for $x\in X$) with ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

171 views

### Which compact topological spaces are homeomorphic to their ultrapower?

It is well known that for any compact metric space $(X, d)$, and any ultrafilter $\mu$ there is a map $i_\mu:\prod_\mu (X, d) \to (X_d)$ in the category of metric spaces and Lipschitz maps where $i_\...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

504 views

### References for the Keisler Order

Are there any good/modern references on the Keisler order. I have been reading Keisler's original paper, "Ultraproducts which are not Saturated", which introduces the order. However it is somewhat ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

432 views

### Ultraproduct of Forcing Extensions & Forcing Extension of Ultraproduct

Notation:
$M[{\mathbb{P}}:G]$ denotes the forcing extension of $M$ by $\mathbb{P}$-generic filter $G$.
$\prod_{\mathcal{F}}\langle M_i~|~i\in I\rangle$ denotes the ultraproduct of models using the ...

**10**

votes

**1**answer

418 views

### K-theory of ultrapowers

It may well be a trivial question but I was wondering if there is any relation between $K$-groups and ultrapowers of $C^*$-algebras. For instance, if $A$ is a $C^*$-algebra does $K_0(A^U)$ depend on ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

171 views

### Ultrapowers and complemented subspaces

Let $Y$ be a closed subspace of a Banach space $X$, and let $\mathcal{U}$ be a nontrivial ultrafilter on the set $\mathbb{N}$ of all integer numbers.
It is not difficult to see that if $Y$ is ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

220 views

### Complemented subspaces of ultrapowers

It's a famous result of Maurey that a Banach space $E$ is finitely representable in $X$ if and only if it is a subspace of some ultrapower of $X$. Is there an analogous result for complemented ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

254 views

### How many elementary equivalent models are unifiable by ultrapower?

Definition. A class $\mathcal{C}$ of pairwise elementary equivalent $\mathcal{L}$-structures is unifiable by ultrapower if there is an index set $I$ and an ultrafilter $F$ on it such that $\forall M,N\...

**14**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Is it ever a good idea to use Keisler-Shelah to show elementary equivalence?

The most useful way I know to show that two structures are elementarily equivalent is Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games. These are quite nice and intuitive, and even when I can't use them to solve my problem ...

**1**

vote

**0**answers

236 views

### Ultrapowers of ultrapowers

Suppose that you have some structure $S$, and you want to construct an ultrapower of cardinality $\kappa$ to obtain $S^*_\kappa$. Then, say you want to construct a new ultrapower from $S^*_\kappa$, ...

**11**

votes

**3**answers

793 views

### Surreal numbers, ultrapowers of $\Bbb R$, ordinal-valued functions and the slow-growing hierarchy

Philip Ehrlich's paper “The Absolute Arithmetic Continuum and the Unification of All Numbers Great and Small”, The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (1) 2012, pp. 1-45. claims as a theorem that, in NBG, $\...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

239 views

### Can we flex the rigid models by enough power?

Definition (1): An $\mathcal{L}$ - structure $\mathcal{M}$ called "rigid" iff there is no non-trivial automorphism on $\mathcal{M}$.
Definition (2): An $\mathcal{...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

234 views

### Is there a truth approximation on a cumulative hierarchy?

Note to the following well known theorem:
Theorem (1): If $\kappa$ be a "measurable" cardinal and $\mathcal{F}$ be a "non-principal $\kappa$-complete normal" ...

**3**

votes

**0**answers

149 views

### What is known about the krull dimension of an ultrapower ring?

Let $R$ be a ring, $F$ a free ultrafilter on a set $X$ which is not countably complete, and $R_F$ the ultrapower of $R$ with $R \not\cong R_F$. The following two results are from a masters thesis ...

**18**

votes

**2**answers

864 views

### Why does CH imply that there is a unique ultrapower of $\mathbb{N}$?

I've read these words: "How many ultra products $∏_Uℕ$ exist up to isomorphism, where $U$ is a non-principal ultrafilter over $ℕ$? If continuum hypothesis(CH) holds, then obviously just one ..."
i ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

139 views

### Galois action on ultrapowers

Let $K$ be a char $0$ field with algebraic closure $\bar K$ and absolute Galois group $G$. Let $\mathcal U$ be an ultrafilter on $\mathbb N$ and $F=\bar K^\mathbb N/\mathcal U$ be the ultrapower of $\...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

246 views

### When can we “displace” an ultrafilter limit with another limit?

Let $\cal A$ be a Banach algebra, $\cal U$ be a free ultrafilter, and $\phi$ be a character. Let ${(w_{\alpha})}_{\alpha}$ be a net in $(\cal A)_{\cal U}$, and suppose that for every $(a_i)\in (\cal A)...

**5**

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**0**answers

295 views

### Double ultrapower of the hyperfinite $II_1$-factor

Let $\omega$ be a free ultrafilter on the natural numbers and $R$ be the hyperfinite $II_1$-factor (the definition of $R$ is recalled in the comments).
Question: Does there exist another free ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

336 views

### an elementary substructure of a natural numbers ultrapower

Hi
I'm looking for an elementary substructure of a natural numbers ultrapower with a free ultrafilter over a numerable set also must not be isomorphism between the elementary substructure and any ...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

454 views

### Set forcing and ultrapowers

The following is a result of Woodin (the proof is found after Theorem 5 of "Generalizations of the Kunen Inconsistency" by J.D.Hamkins, G.Kirmayer and N.L.Perlmutter):
(Woodin) Let $V[G]$ be a set-...

**6**

votes

**2**answers

394 views

### Ultrapowers of operators

Can we prove that for each infinite dimensional Banach space $X$ and any free ultrafilter (possibly over uncountable set of indices) $\mathcal{U}$ the obvious embedding
$$({\mathcal{L}(X)})_{\mathcal{...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

322 views

### Is an ultrapower of a faithful Banach algebra always faithful?

Let $A$ be an infinite dimensional faithful Banach algebra and let $\mathcal U$ be a free ultrafilter. Is the ultrapower $(A)_{\mathcal U}$ faithful?

**2**

votes

**1**answer

164 views

### Whether the result that an ultraproduct which satisfies ACCP is automatically a field generalizes to ultrafilters on larger indexing sets

Let $F$ be an ultrafilter on some set $X$, $R$ an integral domain and $R_F$ the resulting ultraproduct ring. For an element $(a)$ in the product ring of $R$ indexed by $X$, denote its equivalence ...

**11**

votes

**1**answer

437 views

### Do ultrapowers of classical Banach spaces have unconditional bases?

I am trying to imagine (to some extent, of course) the geometry of ultrapowers of certain 'easy-to-handle' Banach spaces. Let me start with $X = \ell_p$, $p\in (1,\infty)$ or $X=c_0$.
Since the ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

405 views

### iterating ultrapowers of C*-algebras: the Calkin algebra

Elsewhere I asked about ultrapowers of the C*-algebra $A$ of compact operators on separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. My question was whether the process of taking ultrapowers of ultrapowers ...