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Questions tagged [type-theory]

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43
votes
7answers
9k views

How true are theorems proved by Coq?

Less tongue in cheek, is it known what the relative consistency is for theorems proved with an automatic theorem prover? Of course this depends somewhat on what assumptions one makes with respect to ...
33
votes
1answer
4k views

Homotopy Type Theory: What is it?

My question is, broadly, what is the main project of Homotopy Type Theory (HoTT). I asked a professor who is likely to be correct and he say the following: There are three directions: ...
23
votes
5answers
2k views

How do we construct the Gödel’s sentence in Martin-Löf type theory?

In Martin-Löf dependent type theory (MLTT), under the proposition-as-types correspondence, we sometimes say that a proposition $A$ is true if the type $A$ is inhabited. However, there is no doubt that ...
21
votes
8answers
2k views

Good introductory book to type theory?

I don't know anything about type theory and I would like to learn it. I'm interested to know how we can found mathematics on it. So, I would be interested by any text about type theory whose angle ...
21
votes
2answers
2k views

Prospects for reverse mathematics in Homotopy Type Theory

Reverse mathematics, as I mean here, is the study of which theorems/axioms can be used to prove other theorems/axioms over a weak base theory. Examples include Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic (...
20
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the manner of inconsistency of Girard's paradox in Martin Lof type theory

I am aware that assigning the type of Type to be Type (rather than stratifying to a hierarchy of types) leads to an inconsistency. But does this inconsistency allow the construction of a well-typed ...
19
votes
3answers
1k views

Why would the category of sets be intuitionistic?

This question is probably really naive. And, I hope the title doesn't come off as too combative. I think that topoi of $\mathbf{Set}$-valued sheaves provide an excellent motivation for higher-order ...
19
votes
1answer
1k views

Can you have a type theory where there is type of all types?

Normally in a type theory, you can not have a type of all types, due to Girad's paradox. This is somewhat similar to how in set theory, you cannot have a set of all sets. Therefore, usually you just ...
19
votes
3answers
1k views

Surreal Numbers as Inductive Type?

Prompted by James Propp's recent question about surreal numbers, I was wondering whether anyone had investigated the idea of describing surreal numbers (as ordered class) in terms of a universal ...
18
votes
3answers
1k views

How do we express measurable spaces using type theory?

A measurable space $(X,\mathcal X)$ consists of a set $X$ equipped with a $\sigma$-algebra of subsets $\mathcal X$. I would like to write computer programs involving measurable spaces, but to the best ...
18
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the most transparent, rigorous definition of the Univalence Axiom?

I've been studying homotopy type theory and trying to grasp the Univalence Axiom. I have yet to find a concise, accessible, rigorous definition of Univalence. I have several excellent survey papers ...
16
votes
2answers
1k views

$\infty$-categorical interpretation of type theory

One can read at several places that Martin-löf type theory should be the internal language of a locally Cartesian closed infinity category, and that the univalence axiom should distinguished infinity ...
16
votes
1answer
779 views

New articles by Errett Bishop on constructive type theory?

Recently two formerly unknown articles by Errett Bishop (1928-1983) were posted online by Martín Escardó. One is entitled "A general language", deals with constructive type theory, and ...
15
votes
2answers
774 views

What kind of category is generated by Cubical type theory?

What kind of ‘category’ is Cubical type theory the internal language of? Its known that Martin-Löf type theories are the internal language of Locally cartesian closed categories, adding higher ...
15
votes
3answers
4k views

What is the theory of polynomials?

We all know what polynomials are, along with their elementary properties and many effective algorithms for different representations of polynomials. The question here is more of a universal algebra ...
15
votes
1answer
1k views

In constructive mathematics, why does the category of abelian groups fail to be abelian?

I was reading the paper Towards Constructive Homological Algebra in Type Theory by Thierry Coquand and Arnaud Spiwack, and they state that constructively, the category of abelian groups fails to be ...
14
votes
7answers
3k views

What is lambda calculus related to?

