Questions tagged [surreal-numbers]

For questions about the surreal numbers, which are a real-closed ordered proper-class-sized field that contains both the real numbers and the ordinal numbers. Thus they contain both infinite numbers (including the ordinals, but also infinite numbers like ω-1 and sqrt(ω)) and infinitesimal numbers (like 1/ω). They can also be identified with a subclass of two-player partisan games.

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5
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1answer
338 views

Are the Surreals a cogenerator in the category of ordered fields?

A cogenerator in a category $\mathcal{C}$ is an object $\Omega$ such that for any pair of parallel arrows $f,g:X\rightrightarrows Y$ in $\mathcal{C}$ we have $$ \forall h:Y\to\Omega\big(h\circ f=h\...
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2answers
697 views

Is the surreal number $\omega(\sqrt{2}+1)+1$ a prime?

In the 1986 book An Introduction to the Theory of Surreal Numbers, Gonshor, on page 117, notes that it is an open problem whether $\omega(\sqrt{2}+1)+1$ is a prime, using the standard definition of ...
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0answers
77 views

Can one represent divergent integrals or germs at infinity with surreal numbers?

I have been disliking the theory of surreal numbers for a while, but let's test it. So, we have a set of divergent improper integrals of continuous functions with the following ordering: $\int_0^\...
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188 views

Surreal numbers and the Collatz iteration as a game?

Let us define a game based on the Collatz function $C(n) = n/2$ if $n$ is even, otherwise $=3n+1$. Each number $n$ represents a game played by left $L$ and right $R$: $$n = \{L_n | R_n \}$$ The rules ...
5
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165 views

Quantum surreal numbers

Toward Quantum Combinatorial Games presents the definition of a "quantum game", allowing a superposition of moves rather than a single classical move. This leaves me wondering: Since surreal ...
2
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1answer
204 views

Smallest ring whose field of fractions includes all the reals (subring of omnific integers?)

The surreal numbers have a subring, the ring of "omnific integers" or $\mathbf{Oz}$, which have the property that every surreal number is a quotient of two omnific integers. That is, the ...
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168 views

How does Conway's proposed compromise for constructing the real numbers in ONAG actually work?

I have also asked this question on Math Stack Exchange (link). In On Numbers and Games, after discussing the inclusion of the real numbers in the surreal numbers, No, Conway discusses the merits of ...
15
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1answer
572 views

In theory, how would Oneiric numbers be defined?

Background I am not a professional mathematician. I am researching Surreal numbers & games for fun (I think they are truly beautiful). If this question is not appropriate here, I beg forgiveness &...
24
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1answer
2k views

Are Conway's combinatorial games the “monster model” of any familiar theory?

This is related to this question about a "mother of all" groups, and so seemed like it'd fit in better at MO than MSE. If I understand the answer to that question correctly, the surreal numbers have ...
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0answers
109 views

Is standard, affine infinity of extended reals quite small on the scale of infinities?

Some time ago I had a conversation with a guy who was into surreal numbers and he said that in surreal numbers the affine infinity is quite minor entity compared to the ordinality of natural numbers $\...
4
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1answer
387 views

Surreal numbers and the Axiom of Choice

In ZFC and its conservative extension NBG, it can be shown that every ordered field embeds into the surreal numbers. How much choice is needed to prove this? Without choice, what is a simple example ...
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3answers
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Who discovered the surreals?

Common folklore dictates that the Surreals were discovered by John Conway as a lark while studying game theory in the early 1970's, and popularized by Donald Knuth in his 1974 novella. Wikipedia ...
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Biggest Field Of Characteristic $p$

The Surreal nummbers, $\boldsymbol{No}$, are according to Wikipidia the biggest ordered field, and the Surrcomplex numbers are the biggest field of characteristic 0. Biggest in the sense that every ...
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257 views

Algebraic Geometry Over the Surreal and Surrcomplex Numbers

I was wondering whether or not there is some kind of theory of algebraic geometry over the field of Surreal and Surrcomplex numbers?
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387 views

The surreal numbers under a change of universe

Suppose we start with a model $\mathcal{M}$ of $ZFC$ (or $GBC$ or $MK$ if you prefer), and let $N_0^\mathcal{M}$ denote the surreals in $\mathcal{M}$. If we add some large cardinal assumptions $\{\...
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126 views

Genetic construction of roots of surreal polynomials

In On Numbers And Games, Conway uses the term "genetic" for definitions of operations on surreal numbers that are inductive in terms of their options. His definitions of addition and multiplication ...
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1answer
140 views

