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Questions tagged [surreal-numbers]

For questions about the surreal numbers, which are a real-closed ordered proper-class-sized field that contains both the real numbers and the ordinal numbers. Thus they contain both infinite numbers (including the ordinals, but also infinite numbers like ω-1 and sqrt(ω)) and infinitesimal numbers (like 1/ω). They can also be identified with a subclass of two-player partisan games.

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Who discovered the surreals?

Common folklore dictates that the Surreals were discovered by John Conway as a lark while studying game theory in the early 1970's, and popularized by Donald Knuth in his 1974 novella. Wikipedia ...
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Biggest Field Of Characteristic $p$

The Surreal nummbers, $\boldsymbol{No}$, are according to Wikipidia the biggest ordered field, and the Surrcomplex numbers are the biggest field of characteristic 0. Biggest in the sense that every ...
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Algebraic Geometry Over the Surreal and Surrcomplex Numbers

I was wondering whether or not there is some kind of theory of algebraic geometry over the field of Surreal and Surrcomplex numbers?
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The surreal numbers under a change of universe

Suppose we start with a model $\mathcal{M}$ of $ZFC$ (or $GBC$ or $MK$ if you prefer), and let $N_0^\mathcal{M}$ denote the surreals in $\mathcal{M}$. If we add some large cardinal assumptions $\{\...
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Genetic construction of roots of surreal polynomials

In On Numbers And Games, Conway uses the term "genetic" for definitions of operations on surreal numbers that are inductive in terms of their options. His definitions of addition and multiplication ...
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'Smallest' subfield of the Surreals which is isomorphic to the Surreals as an ordered group

What is the smallest subfield $F\subset N_0$ such that $$(F,+,\times,\leq)\ncong(N_0,+,\times,\leq)$$ but $$(F,+,\leq)\cong(N_0,+,\leq)?$$ Since these are all going to be proper classes cardinality is ...
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surreal form star is a xor cipher [closed]

i have been doing a lot of surreal analysis lately & it dawn'd on me that star in the surreal numbers has the same properties of a simple xor cipher. star operations are given as: ...
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Surreal Numbers, Proving $x1=x$

I am trying to learn the theory of the Surreal numbers and I am therefore going over all the theorems and trying to prove them for myself. I am struggling to complete the proof of $x1 = x$. I have ...
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Who wins two player sudoku?

Let's say players take turns placing numbers 1-9 on a sudoku board. They must not create an invalid position (meaning that you can not have the same number in within a row, column, or box region). The ...
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Functions on a field representable by Hahn series?

It is well known (see here for example) that a function over $\mathbb{R}$ is representable by a power series iff its analytic continuation to $\mathbb{C}$ is holomorphic on some open subset of $\...
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Is the inverse of surreal numbers actually well-defined?

J.Conway wrote in his book "On numbers and games" (1st edition, 1976) on p. 66 It seems to us, however, that mathematics has now reached the stage where formalization within some particular ...
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Largest ordered “field” in NBG without axiom of global choice

I know from Wikipedia that in NBG, the surreal numbers are the largest possible ordered field (if a proper class is allowed to be a field). But then, it is written: "in theories without the axiom of ...
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Roots of $\omega$, larger $\gamma$-numbers

In Harry Gonshor's An Introduction to the Theory of Surreal Numbers, on page 50, Gonshor points to a method for intuitively guessing what the square root of the countable infinity is in his ...
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Automorphism of the transfinite rooted binary tree

I was studying combinatorical group theory recently, and I came across the infinite regular rooted binary tree and its automorphism group $Aut(T^{(2)})$with the Grigorchuk subgroup. Let me now ...
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Modern advances in combinatorial game theory

I'm going to take part in teaching a course in combinatorial game theory in the best of ONAG's spirit. I was wondering if there are interesting post-ONAG results that are worth mentioning in (a later ...
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What surreal numbers are representable by Red-Blue Hackenbush games?

Every game of Red-Blue Hackenbush represents a surreal number. Is the converse true? Assuming that it is false, what can be said about the class of surreal numbers that are representable by such ...
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Are Surreal Numbers the same as Trans-series?