So I'm not much of a math guy but I've really enjoyed programming in Lisp and have become interested in the ideas of lambda calculus which it is based. I was wondering if anyone had a suggestion ...
14
votes
3answers
2k views

History of the notation for substitution

One of the very common notations for syntactic substitution is $[\ /\ ]$. However, there seems to be an inconsistency in the literature about its usage. Many write $[t/x]$ for "substitute $t$ for $x$...
14
votes
1answer
2k views

Forcing in Homotopy Type Theory

I apologize if this question doesn't make any sense. I'll just go ahead and delete it if that's the case. But the question is just the title. Is there a notion of forcing in homotopy type theory? ...
14
votes
1answer
487 views

Why the reflection rule trivializes higher paths in Martin-Löf Extensional Type theory?

Martin-Löf Extensional Type theory differs from its intensional counterpart in that it contains the so-called reflection rule that says that if $p : x = y$, then actually $x \equiv y$ (i.e. $x$ and $y$...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Reference request for type theory

I am interested in learning the theory of types, especially in how they can provide a foundation to mathematics different to sets and how they can avoid self-referential paradoxes by stipulating that ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the status of (universal) algebra in type theory?

With the recent interest in homotopy type theory as a foundation for mathematics, it seems natural to develop algebra within the framework of type theory. So far, I can't find much literature ...
13
votes
3answers
692 views

Formal/rigorous treatment of (im)predicativity/predicativism

There are several places on the web where one may find quite intuitively understandable accounts of (im)predicativity; here on MO I found two questions with very good detailed answers (Predicative ...
13
votes
1answer
543 views

A peculiarity of Henkin's 1950 proof of completeness for higher order logic

My question concerns Henkin's original (1950) completeness proof https://projecteuclid.org/euclid.jsl/1183730860 for classical higher order logic and type theory relative to so-called general models. ...
13
votes
0answers
927 views

What's the point of cubical type theory?

I have been following through the development of homotopy type theory since 2013 because I was really interested in the foundation of mathematics. The novel idea of combining programming with homotopy ...
12
votes
4answers
1k views

Formalizations of the idea that something is a function of something else?

I'll state my questions upfront and attempt to motivate/explain them afterwards. Q1: Is there a direct way of expressing the relation "$y$ is a function of $x$" inside set theory? More ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is there no product type in simply typed lambda-calculus?

Consider simply typed $\lambda$-calculus that has only the unit type as primitive. We would like to encode the product and the sum types. An encoding of the product type in the untyped $\lambda$-...
11
votes
2answers
878 views

What does “simplification of proofs as evaluation of programs” mean?

I am currently going through Philip Walder's "Proposition as Types" and a passage of the introduction has struck me: for each way to simplify a proof there is a corresponding way to evaluate a ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Equivalent form of the Univalence Axiom

I'm reading the new HoTT book and I'm wondering about a potential equivalent form of the Univalence Axiom: $(A \simeq B) \simeq (A = B)$. For simplicity, I'm tacitly working in a fixed universe. It ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

A (very naive) question about Homotopy Type Theory

In homotopy type theory, homotopy types can be viewed as logical types and it is possible to prove some theorems about them without using any underlying space (no simplicial set, no topological space)....
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Connection between codata and greatest fixed points

This is, I'm afraid, another question that MSE couldn't answer. It's easy to see how inductively-defined data types correspond to least fixed points. Let's take the natural numbers as an example, ...
9
votes
2answers
336 views

Categorical semantics of W-types

Jacob's book titled "Categorical Logic and Type Theory" gives a nice description of Π and Σ types as adjunctions to substitution functors induced by display maps. Is there a similar ...
9
votes
3answers
758 views

What do I call type theory without Curry-Howard?

Is there a word I can say which will convey to type theorists that I am not thinking about types as propositions? Background: as a category theorist, I am mostly interested in type theories as a ...
9
votes
2answers
560 views

How should I be thinking about object classifiers / universal fibrations / universes?