'Smallest' subfield of the Surreals which is isomorphic to the Surreals as an ordered group

What is the smallest subfield $F\subset N_0$ such that $$(F,+,\times,\leq)\ncong(N_0,+,\times,\leq)$$ but $$(F,+,\leq)\cong(N_0,+,\leq)?$$ Since these are all going to be proper classes cardinality is ...
6
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1answer
330 views

Surreal Numbers, Proving $x1=x$

I am trying to learn the theory of the Surreal numbers and I am therefore going over all the theorems and trying to prove them for myself. I am struggling to complete the proof of $x1 = x$. I have ...
34
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2answers
3k views

Who wins two player sudoku?

Let's say players take turns placing numbers 1-9 on a sudoku board. They must not create an invalid position (meaning that you can not have the same number in within a row, column, or box region). The ...
2
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1answer
209 views

Functions on a field representable by Hahn series?

It is well known (see here for example) that a function over $\mathbb{R}$ is representable by a power series iff its analytic continuation to $\mathbb{C}$ is holomorphic on some open subset of $\...
7
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1answer
499 views

Is the inverse of surreal numbers actually well-defined?

J.Conway wrote in his book "On numbers and games" (1st edition, 1976) on p. 66 It seems to us, however, that mathematics has now reached the stage where formalization within some particular ...
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1answer
520 views

Largest ordered “field” in NBG without axiom of global choice

I know from Wikipedia that in NBG, the surreal numbers are the largest possible ordered field (if a proper class is allowed to be a field). But then, it is written: "in theories without the axiom of ...
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1answer
245 views

Roots of $\omega$, larger $\gamma$-numbers

In Harry Gonshor's An Introduction to the Theory of Surreal Numbers, on page 50, Gonshor points to a method for intuitively guessing what the square root of the countable infinity is in his ...
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2answers
346 views

Automorphism of the transfinite rooted binary tree

I was studying combinatorical group theory recently, and I came across the infinite regular rooted binary tree and its automorphism group $Aut(T^{(2)})$with the Grigorchuk subgroup. Let me now ...
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146 views

Modern advances in combinatorial game theory

I'm going to take part in teaching a course in combinatorial game theory in the best of ONAG's spirit. I was wondering if there are interesting post-ONAG results that are worth mentioning in (a later ...
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2answers
646 views

What surreal numbers are representable by Red-Blue Hackenbush games?

Every game of Red-Blue Hackenbush represents a surreal number. Is the converse true? Assuming that it is false, what can be said about the class of surreal numbers that are representable by such ...
2
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1answer
373 views

Are Surreal Numbers the same as Trans-series?

I recently found the paper of Berarducci + Mantova [1, 2] saying that surreal numbers are equivalent to trans-series. These are very different objects: trans-series are used in physics to correct, ...
5
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1answer
405 views

Can a game be an option of itself?

My question is, can a game contain itself as an option? and can it be a surreal number? For example $A=\{A|\}$ or $B=\{C|B\}$ where $C$ is a surreal number. from the point of view of games, it is ...
9
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1answer
459 views

Surreal number: trying to construct complete ordered fields

Let $R$ be a subring of $\mathbf{No}$, the set of surreal number. We try to construct $\tilde{R}$, the Cauchy completion of $R$, just like the ordinary Cauchy completion for metric space. In the ...
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196 views

Factorization in the Omnific Integers

I'm wondering if there's been any work done on prime factorizations of Omnific integers as products of prime Omnific integers. I suspect that each Omnific integer has a unique prime factorization, ...
3
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1answer
91 views

Sign-expansion definition of Surreal arithmetical operations

Is there a way to define the addition and multiplication operations in Surreals numbers, defined directly on the sign-expansion notation {-,+}, i.e. without firstly convert them to the Conway notation ...
31
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1answer
1k views

Are there any interesting surreal constants?