I recently found the paper of Berarducci + Mantova [1, 2] saying that surreal numbers are equivalent to trans-series. These are very different objects: trans-series are used in physics to correct, ...
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Can a game be an option of itself?

My question is, can a game contain itself as an option? and can it be a surreal number? For example $A=\{A|\}$ or $B=\{C|B\}$ where $C$ is a surreal number. from the point of view of games, it is ...
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Surreal number: trying to construct complete ordered fields

Let $R$ be a subring of $\mathbf{No}$, the set of surreal number. We try to construct $\tilde{R}$, the Cauchy completion of $R$, just like the ordinary Cauchy completion for metric space. In the ...
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Factorization in the Omnific Integers

I'm wondering if there's been any work done on prime factorizations of Omnific integers as products of prime Omnific integers. I suspect that each Omnific integer has a unique prime factorization, ...
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Sign-expansion definition of Surreal arithmetical operations

Is there a way to define the addition and multiplication operations in Surreals numbers, defined directly on the sign-expansion notation {-,+}, i.e. without firstly convert them to the Conway notation ...
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Are there any interesting surreal constants?

In $\mathbf R$, we have all sorts of fascinating constant, like $e$, $\pi$, $\gamma$, ... For ordinal numbers, we have $\omega$, $\epsilon_0$, $\omega_1^{CK}$, $\omega_1$, ... Have we discovered any ...
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The surreal version of $e$

For a sequence $(x_{\alpha})$ of surreal numbers indexed by the set of all ordinal numbers, we say that $\lim x_{\alpha}=l$ ($l$ is a surreal number) if for each surreal $\epsilon>0$, there exists ...
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Going beyond the surreal numbers

Denote the class of surreal numbers No. We can create new "number", like the gap $\infty=\{\infty^L|\infty^R\}$, defined by $\infty^L=\{x:\exists n\in\mathbb N,x<n\}$ and $\infty^R=\{x:\forall n\in\...
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A question about real closed fields that contain the real numbers as a proper subfield

Let F be such a real closed field and let F(C) be the algebraic closure of F. An important example of F is FSR- the field of SURREAL numbers. Suppose that one has constructed an exponential function f ...
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A (second-order) axiomatic characterization of the integers which rules out surreal/hyperreal versions

I've seen it stated, for example here, that the integers are the unique commutative ordered ring with identity whose positive elements are well-ordered. I understand why the integers are the ...
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Is $\omega^\frac{1}{\omega} > n \forall n \in \mathbb{N}$?

I was thinking about $log(\omega)$ which appears to be $\{\mathbb{N}|\omega^{\frac{1}{n}}\}_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\stackrel{?}{=}\omega^\frac{1}{\omega}$. Intuitively, there's the idea that, if the highest ...
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Extension to real number system [closed]

Suppose you have equation involving a number $s$ $s^2+ 1 = 0$, to solve it one needs to treat $s$ as complex number $s = \pm i$, and introduce $i$ as imaginary unit. Now suppose you have equation ...
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Is the universality of the surreal number line a weak global choice principle?

I'd like to consider the principle asserting that the surreal number line is universal for all class linear orders, or in other words, that every linear order (including proper-class-sized) linear ...
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Ordinals which embed in surreal subfields

If $k$ is an ordered field, the least ordinal $s(k)$ which doesn't embed in $(k,<)$ is regular. This is because every interval of an ordered field embeds in every infinite interval so given a ...
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Surreal compactness

In a comment here, Joel David Hamkins said: ...I think perhaps every set-sized open cover of a bounded interval in the surreals has a finite subcover, but there are proper class open covers with no ...
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Pontryagin dual of the surreal numbers?

Has any work been done on the Pontryagin dual of the surreal numbers (suitably topologized)? I have not been able to find anything and am not sure if this is still unknown. Alternatively, has this ...
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Nice sign-expansions of special surreal numbers

What is the "right" surreal generalization of the fact that a real number $r$ is rational if and only if its sign-expansion is eventually periodic? I can think of more than one natural way to ...
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Nimbers and Surreal Numbers [closed]

I have been researching Combinatorial Game Theory. One common theme is the assignment of values to games in order to classify the game as a win for a specific player. One such way is class of surreal ...
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Is it possible to evaluate Connect 4 positions with Combinatorial Game Theory?