I have been learning about homotopy type theory this summer. I am not a homotopy theorist but I am more comfortable with homotopy theory than I am with type theory, so the way I rationalize many of ...
9
votes
2answers
669 views

Category of Judgements?

I have been able to find a lot of information on the category of contexts -- for example, the page on syntactic categories at the nLab is a good starting point. However, when I try to find similar ...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Can dependent sums be encoded as dependent products?

Please forgive any unorthodox notation or obvious errors here... I'm trying to get an intuition for dependently typed languages, so I'm starting out by seeing which analogies I can take from the ...
8
votes
3answers
477 views

What is the definition of computational content?

I am interested in type theory and proof theory. I have read a lot of papers and books that use the term "computational content" (For example: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=%...
8
votes
2answers
432 views

Reduction rules for inductive types

(I'm not sure if I should post this here rather than at Theoretical Computer Science, I've found a lot of type theory related questions on MathOverflow) I'm working in Martin-Löf type theory with ...
8
votes
1answer
488 views

The independence of path induction

In §1.12 of the Homotopy type theory book, it is mentioned that indiscernibility of identicals is a consequence of path induction. More precisely, for each type $C$ dependent over a type $A$, there is ...
8
votes
0answers
250 views

What metatheory proves cut elimination for Simple Type Theory?

Gaisi Takeuti's book Proof Theory proves cut elimination for Simple Type Theory (a combined result of several researchers). Thus it proves consistency of Simple Type Theory with full comprehension in ...
8
votes
0answers
173 views

Ends and parametricity

It is well known that a set of natural transformations can be expressed as an end: $$\int_{A \in \mathcal{A}} \mathcal{B}(FA, GA) =_{\operatorname{Set}} \operatorname{Nat}(F, G)$$ This holds for ...
7
votes
2answers
680 views

Identity types: What makes Intuitionistic Type Theory *intuitionistic*?

In the opening passage of Martin-Löf's (1975) he famously says that "the theory of types with which we shall be concerned is intended to be a full scale system for formalizing intuitionistic ...
7
votes
3answers
374 views

How to handle sums in Tait's reducibility proof of strong normalisation?

I've been reading Girard et al's 'Proofs and Types', which in Chapter 6 presents a proof of strong normalisation for the simply typed lambda calculus with products and base types. The proof is based ...
7
votes
3answers
640 views

Extensionality in HoTT versus extensionality in internal language of a category

What's the extension of judgmental identity in HoTT (homotopy type theory)? The Martin-Löf intensional dependent type theory with identity types is called (definitionally) extensional if the ...
7
votes
1answer
488 views

Constructing unnatural transformations

In a nutshell, the question is: is it true that any explicit (not involving axiom of choice) pointwise transformation between sufficiently complicated functors is natural almost everywhere? Let $C$ ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

intensional equality in type theory

I want to know why we add an intensional equality in type theory to definitional equality ? What is the aim with this intensional equality ? thanks
7
votes
1answer
1k views

categorifying induction in homotopy type theory

In trying to understand homotopy type theory, I stumbled upon the following silly question, which is likely to be trivial for the experts. Let $B=\sqcup_{n\in\Bbb N} BS_n$, which I'd like to think of ...
7
votes
1answer
336 views

Easier Girard's paradox in a circular pure type system (PTS)

System U is an inconsistent PTS in that one has a term of type $\bot = \forall p\colon \ast \ldotp p$, and such a term is explicitly constructed in Hurkens' A Simplification of Girard's Paradox. One-...
7
votes
0answers
143 views

Generalized (co)-presheaves for Generalized Multicategories?

A $T$-multicategory in the sense of Crutwell-Shulman, where $T$ is a monad on a virtual double category $C$ is a monoid in the "horizontal kleisli category", i.e., an object of objects $O$, a ...
7
votes
0answers
248 views

Feasible Type Theories

I am looking for references about efficient type theories, efficiency in the sense of computational complexity, and type theory in the sense of Martin-Lof's type theories. Has there been any studies ...