In $\mathbf R$, we have all sorts of fascinating constant, like $e$, $\pi$, $\gamma$, ... For ordinal numbers, we have $\omega$, $\epsilon_0$, $\omega_1^{CK}$, $\omega_1$, ... Have we discovered any ...
14
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1answer
658 views

The surreal version of $e$

For a sequence $(x_{\alpha})$ of surreal numbers indexed by the set of all ordinal numbers, we say that $\lim x_{\alpha}=l$ ($l$ is a surreal number) if for each surreal $\epsilon>0$, there exists ...
7
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1answer
781 views

Going beyond the surreal numbers

Denote the class of surreal numbers No. We can create new "number", like the gap $\infty=\{\infty^L|\infty^R\}$, defined by $\infty^L=\{x:\exists n\in\mathbb N,x<n\}$ and $\infty^R=\{x:\forall n\in\...
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A question about real closed fields that contain the real numbers as a proper subfield

Let F be such a real closed field and let F(C) be the algebraic closure of F. An important example of F is FSR- the field of SURREAL numbers. Suppose that one has constructed an exponential function f ...
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184 views

A (second-order) axiomatic characterization of the integers which rules out surreal/hyperreal versions

I've seen it stated, for example here, that the integers are the unique commutative ordered ring with identity whose positive elements are well-ordered. I understand why the integers are the smallest ...
6
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1answer
456 views

Is $\omega^\frac{1}{\omega} > n \forall n \in \mathbb{N}$?

I was thinking about $log(\omega)$ which appears to be $\{\mathbb{N}|\omega^{\frac{1}{n}}\}_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\stackrel{?}{=}\omega^\frac{1}{\omega}$. Intuitively, there's the idea that, if the highest ...
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0answers
183 views

Extension to real number system [closed]

Suppose you have equation involving a number $s$ $s^2+ 1 = 0$, to solve it one needs to treat $s$ as complex number $s = \pm i$, and introduce $i$ as imaginary unit. Now suppose you have equation ...
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690 views

Is the universality of the surreal number line a weak global choice principle?

I'd like to consider the principle asserting that the surreal number line is universal for all class linear orders, or in other words, that every linear order (including proper-class-sized) linear ...
5
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1answer
160 views

Ordinals which embed in surreal subfields

If $k$ is an ordered field, the least ordinal $s(k)$ which doesn't embed in $(k,<)$ is regular. This is because every interval of an ordered field embeds in every infinite interval so given a ...
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2answers
705 views

Surreal compactness

In a comment here, Joel David Hamkins said: ...I think perhaps every set-sized open cover of a bounded interval in the surreals has a finite subcover, but there are proper class open covers with no ...
9
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1answer
466 views

Pontryagin dual of the surreal numbers?

Has any work been done on the Pontryagin dual of the surreal numbers (suitably topologized)? I have not been able to find anything and am not sure if this is still unknown. Alternatively, has this ...
18
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2answers
1k views

Nice sign-expansions of special surreal numbers

What is the "right" surreal generalization of the fact that a real number $r$ is rational if and only if its sign-expansion is eventually periodic? I can think of more than one natural way to ...
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0answers
522 views

Nimbers and Surreal Numbers [closed]

I have been researching Combinatorial Game Theory. One common theme is the assignment of values to games in order to classify the game as a win for a specific player. One such way is class of surreal ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Is it possible to evaluate Connect 4 positions with Combinatorial Game Theory?

The surreal numbers in Combinatorial Game Theory only work for certain classes of games (e.g. they must satisfy normal play convention). This rules out even reasonable games with fairly well-...
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3answers
411 views

First-order definable bijection between $P(On)$ (or $No$) and $V$? (Is this equivalent to $V = HOD$?)

It is known that locally one can ``code'' any set in the von Neumann universe $V$ by a set of ordinals. But can one do this globally? In other words, is there a first-order definable bijection $P(On)...
8
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1answer
416 views

Transcendence degree of the surreals over the subfield generated by the ordinals

Consider the Grothendieck ring $K[\Omega]$ of the semiring $\Omega$ of all ordinals under the operations of natural sum and product. Its quotient field $K(\Omega)$ is naturally a subfield of the ...
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3answers
1k views

Does this construction yield the surreal numbers?

There are two simple constructions for creating arbitrarily large non-Archimedean ordered field extensions of the reals. First given such a field one may consider rational functions over that field ...
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0answers
469 views

More information on Kruskal's treatment of Surreal numbers as an asymptotic behavior of a real valued function

The only way that I could think about Surreal numbers is how Conway defined them inductively, with the two axioms and so on. I can't find any information about Kruskal's point of view and would very ...
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0answers
193 views

An application of surreal numbers towards fast-growing ordinal functors?

The surreal numbers $\mathbb{SN}$ form a class of numbers introduced by J.H. Conway, which behave as an ordered field (even if technically it is not a set). In particular, Conway showed that every ...