The surreal numbers in Combinatorial Game Theory only work for certain classes of games (e.g. they must satisfy normal play convention). This rules out even reasonable games with fairly well-...
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First-order definable bijection between $P(On)$ (or $No$) and $V$? (Is this equivalent to $V = HOD$?)

It is known that locally one can ``code'' any set in the von Neumann universe $V$ by a set of ordinals. But can one do this globally? In other words, is there a first-order definable bijection $P(On)...
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Transcendence degree of the surreals over the subfield generated by the ordinals

Consider the Grothendieck ring $K[\Omega]$ of the semiring $\Omega$ of all ordinals under the operations of natural sum and product. Its quotient field $K(\Omega)$ is naturally a subfield of the ...
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Does this construction yield the surreal numbers?

There are two simple constructions for creating arbitrarily large non-Archimedean ordered field extensions of the reals. First given such a field one may consider rational functions over that field ...
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More information on Kruskal's treatment of Surreal numbers as an asymptotic behavior of a real valued function

The only way that I could think about Surreal numbers is how Conway defined them inductively, with the two axioms and so on. I can't find any information about Kruskal's point of view and would very ...
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An application of surreal numbers towards fast-growing ordinal functors?

The surreal numbers $\mathbb{SN}$ form a class of numbers introduced by J.H. Conway, which behave as an ordered field (even if technically it is not a set). In particular, Conway showed that every ...
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Surreal numbers, ultrapowers of $\Bbb R$, ordinal-valued functions and the slow-growing hierarchy

Philip Ehrlich's paper “The Absolute Arithmetic Continuum and the Unification of All Numbers Great and Small”, The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (1) 2012, pp. 1-45. claims as a theorem that, in NBG, $\...
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Is a certain group, derivable from the surreal numbers, isomorphic to the surreal numbers?

Let's treat $\mathbf{No}$ as a group under addition, and forget its field structure for a little bit. I will define a "maximally Archimedean subgroup" of $\mathbf{No}$ as a subgroup which is ...
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Is it possible to generalize functions like $x^y, \ln x, \sin x, \arctan x$ to surreal numbers or surcomplex numbers?

Is it possible to generalize functions like $x^y, \ln x, \sin x, \arctan x$ to surreal numbers or surcomplex numbers? Which of their properties and relations (e.g. usual trig identities) will still ...
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Surreal numbers and large cardinals

This is a question in two parts about the interaction of surreal numbers and large cardinals, in both cases just a request for references on the subject. Part 1 is about foundations. Much of the ...
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Are Conway's omnific integers the Grothendieck group of the ordinals under commutative addition?

This is a question in two parts. Say that $\mathbf{On}$ is the proper class of all ordinal numbers in ZFC. We can define a binary operator over $\mathbf{On}$ which corresponds to the commutative ...
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Integration in the surreal numbers

In the appendix to ONAG (2nd edition), Conway points that the definition of integration (using Riemann sums as left and right options) gives the "wrong" answer : $\int_0^\omega \exp(t)\thinspace dt=\...
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Definable map from all the ordinals to the surreal numbers with a dense image?

I'm trying to understand analogies and disanalogies between ${\Bbb R}$, the reals numbers, and ${\bf No}$, the surreal numbers. ${\Bbb R}$ admits countable dense sets such as the rationals. This ...
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Surreal numbers vs. non-standard analysis

What is the relationship between the surreal numbers and non-standard analysis? In particular, is there a transfer principle for surreal numbers they way there is for NSA? A specific situation in ...
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Uniformizing the surcomplex unit circle

Is the multiplicative Group of surcomplex numbers of modulus 1 isomorphic to the additive Group of the surreal numbers modulo the sub-Group of surreal integers? And, do Norman Alling's surreal ...
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Surreal exponentiation — are the varying definitions equivalent? If not, is there agreement on which ones are better?

The surreal numbers are sometimes introduced as a place where crazy expressions like $(\omega^2+5\omega-13)^{1/3-2/\omega}+\pi$ (to use the nLab's example) make sense. The problem is, there seem to ...